Municipal Solid Waste : Problems Overview

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					     WASTE NOT, WANT NOT! (WN)2
              INSTITUTE
     Environmental Issues of E-Waste
                            Train-the-Trainer Workshop
                                               June 14 – 18th, 2004
                                  Center for Mathematics and Science Education
                                       University of Arkansas - Fayetteville

                                              Presented and Hosted
                                                       by

                  Lynne Hehr                                                 Stephan Pollard
Director, Center for Mathematics and Science Education      Doctoral Student, Environmental Dynamics Ph.D. Program
                  University of Arkansas                                      University of Arkansas



          A U.S. Environmental Protection Agency funded institute sponsored by the University of Arkansas
                               and the Center for Mathematics and Science Education
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
        (MSW)
    Problems Overview

                       Presented as part of
  WASTE NOT, WANT NOT (WN)2: Environmental Issues of Waste Disposal

                            Stephan Pollard
                    Environmental Dynamics Program
                         University of Arkansas

       June 14, 2004, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas
         Leachate – A Toxic Soup                                             Leachate Seepage in Johnson, AR
   Heavy Metals                                                           (Not associated with Tontitown Landfill)
     1. Lead
        Ex. - batteries, plastics, cans, used oil, lightbulbs, other

     2. Cadmium
        Ex. - batteries, plastics, nonfood packaging, electronics, other

     3. Mercury
        Ex. - circuit boards, thermometers, flourescent bulbs, other

     4. Others

   Organic Compounds
     1. Petroleum hydrocarbons
        Ex. - paint, thinner, primer, and remover, glue, gasoline

     2. Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons
        Ex. - solvents, degreasers, vinyl chloride, other

     3. Ketones                                                                Pathway: Disappearing Stream
        Ex. - solvents such as acetone

     4. Others

   Organometallic Compounds
       Methylmercury
       Ex. - result of bacterial transformation of mercury

   Dissolved Solids (minerals)
                                Tontitown Class 1 Landfill exceeded permitted
                                Action Leakage Rate
                                (i.e., secondary leachate collection system
                                collected more than 21 gal/day/acre)
                                At one point there was an average rate of 25
                                gal/day/acre


• Record keeping deficiencies
• Failure to respond appropriately to excessive Action Leakage Rate
• General concern for potential threat to human health


          April 26, 2002 – WMTL Class I landfill CLOSED!
                               Source: July 10, 2002 ADEQ Hosted Public Meeting in Springdale, AR
  Class 1 Landfill:                 Waste Management Tontitown Landfill
  Solid, non-hazardous
  waste from
  households,
  businesses, and                   E EG                                 G
                                     E
  industry                            E
                                     E
                                                            M            G
  Current: 66 acres                     E                                                              ENVIRONMENTAL
                                G             M GM M                     M                             CONTAMINATION
  Proposed
                                                                                                           Vinyl Chloride
  Expansion: 46 acres
                                                                                                           Cadmium
                                                                                 G
                               G M                                                                         Landfill Gas

                G                                          Class
                                            Class                            M
                                                             1
                                              4                                                         ACTIVE
                                             M                    E                                  MONITORING
                                                                       E
                                                           E Class M E E GE                       E Extent Well (17)
                                    G                          4     G
                                        G                GM    E G                                M Monitor Well (10)
                                                 G               E E                              G Landfill Gas Probe (16)
                                                                E E
                  G
  Class 4 Landfill:
  Inert, non-
  putrescible wastes
  that do not degrade,
  or degrade very
  slowly

Source: Pre-Site Report for Proposed Lateral Expansion of WM Tontitown Class I Landfill, July 14, 2003, ADEQ Memorandum; July 10,
2002 ADEQ Hosted Public Meeting in Springdale, AR
          GARBAGE / TRASH / RUBBISH / WASTE!
First garbage crisis -
    When human beings became sedentary starting to farm (10,000 – 5,000 years ago)!

Four basic methods of garbage disposal – all familiar for thousands of years
   • Dumping it
   • Burning it
   • Turning it into something useful (recycling)
   • Minimizing the volume of material goods – future garbage (source reduction)

We’ve been disposing of garbage for so long that we know what is the most convenient thing to
do – dump it or burn it!
    • In Old Testament times the people of Jerusalem burned some of their garbage in fires
      emanating from natural gas vents in the nearby Valley of Gehenna.
    • Colonial times – wastes dumped outside villages or burned as fuel
    • First modern landfills in the U.S. – Midwest in the early 1900s

Health threat, garbage removal, and public responsibility
   • 1757 Benjamin Franklin instituted the first municipal street cleaning service in the U.S.
   • Mid 1700’s American households began digging refuse pits, as opposed to throwing
      garbage out windows and doors
  What is Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)?
• Technical term for: ___________________________
                       garbage, trash, waste, or rubbish
• Coined in: 1976 when Congress passed the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
                                           ______________________________
• The Act divided the solid waste stream into municipal solid waste and _____________
                                                                        hazardous waste
• MSW includes waste from three main categories: 1) Durable Goods, 2) Non-Durable
                _____________________
  Goods and, 3) Containers and packaging and includes non-manufactured items and
  inorganics

   Overview of MSW: 2001 Facts and Figures
   How much MSW generated? 229.2 million tons!
                                 _______________
        (Decrease of 2.8 million tons from 2000 (due to slowed economy))

   How much MSW per person per day? ______
                                     4.4lbs!
        (Decrease of 2.2% from 2000)


   What was the recovery rate for recycling (including composting)? _____
                                                                     29.7%
         (Increase of 0.5% from 2000)

   What was the per person per day recycling rate? 1.3lbs
                                                      _____
         (3.1lbs per person per day after-recycling discard rate)
                     Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011
            Products Generated in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) - 2001
                        (Total Weight = 229 million tons)
                                                                  RECOVERED
                              Containers & Packaging                         38.3%
                                      32.0%          61.7%




                                                e.g.,
                                                Glass packaging
                                                Steel packaging
                                                Aluminum packaging
                                                Paper & Paperboard packaging                                             Food Scraps 11.4%

                                                Plastics packaging                                                           RECOVERED
                                                                                                                                2.8%
                                                Wood packaging

                                                                                                                                 97.2%
                            e.g.,
                            Newspapers, books, magazines
                            Clothing and foot wear
                                                                     e.g.,
                            Pet supplies
                                                                     Furniture
                            Towels, sheets, pillow cases
                                                                     Jewelry                                              Yard Trimmings 12.2%
                            Plastic plates and cups                                                                              RECOVERED
                                                                     Luggage
Nondurable Goods 26.4%      Paper plates and cups
                                                                     Rubber Tires                                            43.5%
                                                                                                                                          56.5%
      RECOVERED
            27.7%
                                                                     Carpets and Rugs
                                                                     Appliances                              Other Wastes 1.5%            RECOVERED
                                                                                                                                         Less than 0.05%
    72.3%                                                            Consumer electronics

                                                                                                                         17.5%

                                                                                     Durable Goods 16.4%                    RECOVERED
                                                                                                              82.5%

                    Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011
      Generation of Products in MSW, 1960 - 2001


                                                                                                            229 million tons




88 million tons




             Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011
               2001 Total Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Generation -
                       229 Million Tons (Before Recycling)
                                                                                                                            RECOVERED
     RECOVERED                                                                                                                 2.8%
   43.5%                                                                                     Food scraps 11.4%
               56.5%   Yard trimmings 12.2%
                                                                                                                              97.2%
                                                                                                                                       RECOVERED
                                                                                                                                             19.1%
   RECOVERED
        9.5%                                                                                                     Other 3.4%
                Wood 5.7%                                                                                                             80.9%

  90.5%




Rubber, leather &
  textiles 7.1%
    RECOVERED
         15.3%


    84.7%




     Plastics 11.1%
           RECOVERED                                                                                                        Paper 35.7%
               5.5%
                                                                                                                             RECOVERED
                                                                                                                                      44.9%
            94.5%                                                                                                           55.1%



                          Metals 7.9%
                             RECOVERED
                                   34.5%                                                            19.1%
                                                        Glass 5.5%                 RECOVERED
                           65.5%
                                                                                            80.9%
                       Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011
                      GENERATION AND RECOVERY OF MATERIALS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE, 2001
                             (In millions of tons and percent of generation of each material)
                                                                                                                                               Recovery as a
                                                                              Weight Generated               Weight Recovered               Percent of Generation
Paper and paperboard                                                                             81.9                              36.7                    44.9%
Glass                                                                                            12.6                               2.4                    19.1%
Metals
     Steel                                                                                       13.5                               4.6                    33.8%
     Aluminum                                                                                      3.2                              0.8                    24.5%
     Other nonferrous metals*                                                                      1.4                              0.9                    64.8%
     Total metals                                                                                18.1                               6.3                    34.5%
Plastics                                                                                         25.4                               1.4                     5.5%
Rubber and leather                                                                                 6.5                              1.1                    17.4%
Textiles                                                                                           9.8                              1.4                    14.6%
Wood                                                                                             13.2                               1.3                     9.5%
Other materials                                                                                    4.2                              0.9                    20.7%
Total Materials in Products                                                                    171.5                               51.4                    30.0%
Other wastes
     Food, other**                                                                               26.2                               0.7                     2.8%
     Yard trimmings                                                                              28.0                              15.8                    56.5%
     Miscellaneous inorganic wastes                                                                3.5                            Neg.                      Neg.
     Total Other Wastes                                                                          57.7                              16.6                    28.7%
TOTAL MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE                                                                    229.2                               68.0                    29.7%
     Includes waste from residential, commercial, and institutional sources                 Neg. = Less than 5,000 tons or 0.05 percent.
*    Includes lead from lead-acid batteries.
**   Includes recovery of other MSW organics for composting.


                    Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011 citing Franklin Associates, Lt.
      Generation of Materials in MSW, 1960 - 2001


                                                                                                            229 million tons


                                                                                                           All Other*




                                                                                                        Yard

                                                                                                                        Food

88 million tons                                                                                                                Plastics



                                                                                                  Metals



                                                            Glass
                                                                                                                        Paper




             Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011
Where does it go?

   Management of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the
                    U.S. - 2001




                                                                   Recovery
                                                                    29.7%


                      Land Disposal
                         55.7%
                                                                 Combustion
                                                                       14.7%




       Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011
Burn Barrels and Open Burning

       A recent federal study indicates that
       just a handful of such fires can spew as
       much dioxin as a large municipal
       incinerator does!!!!




                                                                                                                                            Burning PVC plastic




                                                                                                                           Studies indicate backyard
                                                                                                                           burning is one of the most
                                                                                                                           significant sources of dioxin



See Lemieux, P.M., et al. 2000. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from the open burning of household waste in barrels.
Environmental Science & Technology 34(Feb. 1):377-384.
   Municipal Solid Waste Management, 1960 - 2001

                                                                                                           229 million tons




88 million tons




             Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011
                                  Types of Landfills


Municipal Solid Waste Landfills
• Receive household refuse, industrial waste, construction and demolition debris, and other waste
• Not permitted to receive ‘hazardous waste’
• Source of groundwater contamination – percolation of rain and liquids


Industrial Waste Landfills
• Receive waste from industrial processes
• Not permitted to receive ‘hazardous waste’
• Source of groundwater contamination – percolation of rain and liquids


Construction and Demolition Landfills
• Receive waste from construction and demolition of buildings, bridges, and roads
• Not permitted to receive ‘hazardous waste,’ industrial waste, or municipal solid waste
• Source of groundwater contamination – percolation of rain and liquids
              Number of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfills in the U.S.


       7924
8000
              7379

7000
                     6326

6000                           5812
                                           5386

5000
                                                      4482


4000
                                                                  3558
                                                                              3197       3091
3000
                                                                                                     2514
                                                                                                                 2314     2216
                                                                                                                                 1967   1858
2000



1000



   0
       1988   1989   1990      1991        1992       1993        1994        1995       1996        1997        1998     1999   2000   2001


                     Source: US EPA, Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and Figures, EPA530-R03-011

				
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