Perceived Environments Related to Physical Activity
Instrument Perceived Environments Related to Physical Activity
Author(s) James F. Sallis, Marilyn F. Johnson, Karen J. Calfas, Susan Caparosa, and Jeanne F.
Affiliated San Diego State University and University of California-San Diego
Instrument To measure physical environments that may or may not influence physical activity.
Instrument Type Observational (audit)
Instrument Some items were taken from a previous study (Sallis et al., 1989) but most were
Development developed by the authors for this study.
Sample One hundred ten introductory psychology students participated in the study.
Psychometrics One-week test-retest reliability coefficients were assessed by intra-class correlations
(ICCs). The ICCs for the three subscales are as follows: 0.89 for home environment,
0.68 for neighborhood environment, and 0.80 for convenient facilities. Construct
validity was assessed by Pearson correlations between the three environmental
variables and three physical activity measures (i.e., walking, vigorous exercise, and
strength exercise). There were significant correlations between home environment and
vigorous exercise, home environment and strength exercise, and convenient facilities
and vigorous exercise. There were no significant correlations between any of the three
environmental variables and walking behavior. Also, the neighborhood environment
scale was not significantly correlated with any physical activity behavior. However,
home and neighborhood environment scores were higher for European Americans and
neighborhoods with higher socioeconomic status.
Key Item Sub- (1) Home objects that promote physical activity (e.g., bicycle, pool, weight lifting
(2) Physical environment attributes (e.g., sidewalks, traffic, and crime)
(3) Facilities that promote physical activity (e.g., parks, recreation center, tennis
Number of 3 instruments
Length of Home Environment Scale: 15 items
Instrument(s) Neighborhood Environment Scale: 10 items
Convenient Facilities: 18 items
Instrument Sallis, J.F., Hovell, M.F., Hofstetter, C.R., Faucher, P., Elder, J.P., Blanchard,
Development J., Caspersen, C.J., Powell, K.E., & Christenson, G.M. (1989). A
Literature multivariate study of determinants of vigorous exercise in a community
sample. Preventive Medicine, 18, 20-34.
Sallis, J.F., Johnson, M.F., Calfas, K.J., Caparosa, S., & Nichols, J.F. (1997).
Assessing perceived physical environmental variables that may influence
physical activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 68, 345-351.
Contact James F. Sallis
Information Department of Psychology
San Diego State University
6363 Alvarado Court, #103
San Diego, CA 92120