ISOTOPES IN SURFACE AND GROUNDWATER by b3JZgfan

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									               ISOTOPES IN SURFACE AND
                    GROUNDWATER
Isotopes in groundwater and surface have 2 types of isotopes, this are the radioactive
and the stable isotopes. Groundwater in its natural state contains environmental
isotopes. Then the radioactive isotopes are the ones that know how much time does
the water is at the groundwater, assuming no contamination of the water has
occurred.
Techniques used in hydrology are classified into three groups environmental isotopes,
artificial isotopes, and application of sealed radioactive sources. Environmental
isotopes are discussed briefly in the present paper. The stables are the isotopes that
contributed to the hydrologic cycle and excellent indicators of the circulation of water.
The stable are also great indicators of the circulation of water. And the radioactive
indicate the time that the water is in the groundwater make and assume that the
water doesn’t contaminates.
When the groundwater is involved with the hydrological things it give a direct insight
into the move and the distribution processes in the aquifers. Some of the water or
liquids for example that are in a lake evaporates and then it divides in deuterium and
oxygen -18, this is relative with the surface. The process of the radioactive isotopes is
very especial and important and any change can be making with it. The rate of decay
for each radioactive-isotope is different, and it is describe by the half-life. Tritium is the
radioactive isotope of hydrogen so is the one that occurs in precipitation and
originates from two processes, one natural and the other artificial. This isotope usually
work in the groundwater investigations that are the heavy stable isotopes of the water
molecule, deuterium and oxygen-18and the radioactive isotopes, tritium and carbon-
14. Isotope hydrology provides information on the type, origin and age of
groundwater. If the isotope content does not change within the aquifer, it will reflect
the origin of the water, particularly the location, period and processes of recharge. If
the isotope content changes along groundwater paths, this will reflect the history of
the water, particularly the mixing, salinization and discharge processes.
Thanks to the isotopes, we can determine:
         Age of water bodies
         Origin of water bodies
         Give an estimate degree of mixing
         Location of water recharge
         Velocity of ground water flow

								
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