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									The Internationalization of the Academic
   Profession: changes and realities
            AC21 International Forum 2010
                  October 18-20, 2010
             Shanghai Jiao Tong University
           Regal International East Asia Hotel




                                      Futao HUANG 黄福涛
                                  Hiroshima University, Japan
                                   futao@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

                                                            1
                    Outline

• Changes in the internationalization of the
  academic profession: a historical perspective

• Realities concerning the internationalization
  of the academic profession: a comparative
  perspective

• Comments and conclusions


                                                  2
                          Terminology

•      The definition of the academic profession in a broad sense
    refers to all persons who teach or conduct research, or produce
    publications based on scholarly research at higher education
    institutions or research institutes inside or outside colleges or
    universities. In a narrower sense, the academic profession is
    defined as faculty members, including professors, associate
    professors, lectures or assistant professors who are mainly
    involved with teaching and research activities in higher
    education institutions.

•     This presentation places an emphasis on discussion of the
    academic profession in this narrow sense.




                                                                        3
            Changes in the internationalization of the academic profession

       Period           Context             Drivers          Aims             Forms         Dimension
                  the uniform
                  Christendom of Europe
                                                        expansion of
                  and the Americas,
                                            relious &   Christianity and    personal       from Europe to
 I    13th-18th   through to the age of
                                            academic    the spread of       mobility       North America
                  industrialization, and of
                                                        medieval culture
                  emergence of modern
                  nation-states
                the scientific
                                                                            personal
                revolution, the
                                                        building up         mobility with
                emergence of modern
                                        academic,       national            internationali
                nation-states,                                                             beyond regions
II    19th-1946
                colonization of Africa,
                                        cultyural &     academic or         zaed
                                                                                           & continents
                                        political       higher education    curriculum
                America, Asia,etc, and
                                                        systems             and teaching
                the breakout of two
                                                                            abroad, etc.
                world wars.
                                                       facilitating
                                                                                           more       at    a
                                                      economic
                                                                      emergence            supra-national
                                          political & development and
III   1947-1991 the cold war
                                          ideological building up a
                                                                      of various           level,    in   an
                                                                      new attempts         ideological and
                                                      national modern
                                                                                           political sense.
                                                      academic system
                                                        building up
                                                        international &
                                                                                           at an
                 increasingly diverse economic          global academic     three
                                                                                           instituional,
IV    since 1991 and more complicated &                 standards,          distingushed
                                                                                           regional, and
                 world                academic          emphasizing         aspects.
                                                                                           global levels
                                                        regional & global
                                                        colloborations                              4
                    Outline

• Changes in the internationalization of the
  academic profession: a historical perspective

• Realities concerning the internationalization
  of the academic profession: a comparative
  perspective

• Comments and conclusions


                                                  5
 International survey on CAP and analysis focus

• This section focuses two major facets of the internationalization of
  the academic profession as they relate to seventeen countries by
  using sets of variables from the surveys conducted for the
  Changing Academic Profession (CAP) study in each country in
  2007.

• The core questionnaire in the CAP were drawn from the First
  International Survey of the Academic Profession in 1992-93, but
  many new and revised questions concerning the
  internationalization of the academic profession were developed.

• Each national survey has been slightly modified by each country-
  based team to account for regional differences nomenclature and
  other aspects that would affect local comprehension.

• However, the target group was set as the faculty working in the
  bachelor degree-awarding institutions or equivalent institutions. In
  addition, each national survey was asked to get back at least 800
  valid responses.
                                                                    6
                           The property of respondents
Country     Valid respondents                                  Country     Average age
                                  Country     Male    Female
                                                               US          51.8
                                  Japan       91.0%   9.0%
Argentina                   825                                Japan       51.7
                                  Korea       81.3%   18.7%
Australia                 1,381                                Italy       49.6
                                  Germany     71.4%   28.6%
Brazil                    1,066                                Mexico      48.2
                                  Hong Kong   67.3%   32.7%
Canada                    1,152                                Canada      47.4
                                  Italy       66.8%   33.2%
China                     3,612                                Australia   47.1
                                  Mexico      64.5%   35.5%
Finland                   1,403                                Norway      47.0
                                  China       62.9%   37.1%
Germany                   1,241
                                  Norway      62.2%   37.8%
                                                               Argentina   47.0
Hong Kong                   811                                Hong Kong   46.4
                                  Canada      59.1%   40.9%
Italy                     1,701                                UK          46.3
                                  US          58.1%   41.9%
Japan                     1,408   Portugal    54.9%   45.1%    Korea       46.1
Korea                       910   Brazil      51.7%   48.3%    Germany     45.3
Malaysia                  1,226   Malaysia    51.7%   48.3%    Brazil      44.3
Mexico                    1,832   UK          50.7%   49.3%    Portugal    43.4
Norway                    1,011   Finland     49.8%   50.2%    Finland     43.3
Portugal                    731   Australia   49.7%   50.3%    Malaysia    39.5
UK                        1,227   Argentina   41.4%   58.6%    China       38.8
US                        1,146   Total       61.8%   38.2%    Total       45.5
Total                    22,683


                                                                                   7
Respondents from the seventeen countries are divided into
three groups in order of percentages of their mean scores:
  -the top five: the most internationalized group of countries;
  -the middle seven: the medium internationalized group of
countries, and
  -the bottom five: least internationalized group of countries.
In this section, only the responses from the most and the least
internationalized groups will be discussed.




                                                                  8
                        Teaching activities (1)
Table 1. In your courses, you        First, respondents from Australia,
emphasize international
perspectives or contents          Canada, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and
                                  Korea constitute the top five group.
   Australia            4.16
                                     Notably, except for Korea, both
   Canada               4.08
   Hong Kong            3.92
                                  Australia and Canada are
   Malaysia             3.90      Commonwealth countries, and Hong
   Korea                3.86      Kong and Malaysia are former British
   Norwey               3.86      colonies. The first two are English-
   UK                   3.83      speaking countries and in the second
   USA                  3.83
                                  pair, the English language is considered
   Finland              3.72
   China                3.71      to be the most popular academic
   Japan                3.71      language or one of the official
   Mexico               3.69      languages.
   Germany              3.69         In contrast, the responses from
   Argentina            3.51
                                  Brazil, Italy, Portugal, Argentina, and
   Portugal             3.50
   Italy                3.47
                                  Germany indicated that they least
   Brasil               3.46      emphasized international perspectives
   Total                3.76      or contents in their courses, and so
Scale of answe 5=Strongly agree   could be categorized as the least
to 1= Strongly disagree
                                  internationalized group.               9
                     Teaching activities (2)
Table 2. Since you started
teaching, the number of
international students has
increased
   UK                   4.00
   Australia            3.83
   Canada               3.83
   Hong Kong            3.73          Second, the UK, Australia,
   Malaysia             3.60      Canada, Hong Kong and Malaysia
   Korea                3.52      belong to the top group.
   Norwey               3.50
                                     Again, the bottom group is
   USA                  3.44
   Finland              3.42
                                  represented by the responses
   China                3.33      from faculty from the same five
   Japan                2.96      countries identified in response
   Mexico               2.62      to the statement on
   Germany              2.50
                                  internationalized courses.
   Argentina            2.42
   Portugal             2.30
   Italy                2.21
   Brazil               2.11
   Total                3.12
Scale of answe 5=Strongly agree
to 1= Strongly disagree
                                                               10
                              Teaching activities (3)
Table 3. Teaching language

                        First
                 language/mother   Other
                                                     Third, only 22% of the faculty in
                      tongue                     Malaysia and 42% of the faculty in
Malaysia                     22%           78%
                                                 Hong Kong responded that they used
Hong Kong                    42%           58%
                                                 their mother tongues as teaching
Norway                       74%           27%
                                                 languages. It seems that in both cases,
South Africa                 76%           25%
Finland                      79%           21%
                                                 especially in Hong Kong, a relatively
Korea                        81%           19%
                                                 large number of faculty members prefer
Canada                       82%           18%   to adopt the English language in their
Man Value                    85%           16%   teaching activities.
United Kingdom               85%           15%        In contrast, the bottom five group
United States                86%           14%
                                                 includes Japan, Portugal, Argentina,
Australia                    88%           12%
                                                 China and Brazil. Clearly, none of their
Germany                      89%           11%
Italy                        93%           8%
                                                 mother tongues is the English language,
Mexico                       93%           7%
                                                 neither are any of them former British
Brazil                       94%           6%    colonies or colonies of any other
China                        96%           4%    English-speaking countries. They can be
Argentina                    97%           3%    assumed to be least internationalized in
Portugal                     97%           3%    this regard.
Japan                      100%            0%
                                                                                    11
                      Research activities (1)
Table 4. Emphasize on
international scope or orientation
   Portugal               4.14
   Italy                  4.03           First, Table 4 reveals that faculty
   China                  3.86       from Portugal, Italy, China, Norway,
   Norwey                 3.84       and Australia could be considered
   Australia              3.77       as the top group of five countries
   Hong Kong              3.71       placing most emphasis on the most
   UK                     3.71       international scope or orientation in
   Finland                3.52       their research activities.
   Canada                 3.44           In contrast, faculty from Brazil,
   Malaysia               3.38
                                     Korea, Mexico, US, and Argentina
   Germany                3.33
                                     are ranked as the bottom group,
   Japan                  3.19
                                     offering the least incorporation of
   Argentina              3.17
   USA                    2.94
                                     international perspectives or
   Mexico                 2.92       orientation in their research
   Korea                  2.86       activities.
   Brazil                 2.40
   Total                  3.48
Scale of answe 5=Strongly agree
to 1= Strongly disagree                                                12
                             Research activities (2)
Tbale 5. Research language

                        First
                  language/moth    Other
                     er tongue
Malaysia                     15%           85%
                                                    Second, except for the English-
Norway                       29%           71%
                                                 speaking countries, it seems that
Italy                        32%           68%   the faculty from China, Japan,
Hong Kong                    33%           67%   Mexico, Argentina, and Korea might
Finland                      39%           61%   belong to the bottom group
Portugal                     42%           58%   because the larger percentage of
Germany                      50%           51%   them utilized their first languages
Brazil                       55%           45%   as research languages,
Korea                        56%           44%
                                                     In a contrast, among the non
Total                        63%           37%
                                                 English-speaking countries, the
South Africa                 64%           36%
                                                 faculty from Norway, Italy, Finland,
Argentina                    70%           30%
Canada                       70%           30%
                                                 Portugal, and Germany might be
Mexico                       74%           27%
                                                 ranked as the top group.
United Kingdom               82%           18%
United States                85%           15%
Japan                        87%           13%
Australia                    87%           13%
China                        94%           6%                                   13
                     Research activities (3)
Table 6. Which percentage of your publications in the last three years were

                  published in a
                  language different     co-authored with
                                                                  published in a foreign
                  from the language of   colleagues located in
                                                                  country
                  instruction at your    other (foreign)countries
                  current institution
  Norway                     74.9%                    21.5%                    58.5%
  Italy                      57.6%                    14.7%                    46.3%
  Germang                    52.4%                    16.2%                    37.5%
  Portugal                   52.0%                    46.5%                    21.2%
  Finland                    51.9%                    15.2%                    45.9%
  Japan                      46.2%                    10.0%                    25.9%
  Korea                      34.8%                     6.2%                    25.6%
  Argentina                  26.7%                     8.7%                    29.6%
  China                      25.8%                     1.1%                    11.6%
  Mexico                     25.1%                     7.5%                    26.3%
  Brazil                     21.1%                     4.0%                    14.2%
  Canada                     19.0%                    12.7%                    31.9%
  Malaysia                   17.1%                     7.6%                    21.2%
  Hong Kong                  11.7%                    15.7%                    69.9%
  UK                          2.7%                    12.2%                    21.5%
  US                          2.4%                     5.0%                     7.0%
  Australia                   1.1%                    12.7%                    31.0%
  Total                      21.1%                    11.4%                    30.4%
                                                                                  14
                    Outline

• Changes in the internationalization of the
  academic profession: a historical perspective

• Realities concerning the internationalization
  of the academic profession: a comparative
  perspective

• Comments and conclusions


                                                  15
     Historically, the international perspective of the academic
profession has been affected by complicated factors at national,
regional and global levels. Its aims are not only limited to academic
purposes, but also cater to political, cultural, managerial and
commercial needs.

   In order to achieve all these aims, the forms of internationalization
have become diversified. For example, they have gone beyond the
simple mobility of faculty across borders or regions in the medieval
era, and have come to include a wide variety of activities, such as
developing internationalized curricula, implementing the use of the
English language in teaching and research activities in non-English-
speaking countries in particular, providing trans-national higher
education services, which are often accompanied with commercial
activities, establishing international organisations and networking, as
well as building up quality assurance systems at a global level.

   In a major sense, an international perspective has been integrated
into almost every dimension of academic activities.



                                                                     16
    In terms of the quantitative analysis of the CAP study, the majority
of the respondents from the English-speaking countries, especially the
UK, Commonwealth countries such as Australia and Canada as well as
the former British colonies like Hong Kong and Malaysia, indicate that
they have incorporated both international contents in their teaching and
experienced an increase in numbers of international student since they
started their teaching. They provide a sharp contrast to the respondents
from countries in Latin America and Europe, typically represented by
Brazil, Italy, Portugal, Argentina, and Germany.

    Many factors could be attributed to the striking differences between
the two groups. To illustrate, historically speaking, the higher education
systems, including academic systems, in Australia, Canada, Hong Kong
and Malaysia are significantly affected by the UK model.

   More importantly, there exist considerable similarities among these
countries in the strategy and practice adopted in internationalization of
higher education in the most recent years.

   Additionally, it is noteworthy that in relation to the teaching language
used in the seventeen countries, except for Hong Kong and Malaysia,
more than 74% of the faculty indicated that they only used their mother
tongues. That is to say, a huge majority of faculty from non-English-
speaking countries insist on utilizing their mother tongues in their
teaching activities.
                                                                      17
     On the other hand, the survey results for research activities show
that a majority of faculty from Portugal, Italy, China, Norway, and
Australia indicate that their primary research is international in scope
or orientation. Of particular note for the items relating to publications
is the high number of respondents from Norway, Germany, Finland,
Portugal, Italy and Hong Kong who confirmed that they have achieved
a great deal in these aspects.

    Furthermore, more than half of the faculty from Norway, Italy, Hong
Kong, Finland, and Portugal confirmed that they used other
language(s) instead of their first languages as research languages.

   Interestingly, in the group of English-speaking countries, in
contrast to faculty in the UK, Australia, and Canada, a much smaller
proportion of faculty in the US indicated that they have played an
active role in internationalizing their teaching or research activities.
While in non-English-speaking countries, it seems that a larger
proportion of faculty from Norway and Finland attached importance to
an international dimension in their teaching activities than those from
China, Japan, Brazil and Argentina in particular.
                                                                      18
           Types of top groups and bottom groups in terms of some teaching
                                 & research activities
                                     Top group


                    The UK, the            Norway, Portugal, Italy,
                   Commonwealth            Germany, Finland, and
                  countries, and the            Hong Kong
               former British colonies


Teaching                                                              Research
               Brazil, Italy, Portugal,
                  Argentina, and            China, Brazil, Mexico,
                      Germany                 and Argentina in
                                                 particular




                                    Bottom group
                                                                             19
Thank you!




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