James Radcliffe, Earl of Derwentwater, was the grandson of King Charles
II, a popular Stuart king. James' mother was Charles' illegitimate
James Radcliffe was a Catholic.
The Jacobites supported Prince James Stuart, the Catholic son of King
James II. James II had been removed as king of England in 1688 because
he was Catholic and unpopular.
George I was a Protestant.
The Jacobites thought that Prince James Stuart should be king.
Queen Anne was the last member of the Stuart family to be on the throne.
When she died in 1714, Parliament invited a distant cousin, George of
Hanover to be king of England. He was crowned as George I.
Most people in England were Protestant and supported George I.
James Radcliffe had been brought up in France with Prince James Stuart
and they were good friends.
George I was German. He spoke very little English and surrounded
himself with German friends.
During October 1715, James Radcliffe and his friends had travelled round
Northumberland trying to get support for the Jacobite cause. Some
Northumberland gentry had joined him but not as many as they had
Prince James Stuart had been expected to come across from France to
join James Radcliffe, but he had not arrived.
Anna-Maria Radcliffe, James wife, was a very strong Catholic and
supporter of the Jacobite cause.
James Radcliffe had enlarged and improved Dilston Hall and it was now
an imposing, well-appointed house.
James Radcliffe had a one year old son, John.
James Radcliffe's family had always been strong Catholics. One ancestor,
Francis Radcliffe had been arrested on suspicion of being involved in the
James Radcliffe was reported to be a kind and generous man, popular
with his tenants at Dilston.
The penalty for rebelling against the king was almost always execution.
The amount of detail given here would vary, dependent on the topics
already studied. The following is a suggestion.
After the death of Cromwell, Parliament invited Charles Stuart to return
to England and the monarchy was restored when he was crowned King
Charles II. He was a popular king but had no legitimate children. He was
succeeded by his brother, the Catholic James II. James was stubborn and
tactless and much less popular. He quarrelled with Parliament and when
his second wife, the Catholic Mary of Modena, gave birth to a son and it
seemed that England was to have a succession of Catholic kings,
Parliament invited his Protestant daughter, Mary and her husband
William of Orange to be joint rulers.
William and Mary died without heirs so were followed by Mary's sister,
Anne, the last Stuart family monarch. She also died without surviving
children so Parliament decided to invite a distant cousin, George of
Hanover to be king. He was a Protestant.
A group of people called the Jacobites disagreed with this. They thought
that prince James Stuart, son of James II and Mary of Modena should be
Suggest that a family tree of the Stuarts/Hanoverians would be useful
2. James Radcliffe's decision
James Radcliffe came from a Northumberland Catholic gentry family. He
was grandson of Charles II. His mother was Mary Tudor, illegitimate
daughter of Charles. He had been brought up in France as a companion to
Prince James Stuart, son of James II.
He returned to England aged 20 in 1709 and set about organising the
building of a grand mansion house, which was added to the old family
tower house at Dilston. In 1712 he married a Catholic Anna Maria Webb
and they had a son, John.
After the death of Queen Anne and the coronation of George I, the
Jacobites began to plan a rising, which they hoped would end in the
restoration of the Stuarts and the placing of Prince James Stuart on the
James Radcliffe supported the Jacobites and in October 1715 he and his
fellow leader Thomas Forster started to try to raise an army to support the
Jacobites in Northumberland. During October they travelled around
Northumberland collecting support. Some people came to support him,
but not as many as expected. They waited for Prince James Stuart to sail
over from France but he did not arrive. James Radcliffe returned to
Hexham and on 15th October proclaimed in the Market Place that James
Start (James III) was rightful king.
3. The task
It is October 15th 1715. You are James Radcliffe. What should you do
The slips can be manipulated in a variety of different ways
Sort information into reasons why he should or should not continue
with the campaign
Look for long term and short term reasons
Look for any information which is not relevant to the decision
Based on the information given - what should James do? March on
London? Return home? Some other course of action?