Chapter 8 - Language 7th edition by 8963qQe

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									         Chapter 8

Language and Thought
Why is Language Important?

   Represents unique form of abstraction in human
    species
   Relevant to the form and manner of information
    storage
   Relevance to thinking and problem-solving is
    unquestioned
   Chief means of human communication
   Language influences perception and memory
Critical properties of
language?
Clark & Clark (1977)
 Communicative
       Permits individuals to communicate
   Arbitrary
       Relationship of elements in language and their
        meaning, symbolic and semantic
   Generative
       Built together in new, limitless ways
   Structured
       Pattern is not arbitrary
   Dynamic
       Changing (new words, new rules)
    Linguistic Hierarchy – F 8.1
   Phonology: unit = phoneme – Table 8.1
      single speech sound, 200 possible
      English has about 45; 9 make up half our words, French (37),
       Spanish (28), German (45) , Hawaiian (13), Abrabic (34), Napali (36), Hindi
       (56), Japanese (20)
      dimensions: voiced (“a”); unvoiced (“s”); fricatives (“sh”), plosives (“t”);
       place of articulation (palate v. lips)
   Morphology: unit = morpheme
      Smallest unit of meaning (words, parts of words, etc.)
      Free (e.g., “old”, “the”) vs. bound (e.g., “er”, “ist”)
      Over 100,000 words formed by morpheme combinations
      Content morphemes
           bulk of meaning
       Function morphemes
           add detail
   Semantics: study of meaning
      denotation vs. connotation
      words as economic labels; link between language and concepts
   Syntax: rules that govern combination of morphemes in
         phrases and sentences; notion of interdependency
      prescriptive vs. descriptive grammar
      “Daddy, what did you bring that book that I don’t want to be read to out of
       up for”?
Language Acquisition
   In order to speak/sign we must acquire the
    following skills:
       SEGMENTATION - how to separate sounds in a continuous flow
       LEXICAL LEARNING
       SEMANTICS - meaning
       SYNTAX AND MORPHOLOGY -> GRAMMAR
       PRAGMATICS & DISCOURSE SKILLS – social rules of
        language

   Most of this work is done by the age of 3
Sound energy for the phrase “Mice eat oats and does eat oats and little lambs eat ivy.” The italicized
words just below the sound record indicate how this phrase was pronounced by the speaker. The
vertical lines next to the words indicate where each word begins. Note that it is difficult or impossible to
tell from the sound record where one word ends and the other begins. (Speech signal courtesy of Peter
Howell).
Language Development:
Milestones
   Language production and speech perception
   Table 8.2
   Initial vocalizations similar across languages
    Crying, cooing, babbling which contains all 200 phonemes
 6 months – babbling sounds begin to resemble surrounding
  language
   1 year – first word, usually is ?
       similar cross-culturally – words for parents
       lose ability to distinguish phonemes (sound combinations)
        that are not in the native language
       receptive vs. expressive language, receptive is much larger
        than expressive
    Language Development:
    Milestones Continued
   18-24 months – vocabulary spurt (Barrett, 1995) – Figure 8.2
     fast mapping
     over and underextensions
       Holophrasic speech:
         18-20 months - 50 words
         24 months - 200-400 words

   End of second year – combine words
     Telegraphic speech
   Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) measurement unit of speech
    production
   End of third year – complex ideas, plural, past tense
     Overregularization, Berko (1958) study of “Wugs”
   Four through six – complex syntax and metalinguistics
   Age 8 – average vocabulary is 18,000 words – Figure 8.3
   Ages 1 – 8 – an average of 8 new words a day
   Later: Written language and reading
Figure 8.3
     Pronunciation Poem


I take it you already know                    And then there’s dose and rose and lose,
Of tough and bough and cough and dough?       Just look them up, and goose and choose,
Others may stumble, but not you               And cork and work and card and ward,
On hiccough, thorough, slough and through.    And font and front and word and sword.
Well done! And now you wish, perhaps,         And do and go, then thwart and cart.
To learn of less familiar traps?              Come, come, I’ve hardly made a start!

Beware of heard, a dreadful word              A dreadful language? Why, man alive!
That looks like beard and sounds like bird.   I’d learned to talk it when I was five.
And dead, it’s said like bed, not bead;       And yet, to spell it, the more I’ve tried,
For goodness sake, don’t call it deed!        I hadn’t learned at fifty-five.
Watch out for meat and great and threat,
(They rhyme with suite and straight and
debt.)                                                     T. S. Watt, The Manchester Guardian,
                                                                                 June 21, 1954
A moth is not a moth in mother.
Nor both in bother, broth in brother.
And here is not a match for there,
And dear and fear for bear and pear.
Bilingualism
   In many parts of the world, children
    are exposed to two of more
    languages as they grow up.
       Some children learn one language at home and
        another in a school setting.
       Other children learn both languages at home
       Other children immigrate to a country speaking one
        language and then learn a second language in school.
   Bilingualism offers a rich source of
    information about the organisation
    and use of the structures and
    processes of language.
    Bilingualism
   Bilingual countries (e.g., Canada, Belgium,
    Switzerland, and Spain)
   Home language is not the language used
    for school and business (e.g., U.S. in
    parts, South Africa, parts of Russia)
   Immigrants
   Studied language in school
   Grew up in homes where two languages
    were used routinely.
   http://www.nvtc.gov/lotw/index.html
Bilingual speaker

   A person who uses two languages that differ
    in speech sounds, vocabulary and syntax.
   The bilingual’s native language is referred to
    as the first language or L1 and the non-native
    language is the second language or L2.
   Parallel or sequential acquisition, differences
    in brain representation (MRI studies)
Bilingualism
   Additive bilingualism
       An individual acquires proficiency in a second
        language with no loss in his or her first language.
       Both languages are associated with respect and
        prestige.
   Subtractive bilingualism
       The new language replaces the first language,
        more likely with younger immigrant language
        learners especially if coming from country with
        lower educational levels.
Bilingualism
   Research findings:
     Smaller vocabularies in one language, combined
      vocabularies average
     Higher scores for middle-class bilingual subjects
      on cognitive flexibility, analytical reasoning,
      selective attention, and metalinguistic awareness
       Slight disadvantage in terms of language
        processing speed
       Second languages more easily acquired early in
        life – Figure 8.4
       Greater acculturation facilitates acquisition
Can Animals Develop Language?
   Dolphins, sea lions, parrots,
    chimpanzees
       Vocal apparatus issue
       American Sign Language
   Allen and Beatrice Gardner
    (1969)
       Chimpanzee - Washoe
       160 word vocabulary
   Sue Savage-Rumbaugh research
    – p. 307
       Bonobo chimpanzee – Kanzi – p. 306
       Symbols
       Receptive language – 72% of 660
        requests
Theories of Language Acquisition

   Behaviorist
       Skinner
        learning of specific verbal responses
        

   Nativist
       Chomsky
        learning the rules of language – centrality of
         syntax
        Language Acquisition Device (LAD)

   Interactionist – Figure 8.5
       Cognitive, social communication, and emergentist theories
Problem Solving
   Problem solving is defined as a goal to accomplish, with an
    initial state and goal state, with obstacles to overcome.
   Greeno (1978) – three basic classes
   Problems of inducing structure
     Discovery of a pattern relating elements of a problem to each
        other.
     Series completion and analogy problems, seating guests
   Problems of arrangement
     All the elements are given, and the task is to re-arrange them.
     String problem and Anagrams
         Often solved through insight
   Problems of transformation
     Manipulation of objects or symbols while following certain
        rules.
     Hobbits and orcs problem – Figure 8.7
     Water jar problem – Figure 8.8, Figure 8.9
   Any problem could be in more than one category.
Problem Solving Cycle
   Problem identification
   Problem definition and representation
   Strategy formation: analysis and synthesis; divergent
    and convergent thinking
   Organizing information
   Resource allocation
   Novices and experts: local planning, initial stage, and
    solution strategy
   Monitoring
   Evaluation
   Sample problems – Figure 8.6 and Figure 8.12
   Insight in problem solving
    Effective Problem Solving
   Well defined vs. ill defined problems: clear start or end states
   Barriers to effective problem solving:
     Irrelevant Information
     Functional fixedness – Duncker (1945) – Our tendency to
      perceive the functions of objects as fixed and unchanging.
     candle problem – Concept check 8.2, p. 317
     Mental Set
       Mental Set is a preference for certain operators (things
          you can do, actions you can take to solve a problem).
       Luchins (1942) and the water jar problem: Figure 8.8, Figure
            8.9
           Einstellung (mechanization of thought) – people kept using
            a strategy that worked even when a better one was
            available
       Unnecessary Constraints – nine dot problem, cheap necklace
        problem
       Inadequate mental representations - mutilated checkerboard
        problem, matchstick problem - Figure 8.11, Bird & train problem –
        Figure 8.16
                  •Make a
                  necklace for 15¢
                  or less
                  •It costs 2¢ to
                  open a link; 3¢
                  to close a link




Mutilated
checkerboard
Can you put 31
dominos on this
board?
Approaches to Problem Solving
   Algorithms
       Systematic trial-and-error
       Guaranteed solution
   Heuristics
       Shortcuts, rule-of-thumb
       No guaranteed solution
         Forming subgoals – ends means analysis
         Working forward
         Working backward
         Generate and test
         Searching for analogies
         Changing the representation of a problem
    Heuristics
   Means-ends analysis
       must know what the ends are you seek
       must know the means available
       Newell & Simon: representation makes clear the current state, the
        goal, the differences between them, available operators which can
        be used to reduce difference.
   Working forward – experts use this approach more
    often
   Working backwards – novices use this approach more
    often
       Start by figuring out what the solution to your problem looks like.
       Move backward from that goal to your current state.
       This defines a path that leads to goal
   Generate-test method
       can be very slow if there are lots of possible solutions
    Decision Making
   Kahneman & Tevrsky’s research in decision making
       The goal of judgment and decision making is to select from among
        choices or to evaluate opportunities
       People may be far more likely to make decisions based on biases and
        heuristics (short-cuts) than earlier decision-making research has
        suggested
       These mental shortcuts lighten the cognitive load of making decisions, but
        they also allow for a much greater chance of error
   The availability heuristic
       Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory.
        We assume such events are common (e.g. words beginning with letter L
        v. third letter L).
   The representativeness heuristic
       A rule of thumb for judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well
        they seem to represent, or match particular prototypes.
   The tendency to ignore base rates – sample of study of “lawyers”
    and “engineers”
   The conjunction fallacy –Figure 8.18 – conjunction fallacy problem
XX 8.18
Understanding Pitfalls in
Reasoning About Decisions
   The gambler’s fallacy – random processes of coin flips
   The law of small numbers – example of births in small versus
    large hospitals
   Overestimating the improbable – media events – Table 8.4
   Confirmation bias and belief perseverance
     Paying attention to information that confirms one’s own belief.
   The overconfidence effect and hindsight bias
     The tendency to overestimate one’s ability to predict the future.
   Framing
     How an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and
       judgments. Tendency is to choose “gains” over “losses”.
Framing Effects
   600 people are at risk of dying of a particular disease.
    Vaccine A could save 200 of these lives. For Vaccine B,
    there is a .33 likelihood that all 600 people would be saved,
    but a .66 likelihood that all 600 people will die. Would you
    choose A or B? (most choose A)
   600 people are at risk of dying of a particular disease. If
    Vaccine C is used, 400 of these people will die. If Vaccine D
    is used, there is a .33 likelihood that no one will die, but a .66
    likelihood that all 600 people will die. Would you choose C or
    D? (most choose D)

   Figure 8.20, p. 329
Fig. 8-20, p. 329
Framing Effects
Evolutionary Analyses: Flaws in Decision
Making and Fast and Frugal Heuristics

   Cosmides and Tooby (1996)
     Unrealistic standard of rationality

     Decision making evolved to handle real-world
      adaptive problems
     Problem solving research based on contrived,
      artificial problems
   Gigerenzer (2000)
     Quick and dirty heuristics

     Less than perfect but adaptive

								
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