Learning to Spell Dr. Peterson Chapter 12- Tompkins What is invented spelling? unique spellings based on Creating knowledge of English or how the word should be spelled. – Phonetics Stages of spelling development – Refer to Tompkins p. 510 Ways to Support Spelling Refer to Figure 12-1 – Stage 3: Within-Word on p. 513 Spelling Teach lessons on – Stage 1: Emergent vowel spelling Experiment with patterns writing Use visualization to recognize the correct Model how to spelling of words write – Stage 4: Syllables and Environmental Affixes print Teach lessons on – Stage 2: Letter dividing words into syllables Name Spelling Teach proofreading Sing the ABC – Stage 5: Derivational song Relations Post high- Teach root words & frequency words affixes to the word wall Sort words Teaching Spelling Refer to Tompkins p. 518 – Writing – Reading •Figure 12-2: The 100 Most – Word Walls Frequently Used Words- p. – Making words 520 – Word sorts •Figure 12-3: 100 Useful – Proofreading Words for Students in – Dictionaries Grades 4-8 – Spelling options – Root words and affixes – Spelling strategies- refer to p. 524 for helpful strategies to teach students. Teaching Minilessons to p. 528 and 529 for Refer suggestions – Procedures – Concepts – Strategies – Skills Weekly Spelling Tests? Should weekly spelling tests be administered? – Research shows that students spelling is learning through reading and writing. – Weekly spelling tests if given should be individualized so children learn to spell the words they need for their writing. – Based on the fact that most “commercially” prepared spelling lists are based on words that are unrelated to the words students are reading and writing. Suggestions from Tompkins Students choose the words they will study. – Words come from writing projects and literature they are reading. Students study five to eight words during the week using a specific study strategy. – Places more responsibility on the student for their own learning. Guidelines for individualized spelling tests are provided on p. 530 Guidelines for Individualized Spelling Tests Page 530 Master list words are drawn from 1. Master list words students needed for their writing projects during the previous 2. Pretest week, high-frequency words, and 3. Words to studywords related to literature focus units and theme cycles ongoing in the 4. Study lists classroom. 5. Study strategy Research has shown that pretests are a critical 6. Practice test component in learning to spell. 7. Posttest •Eliminates words already 8. Next week’s words know how to spell. •Immediate feedback provided by correcting own pretest. Studying Spelling Words Students should spend five to ten minutes studying the words on their study lists each day during the week, instead of busywork activities, such as using their spelling words in sentences or gluing yarn in the shape of the words. Research shows… Studying Spelling Words It is more effective for students to us this strategy to practice spelling words: 1. Look at the word and say it to yourself. 2. Say each letter in the word to yourself. 3. Close your eyes and spell the word to yourself. 4. Write the word, and check that you spelled it correctly. 5. Write the word again, and check that you spelled it correctly. Spelling Research Justification Textbook or commercially prepared spelling programs.. – Arranged in week-long units – Lists of 10-20 words – Practice activities that require at least 30 minutes per day to complete. – Focus on language arts skills that are not directly related to learning to spell. Research indicates that only 60-75 minutes per week should be spent on spelling instruction. – Greater periods of time do not result in improved spelling ability. Spelling Research Justification Textbook spelling programs… – Word in each unit arranged according to spelling patterns or phonetic generalizations. The effectiveness of teaching spelling via phonic generalizations is highly questionable. Students often memorize the rule or spelling pattern and score perfectly on the spelling test but later are unable to choose among spelling options in their writing. Adapting Spelling Instruction 1. Encourage Invented Spelling 2. Teach High-Frequency Words 3. Teach the “Think It Out” Strategy 4. Read and Write Every Day 5. Recognize That Errors Are Part of Learning Tompkins- p. 532 Assessing Students’ Spelling Progress Weekly spelling tests are the traditional measure of progress and the individualized spelling instruction approach provides a convenient way to assess students. Samples of students writing should be collected periodically to determine whether words that were spelled correctly on tests are being spelling correctly in writing projects. Spelling problems could be attributed to pronunciation or dialect differences. Keep anecdotal information and samples of children’s writing to monitor overall progress in spelling. – Error patterns and spelling strategies can be examined in these samples. – Examining students spelling in writing samples provides one type of information, while examining writing samples for error patterns and spelling strategies provides a more complete picture. A chart like the one on page 514 and 516 can assist teachers in determining the stages of spelling development of a child. Let’s try some alternative spelling practice methods.
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