Learning to Spell by 8963qQe

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									Learning to Spell
    Dr. Peterson
Chapter 12- Tompkins
   What is invented spelling?
         unique spellings based on
 Creating
 knowledge of English or how the
 word should be spelled.
  – Phonetics
 Stages   of spelling development
  – Refer to Tompkins p. 510
       Ways to Support Spelling
   Refer to Figure 12-1     – Stage 3: Within-Word
    on p. 513                  Spelling
                                 Teach lessons on
     – Stage 1: Emergent           vowel spelling
         Experiment with          patterns
          writing                Use visualization to
                                   recognize the correct
         Model how to             spelling of words
          write              – Stage 4: Syllables and
         Environmental        Affixes
          print                  Teach lessons on
     – Stage 2: Letter             dividing words into
                                   syllables
       Name Spelling             Teach proofreading
         Sing the ABC       – Stage 5: Derivational
          song                 Relations
         Post high-             Teach root words &
          frequency words          affixes
          to the word wall       Sort words
                Teaching Spelling
   Refer to Tompkins p. 518
    –   Writing
    –   Reading                 •Figure 12-2: The 100 Most
    –   Word Walls              Frequently Used Words- p.
    –   Making words            520
    –   Word sorts              •Figure 12-3: 100 Useful
    –   Proofreading            Words for Students in
    –   Dictionaries            Grades 4-8
    –   Spelling options
    –   Root words and affixes
    –   Spelling strategies- refer to p. 524 for helpful
        strategies to teach students.
      Teaching Minilessons
      to p. 528 and 529 for
 Refer
 suggestions
  – Procedures
  – Concepts
  – Strategies
  – Skills
        Weekly Spelling Tests?
   Should weekly spelling tests be
    administered?
    – Research shows that students spelling is
      learning through reading and writing.
    – Weekly spelling tests if given should be
      individualized so children learn to spell the
      words they need for their writing.
    – Based on the fact that most “commercially”
      prepared spelling lists are based on words that
      are unrelated to the words students are
      reading and writing.
     Suggestions from Tompkins
   Students choose the words they will
    study.
    – Words come from writing projects and
      literature they are reading.
   Students study five to eight words during
    the week using a specific study strategy.
    – Places more responsibility on the student for
      their own learning.
   Guidelines for individualized spelling tests
    are provided on p. 530
         Guidelines for Individualized
                Spelling Tests
   Page 530
                       Master list words are drawn from
    1.   Master list   words students needed for their
                       writing projects during the previous
    2.   Pretest       week, high-frequency words, and
    3.   Words to studywords related to literature focus units
                       and theme cycles ongoing in the
    4.   Study lists   classroom.

    5.   Study strategy        Research has shown that
                               pretests are a critical
    6.   Practice test         component in learning to
                               spell.
    7.   Posttest
                               •Eliminates words already
    8.   Next week’s words     know how to spell.
                               •Immediate feedback
                               provided by correcting
                               own pretest.
    Studying Spelling Words
 Students should spend five to ten
 minutes studying the words on their
 study lists each day during the week,
 instead of busywork activities, such
 as using their spelling words in
 sentences or gluing yarn in the
 shape of the words.

  Research shows…
       Studying Spelling Words
   It is more effective for students to us
    this strategy to practice spelling words:
    1. Look at the word and say it to yourself.
    2. Say each letter in the word to yourself.
    3. Close your eyes and spell the word to
       yourself.
    4. Write the word, and check that you spelled it
       correctly.
    5. Write the word again, and check that you
       spelled it correctly.
Spelling Research Justification
   Textbook or commercially prepared
    spelling programs..
    – Arranged in week-long units
    – Lists of 10-20 words
    – Practice activities that require at least 30
      minutes per day to complete.
    – Focus on language arts skills that are not
      directly related to learning to spell.
   Research indicates that only 60-75
    minutes per week should be spent on
    spelling instruction.
    – Greater periods of time do not result in
      improved spelling ability.
Spelling Research Justification
 Textbook   spelling programs…
  – Word in each unit arranged according to
    spelling patterns or phonetic
    generalizations.
     The  effectiveness of teaching spelling via
      phonic generalizations is highly
      questionable.
     Students often memorize the rule or spelling
      pattern and score perfectly on the spelling
      test but later are unable to choose among
      spelling options in their writing.
     Adapting Spelling Instruction
1.   Encourage Invented Spelling
2.   Teach High-Frequency Words
3.   Teach the “Think It Out” Strategy
4.   Read and Write Every Day
5.   Recognize That Errors Are Part of
     Learning
       Tompkins- p. 532
       Assessing Students’ Spelling
                Progress
   Weekly spelling tests are the traditional measure of
    progress and the individualized spelling instruction
    approach provides a convenient way to assess students.
   Samples of students writing should be collected periodically
    to determine whether words that were spelled correctly on
    tests are being spelling correctly in writing projects.
   Spelling problems could be attributed to pronunciation or
    dialect differences.
   Keep anecdotal information and samples of children’s
    writing to monitor overall progress in spelling.
     – Error patterns and spelling strategies can be examined
       in these samples.
     – Examining students spelling in writing samples provides
       one type of information, while examining writing
       samples for error patterns and spelling strategies
       provides a more complete picture.
   A chart like the one on page 514 and 516 can assist
    teachers in determining the stages of spelling development
    of a child.
Let’s try some alternative
spelling practice methods.

								
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