334: AB rief Revisit & Reflection

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					   334: A Brief Revisit &
             Stephen Yip
Chief Curriculum Development Officer
              CDI, EMB
• In 2000, the Education Commission
  recommended the adoption of a 3-year senior
  secondary and 4-year university system.

• The Chief Executive’s Policy Address (2004)
  set out the direction to develop the new
  senior secondary and university system.

• 2004-05 Consultation phases – Preparation/
  Implementation (2005 Policy Address)
      The Need for Change

• Building on reform in basic education, the new
  senior secondary and university system is
  destined to help each student to be an informed
  and responsible citizen with a sense of global
  and national identity.

• This calls for a more broad-based curriculum
  with more choice to suit individual aptitudes and
  interests, enable ALL secondary students to
  develop their capacities to the full.
A Comparison of the Current and the New Academic Structures

             Current Structure    New Structure
               (“3+2+2+3”)          (“3+3+4”)
              Undergraduate         4-Year
                 Degree          Undergraduate
    HKALE                           Degree
                Secondary 7                               New public
                                                      examination leading
                                                       to HK Diploma of
                Secondary 6      Senior Secondary 3        Secondary
    HKCEE                                                  Education
                Secondary 5      Senior Secondary 2

                Secondary 4      Senior Secondary 1

                Secondary 3         Secondary 3

                Secondary 2         Secondary 2

                Secondary 1         Secondary 1
Smoother articulation of SS to different pathways
    for lifelong learning and success in life

         Continuing Education for Higher Degrees/Further Qualifications

               Undergraduate                      Employment

Year 2                   Sub-degree

                                Senior Sec 3       Career-oriented   Project
                                                   Studies Awards    Yi Jin
                                Senior Sec 2

                                Senior Sec 1

                               Junior Secondary
          Benefits of Change
      “3+2+2+3”  “ 3+3+4 ” because:
Reducing one public examination    Increasing learning time and space
                                   and enhancing learning effectiveness

All students study Secondary 6     Meeting the challenges of the
                                   knowledge-based society of HK

More choices in senior secondary   Developing the full potential of
                                   students with different aptitudes and
More pathways for further study    Providing opportunities for students
and work                           to be successful in life
                                                         Liberal Studies

                                                       Proposed subjects

                New Curriculum                         Career oriented

                                            Other/ Essential
4 Core Subjects:      2-3 Elective              Learning
                     Subjects out of     Experiences including
Chinese Language,                             moral and civic
English Language,   20 subjects or out   education, community
   Mathematics,       of courses in       service, aesthetic and
  Liberal Studies   career-oriented        physical experiences
                         studies             and work-related
                                          experiences (e.g. job

    45-55%               20-30%                  15-35%
Why Change? Is our existing
 system not good enough?

“A brief conversation with a friend in a ferry”

                              The world has changed!
                              …whether you agree or
                              not… whether you’re
                              ‘fed up’ to hear this or
  Question time: Rationale of
• Which part of the reform (mentioned
  above) is particularly supported?
• Any parts’ rationale not clear?
• Any parts are NOT supported at all?
Unpacking 334: What’s in it?
Any new elements related to
   teaching & learning?
Conditions for Knowledge Building in 334 –
aligning Curriculum, Pedagogy & Assessment

                   what is worth

                       Alignment          how to
Pedagogy how           for student
         students       learning
          learn &
     Building on Strengths of Basic Education: The
    Whole Curriculum Framework (Coherence, Fullan)
   4 Core Subjects:         2-3 Elective                   Essential Learning
  Chinese Language,      Subjects out of 20                   Experiences
                                                            including moral and civic
  English Language,      subjects or out of                   education, community
     Mathematics,        courses in career-                   service, aesthetic and
                                                            physical experiences and
    Liberal Studies       oriented studies                  work-related experiences
                                                               (e.g. job attachment)
           (45-55%)              (20-30%)                         (15-35%)
Value &
                                                                             P1- S3

                                Moral and Intellectual Community Physical & Career-related
                                  Civic                          Aesthetic
                                          Development Service Development Experiences
            Curriculum – design
                                      (EMB, 2005)
• Prior knowledge – KLAs in basic education, cross-
  curricular opportunities in project learning,
• Essentials (core) – E, C, Maths, Liberal Studies
• Essentials (Other Learning Experiences) – moral
  & civic education, aesthetic & physical activities,
  community service, career-related activities
• Choices & diversification – elective subjects/career-
  oriented curriculum with elective parts,
• Greater breadth & same depth (AL/AS)
• Progression of studies
Why Other /Essential Learning Experiences
Expected Outcomes of OLE
   Whole Person Development (德、智、體、羣、美)
   Complement the examination subjects/ career-
    oriented studies
   Building up life-long capacities:
     To nurture informed & responsible citizenship
     To respect for Plural values & Healthy living style
     To develop career aspirations
 Seven Guiding Principles of Designing
          School-based OLE
1.   Student-focused
2.   Building on existing practice (own strengths)
3.   Entitlements (including disadvantaged students)
4.   Quality experience
5.   Coherent with KS3 and the whole NSS Curriculum
6.   Flexibility (e.g. could be out-of lesson time for
     community service)
7.   Diversity in Implementation modes (e.g. in the
     form of lessons, sessions, projects, programs…)
                 …… NSS Guide, 2006
      from curriculum to pedagogy
                    Learning Communities
                   Inquiry-Based Learning              is learnt
                     Meaningful Learning

                          Generic Skills
                                                       What is
                      Content Knowledge

Bransford, Brown, & Cocking (2000). How People Learn
  Effective pedagogy – inquiry/problem-
              based learning
• Teachers do:                   • Students do:
   Clear target/goal/objective      Set goals
   Ask more                         Respond actively
   Talk less                        Ask more
   Individual/group/whole-          Group & independent
     class                            learning
   Feedback                         Reflection
   Scaffolding                      Learning w generic skills
   Teaching ‘content’ & use
     generic skills
   Accept no ‘model’
   Learn with students …
Pedagogy ……. focus on deep understanding

        Knowledge is ‘information on tap’
     Skills are ‘routine performances on tap’
   Understanding is ‘the ability to think and
   act flexibly with what one knows’. In other
     words, ‘an understanding of a topic is a
      “flexible performance capacity” with
            emphasis on the flexible’.
           MS Wiske Teaching for Understanding
    Research into human learning
Research in human learning suggests that all learners are
  capable of making further progress given appropriate
  learning conditions, which can be characterised as a mix of
  ‘challenge and support’.
New learning opportunities are likely to be most effective in
  promoting further learning if they: take account of the
  learner’s present knowledge, skills and understandings; tap
  into the learner’s interests and motivations; are consistent
  with what is known about the learner’s preferred style/s of
  learning; and if learning opportunities are provided in a
  supportive social context.

(Professor Geoff Masters)
       Views about Learning
As an outcome: enduring change in knowledge, skill
etc. resulting from exposure to some experience. Short
term gains in knowledge as opposed to development
leading to understanding

As a process: transformation of information in solving
cognitive problems

As an apprenticeship: doing in the community as a
way of becoming a full member of that community
 Watkins classification of
  learning(Watkins 2003)

                                 Chart Title

                             3 kinds of learning

Learning as being taught   Learning as individual    Learning as building
      a process of            sense making          knowledge with others
       knowledge              making sense of        meanings constructed
       accquisition             experiences          through social activity
Cognitive Skills for Learning
          (Moseley et al. 2003)

                                  Chart Title

                                  Strategic &
                              Reflective Thinking

     Information processing   Basic Understanding   Productive thinking
              skills           forming concepts         Reasoning
        Accessing stored       Orgainizing ideas     Problem-solving
     & recorded knowledge      Adding to meaning     Creative thinking

          Teaching as            Teaching as           Teaching as
             Direct                Enquiry                Expert
           Instruction                                 performance
       Teaching as Instruction
 Provide an Advanced Organizer
 Check what pupils know with quick, snappy
  question & answer session
 Present new knowledge
 Provide for practice which emphasises application
 Extend practice by homework
 Give feedback which is informative
 Review new learning
   Learning by Direct Instruction
The findings are most relevant when the
 object is to teach explicit procedures,
   concepts or a body of knowledge

   The findings are less relevant where
skills to be taught cannot be broken down
              into explicit steps

                      (Rosenshine 1987)
      Uses of Direct Instruction
• Mathematical             • Mathematical problem
  procedures                 solving
• English grammar          • Extended writing
• Scientific information   • Scientific
• Historical facts           investigations
• Using maps               • Discussing
• Practical skills           controversial social
                             science topics
            Teaching as Enquiry
  Engaging in complex cognitive processes requires
  thoughtful discourse. Pupils are invited to make
  predictions, debate alternatives, etc. This can take
  place during interactive whole class teaching or
  during peer interaction in pairs or groups and
  should involve:
 Placing the topic in the wider, meaningful context
  (big picture)
 Using ‘open ended’ questions
 Allowing suitable ‘wait times’
 Encouraging explanations or elaboration of
            Teaching as Expert
Helping pupils to learn how to ‘think for
themselves’ requires temporary frameworks or
scaffolds. They reduce ‘the degrees of freedom a
child must manage in the task to prevent error
rather than induce it’. (Bruner)

Several scaffolds have been identified from the
teacher effectiveness literature
Providing models of appropriate response (e.g.
model answers, demonstrations etc.)
Providing prompts and feedback as in guided
       More Effective Scaffolding

As identified in the cognitive strategy research these
latter scaffolds appear more effective in teaching
higher cognitive skills.

Rehearsing an argument (pupils explain to
class/group in words their reasoning e.g.their
answer to a maths problem)
 Cue Cards ( as in writing frames )
Self-evaluation checklists (requires pupils to check
through the process by which they reached a
conclusion and to indicate how it might be improved
      8 Key Characteristics of
         effective teaching
1 Pupil Exploration usually preceded formal
2 Initially, tasks were structured to limit the
  range of alternatives pupils could explore.
3 There was a high proportion of pupil talk,
  much of it occurring between pupils.
4 The metaphors “teacher as a listener” and
  teacher as “guide on the side rather than
  sage on the stage” were characteristic.
   8 Key Characteristics of an
  effective teaching (continued)
5 Pupils used a variety of means and media to
  communicate their ideas
6 pupils’ questions and comments often
  determined the focus of classroom discourse
7 the ethos encouraged pupils to offer
  speculative answers to challenging
8 lessons often required pupils to reflect
  critically on the procedures and methods
Instruction Approach
                                      Classroom activity systems in 3
•Input and output tasks               views of learning
•Teacher o many
                                                 Construction Approach
•Teacher-chosen resources
                                                 •Tasks for processing and
•Teacher controls time: ‘pace’                   understanding
seen as key
                                                 •Individuals, peer groups
•Teacher as teller, organiser,
judge                                            •Students experience a resource
                                                 •Longer time blocks, student-paced
            Co-construction Approach
                                                 •Teacher as enquirer
            •Tasks of generating knowledge
            •Changing groups, networks,
            linkages                                    Tasks              structure
            •Access to world of resources
            •Teacher as learner too              Resources        Goals
            •Time seen as less relevant
            •Teacher as enquirer                                Time & pacing
        Classrooms as Learning Communities
Strategies related to
the view- ‘Learning
    as Product’/
‘’Teaching as direct
    instruction’        Building a Learning Community in a classroom: Non-
                        linear evolution

                                               Building a sense of
Strategies related                                 community
   to the view-
  ‘Learning as                                Social engagement in
    Process’/                                       learning
 ‘’Teaching as
                                                Co-constructive responsibility in
                                                     knowledge building

Strategies related
   to the view-
  ‘Learning &
Teaching as Co-
  Wide Repertoire of Effective
Teaching and Learning Strategies
                           From Curriculum to Pedagogy in KLAX

         Learning as…
                                Learning as a                   Learning as a                      Learning as
                                  ‘product’                      ‘process’                      ‘Co-construction’

         Learning                                                   Classroom examples:
                                                                                                       Classroom examples:
       Communities            How knowledge
                                 is learnt?
                                                Classroom examples:
                               (Pedagogy &
                                                                                                       Classroom examples:
                                  Classroom examples:

                                                                                 Classroom examples:

     Generic Skills           What is worth
                              (Curriculum)                             Classroom examples:
Content Knowledge                                                                                      Classroom examples:
(Sources, Understanding,                      Classroom examples:
  Structure, & Nature)

                                 Teaching as                        Teaching as                    Teaching as
                              Direct Instruction                      Enquiry                   ‘Co-construction’
        Teaching as…
 Assessment that fosters understanding has to be
 more than an end of unit test. It needs to inform
 students and teachers about what students
 currently understand, and how to proceed with
 subsequent teaching and learning

 Ongoing assessment is the process of providing
 students with a clear response to their
 performances of understanding in a way that will
 help to improve their next performance

The process of seeking and
interpreting evidence for use by
learners and their teachers to decide
where learners are in their learning,
where they need to go and how best to
get there

(Assessment Reform Group 2002)
         YOUR SCHOOL?
“My teacher sets me targets to aim for and then
helps me check my progress”

“My teacher gives me time to look at my work and
improve it after she’s marked it”

“My teacher tells me what I’m going to learn and
then we talk about how to get there”

“I know how I learn best and my teacher gives me
time to talk about what works for me”

• Providing effective feedback to pupils
• Actively involving children in their own learning
  by sharing criteria with learners
• Adjusting teaching to take account of assessment
• recognising the way assessment impacts on self-
  esteem and motivation
• considering ways that pupils can assess
  themselves and understand how to improve
          3 Kinds of Feedback
1 About Self: should focus on effort rather than on
  person. Thus ‘That’s a good try’ rather than ‘Good
  Girl, Well done.’ Purpose is re-enforcement
2 Task processing: Purpose is self-regulation
  ‘Where have you got to?’ ‘What do you think may
  have gone wrong?’ ‘What are you going to do
3 Correction : most powerful when it is about
  faulty interpretation rather than supplying missing
  information. ‘Show me how you got that answer’
  rather than, ‘ You need to do it like this.’
   3 Kinds of Feedback: Effect Size
(An effect size of 1.0 is equivalent to advancing achievement by one
                     year’s average progress)
Task processing
self-regulation                          0.95
cues                                     1.10
re-inforcement of effort                 0.94
praise                                   0.14
corrective                               0.37
1 Asking pupils “what helps them to learn?” For
  example, “What does it feel like when I choose
  you to answer a question in front of the class?”

2 Devising ways pupils can assess their own
  learning and share this with the teacher. For
  example, Pupils use a traffic light system to
  evaluate their performance (red dot=hard,
  orange= bit hard, green=easy).
    Taking Account of Assessment in Teaching

• Identify Curricular targets (i.e. what pupils need
  to learn)
• Set targets for groups/individual pupils
• Monitor targets regularly to inform decision
  making and communicate these to pupils either
  orally or in writing
• Review targets with colleagues and engage in
  joint planning for next stage
To make sense of data in chart or graph
    Name     Make    Construct    Read     Interpret
             table    graph      numbers    scales
    John      v         v          v

     Paul     v

    Mary      v         v

    Tracey    v         v          v          v
Identifying Learning Objectives
Teachers tend to identify what pupils will do, not what
they will learn. Learning objectives then need to be turned
into success criteria by using such stems as:

To be successful you will need….
What I expect from everyone is….
Better still use questions so that pupils help to establish
what is needed
To produce good work what will you need t
What do you think we mean by…?
• Each Curricular targets have their success
  criteria which are shared with pupils
• Class debriefing sessions are held at the end
  of the lesson. “What did we achieve?”
  “What have we learned for next time?” etc.
• Pupils in pairs (or groups) complete check-
  list of success criteria and to talk about what
  they can do to improve
Developing AfL in your school
Key elements of AfL           Teaching Strategies

Sharing learning objectives   Talk about these at start of
                              lesson. Use them as a basis
                              of questioning and feedback
Involving pupils in peer      Pupils explain how they got
assessment                    the answer, pupils discuss
                              how they can improve.
                              Create reflection time
Providing feedback which      Tell pupil what s/he has
helps pupils to take next     done well, what more needs
steps                         doing and how to do it
Promoting self-esteem and     Identify small steps
confidence to motivate        whereby pupils can
pupils                        improve, establish a secure
                              ethos where pupils feel
                              comfortable when
                              explaining their thinking
     as a contribution to learning
• Assessment that fosters understanding has to
  be more than an end-of-unit test. It needs to
  inform students and teachers about both what
  students currently understand, and how to
  proceed with subsequent teaching and
• Ongoing assessment is the process of
  providing students with clear responses to
  their performances of understanding in a way
  that will help to improve their next
           assessment for learning
            (on-going assessment)
• Do they include clear, public criteria?
• Do they use criteria closely related to understanding
• Do they provide frequent opportunities for feedback
  throughout the unit’s performances?
• Do they provide feedback that tells students how well
  they are doing and how to do better?
• Do they offer opportunities for multiple perspectives?
  (ie, teacher assessing student, students assessing one
  another, student assessing themselves)
      Assessment of learning (HKEAA)

• Standards-referenced Assessment (SRA)
     To help users better understand what students
      know and can do
     To facilitate teaching and learning and make explicit
      what a student has to do to reach a given level
     To better maintain standards over time
• Most systems have adopted standards-based
  curriculum and assessment.
• This implies being explicit about the required
  standard performance expected of students
• Standards referencing allows performance to be
  reported in relation standards that do not change
  over time
• Some systems use expert judgment to set
  standards. In HK we use psychometric methods
  and fine tune using expert judgment
   Different Kinds of Reporting
Comparison of the performance of an
 individual or group with:
  • that of other individuals or groups, especially a
    representative sample (Norm-referenced reporting)
  • the criterion set for performance on that task (Criterion-
    referenced reporting)
  • a predefined standard defined by one or more cut-
    scores on an underlying variable (Standards-referenced
Standards-Referenced Reporting
     Levels           Descriptors                                   Samples
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            HKDSE Levels
A                                   5
B                                   4
E                                   2

F            HKALE                  1
Assessment of learning (HKEAA)

• School-based Assessment (SBA)
     Improve reliability of assessments
     Improve validity of assessments
     Less reliance on a ‘one-shot’ examination
      Assessment of learning (HKEAA)
• Student Learning Profile
     Reflects a concern for whole-person development
     To motivate learning and engagement
     To recognize non-academic achievements
     To give employers and higher education institutions a
      more complete picture of the individual and his/her
      achievements            其他學習經歷紀錄
      香港高級程度會考                  校內成績
       香港中學會考            香港中學文憑
         公                  公
         開                  開
         考                  考
         試                  試
         證                  證
         書                  書
Celebrating Whole Person
Senior Secondary Student Learning
          Profile (SLP)
      NSS Student Learning
      Student Learning Profile Profile
Will include:

1) HK Diploma of Secondary Education
2) Career Oriented Studies
3) School Internal Assessment
4) Other Learning Experiences (Essential
   Student Experiences)
5) Other Achievements gained outside
   schools         Senior Secondary
                  Curriculum Guide in
                        mid 2006
   Student Learning Profile
   NSS Student Learning Profile
 To give employers and tertiary
  education institutions a more
  complete picture of the individual and
  his/her achievements

 To recognize both academic and non-
  academic achievements/

 To motivate on-going learning and

 To help students reflecting for own
  whole-person development
   Other Learning          Student Learning
    Experiences                 Profile

• Moral & Civic           • Participation
                          • Achievements
• Physical Education
                          • Reflections
• Aesthetic Experiences
                          • Attributes &
• Career-related            Capabilities
• Community Services
(e.g. no. of hours, participating role)

Achievements gained
(e.g. Prizes, awards, certificates,

(e.g. student log/ journals, short essays)

Attributes    and Capabilities
(e.g. leadership, social skills, … ) [a checklist
to choose] + a qualitative remarks/ comment
                  SLP at Systemic Level
  SLP: Certification/ Final                     School-based SLP
                    HKEAA                                                          and awards
                    exams                                                           schools*

 SLP final                schools                       Student
  report                                                                                 (PARA)

                    COS                                                                results by
                                       Information validated                            subjects
                                            by schools
  Electronic system/
infra-structure run by                                               SS3               SS2               SS1

                          * Data provided by student. Student holds sole responsibility to provide evidence when requested.
            Question time:
• Views of Teaching/Learning: What is the
  dominant view in our school/ department/
• Wide Repertoire of learning/ teaching
  strategies: How should our schools go ‘from
  here to there’?
• Assessment – Any new ideas that the school/
  panel could put into practice?
• SLP – How would this affect our existing
         School as a Learning
       Community/ Organisation
• No reform would succeed in a purely ‘Top-down’
• Learning is the key at all three levels (Society/
  Community, School, Classroom)
• Five collective discipline (internal capacities;內功)
  in a learning organization (P. Senge):
   –   Personal Mastery ( as a professional)
   –   Shared Vision (as a group of professionals)
   –   Mental Models (a ‘shared’ map)
   –   Team learning (On-going reflection in practice)
   –   Systems Thinking ( Growing body of theory/ ‘Living
       mechanism’ to improve as an orgnaization/ system)
Dealing with levels of Concerns
Concerns-based Model of Educational Change
 Stage of             Teachers’ concerns & typical
 Concern                     expressions
     0          Attention elsewhere                   I am not concerned about it

      1         Interest to know more                   I would like to know more about it
     2          Uncertainties                                   How will it affect me?
    3           Focus on how to do                       I seem to be spending all time
                                                             getting materials ready
     4          Evaluation of impact on students            How is this affecting learners? How
                                                            could I refine to have more impact?
      5         Co-ordination and communication to
                                                              How can I relate what I am doing to
Collaboration   improve effectiveness                              what others are doing?

     6          How to work better
                                         I have ideas about something that
 Refocusing                                   would work even better.
Innovation Configurations: Mapping where we’re
                 heading to…
• “All too frequently the developers of an educational
  innovation have not thought clearly about what the use of the
  change will really entail. They have more about what is
  needed to support its implementation, such as training and
• Innovation Configuration ‘Map’ (e.g. Integrated use of I.T.)
 Unacceptable             Acceptable                      Ideal

   e.g. Classrooms      e.g. Classrooms with        e.g. Schools build a
  with few computers,   computers with good        culture of using IT in
     no Web links;      Web access; students        most aspects; Also
  mainly for drilling      work with IT to       catering for the needs or
      and practice       research, plan and       self-motivated projects
                        present their learning        among students
    Examples of Intervention strategies (1)
 Stage of                 Examples of intervention strategies
    0           Acknowledge little concern about the innovation is
Awareness       legitimate & appropriate; Share some information to
                arouse interests…
      1         Share general descriptive information, short media
Informational   presentation; State realistic expectation about the costs &
                benefits; Provide genuine cases/ visits…
     2          Establish rapport and signs of encouragement/
  Personal      assurance; Clarify how innovation relates to other
                priorities that potentially conflict in energy/time demand.
                Show how the innovation can be used via gradual
                introduction rather than leap…
    3           Provide answers to address small specific ‘how-to’;
Management      Demonstrate models for effective use of innovation…
Examples of Intervention strategies (2)

 Stage of             Examples of intervention strategies
     4      Encourage & reinforce regularly;
      5         Use ‘stage 5 concerned’ teachers to be teacher
Collaboration   educators; Create sharing networking opportunities
     6          Provide teachers at this stage with resources to
 Refocusing     access and encourage them to pilot new ideas that
                are of use
Intervention Strategies
                    Creating a context supportive of change

                             Investing Professional
The Concerns-based Adoption Model


                         Stages of Concern              Innovation Nonusers
                                                            and Users

Resource    Change         Levels of Use


                                 User System Culture

The Eight Propositions for 334
1. We have a clear, well-articulated moral
   purpose underpinning 334

     Providing all students with the opportunity to
      receive a higher standard of education, and a
      more suitable curriculum catering to
      individual needs and abilities to ensure their

2. Schools need to develop effective
   leadership teams to implement the 334

     Leadership teams help sustain school
      improvement, provide support and advice,
      and develop leadership in others.

3. Leadership teams develop and promote a
   vision and plan with the involvement of key

The 334 action plan sets out what has to be done,
  how it will be done, by whom and when

4. The 334 Action Plan will seek to transform
   curriculum, pedagogy and assessment

Schools must clarify what is worth learning, how
  teachers will teach and students will learn it, and
  how we will know what has been learned.

5. Efforts to build the capacity of all teachers
   in the school are central to this task.

The school should identify its professional learning
  needs and prepare a whole school professional
  development plan.

6. The broad 2005-9 Action Plan is
   supplemented by more detailed annual

These annual plans include specific goals,
 along with professional development and
 other strategies for key areas of activity.

7. Sharing between schools increases their
   collective knowledge and capacity to act.

Networking is an important source of advice
 and sharing of successful practice to
 supplement broader EMB support.

8. 334 Action Plans must be flexible enough
   to accommodate change as needed

Implementation of plans needs to be
  constantly monitored and regularly
  evaluated to ensure they are achieving what
  is intended and are adjusted where required.


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