TKT Training at Weihai by QT6Fh1nm

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									  Introduction to

Language Analysis
        What we teach:
Language Items   Language Skills
What we teach: Language skills

 Language Items    Language Skills


                  Speaking
What we teach: Language skills

 Language Items          Language Skills


                  Speaking      Listening
What we teach: Language skills

         Language Skills


     Speaking          Listening


                      Reading
What we teach: Language skills

         Language Skills


     Speaking          Listening


      Writing         Reading
Language Skills and Subskills

             Subskills
             -predicting
Speaking
             -pronunciation
             -vocabulary
Listening    -punctuation
             -interrupting
Reading      -register
             -paragraphing
 Writing     -functions
             etc.
Language Skills and Subskills

             -predicting
Speaking     -pronunciation
             -vocabulary/lexis
Listening    -punctuation
             -interrupting
Reading      -register
             -paragraphing
 Writing     -functions
             etc.
Language Skills and Subskills

             -predicting
Speaking     -pronunciation
             -vocabulary
Listening    -punctuation
             -interrupting
Reading      -register
             -paragraphing
 Writing     -functions
             etc.
Language Skills and Subskills

             -predicting,
Speaking     -pronunciation,
             -vocabulary/lexis
Listening    -punctuation,
             -interrupting,
Reading      -register,
             -paragraphing,
 Writing     -functions,
             etc.
What we teach: Language
      Language Items
What we teach: Language
         Language Items

  Vocabulary/
                     Grammar
     Lexis
What we teach: Language
         Language Items

  Vocabulary/
                     Grammar
     Lexis

     Functions
What we teach: Language
         Language Items

  Vocabulary/
                     Grammar
     Lexis

     Functions      Phonology
What we teach: Language
          Language Items

  Vocabulary/
                      Grammar
     Lexis

     Functions       Phonology

   Focus on             Practice of
language items        language items
Vocabulary/Lexis
          Vocabulary/Lexis
• Single words   e.g. verbs: come, go
           Vocabulary/Lexis
• Single words   e.g. verbs: come, go

• Multi-words
  e.g. phrasal verbs:
      to get up, to get on with (someone)
  and collocations: make friends
      a load of laundry, a tall building
            Vocabulary/Lexis
• Single words e.g. verbs: come, go
• Multi-words
  e.g. phrasal verbs: to get up, to get on with (s.o.)
  & collocations: make friends, a load of laundry

• Set phrases: How do you do?
              Vocabulary/Lexis
• Single words e.g. verbs: come, go
• Multi-words     e.g. phrasal verbs:
         to get up, to get on with (someone)
• Set phrases How do you do?

• Patterns:
  How about ….ing?
  Would you mind…ing?
  …would like + infinitive
      Language items: Task 1
          Work with a partner! (3 mins)

What category are the following?
1. ‘Pleased to meet you’
2. Lexical set of jobs
3. ‘How about –ing?’
4. Rules for forming comparative adjectives
5. Punctuation rules
6. Conditional sentences
        Language items: Task 1.
                   Work with a partner!
           What category are the following?
7.    ‘A set of linking words: ‘However, On the other
      hand, To summarise’
8.    ‘Ask and answer about your and your partner’s
      plans for the weekend using going to’
9.    Formation of opposites of adjectives, e.g:
      ‘impatient, insensitive’
10.   Students devise a short news presentation

11. ‘Find 3 interesting TV programmes to watch in
    today’s TV schedule’
12. Students brainstorm news stories prior to
    listening to today’s news headlines
       Language items: Answers

What category are the following?
1. ‘Pleased to meet you’
lexis: set phrase - a lexical phrase.
1. Lexical set of jobs
2. ‘How about –ing?’
3. Rules for forming comparative adjectives
4. Punctuation rules
5. Conditional sentences
6. A set of linking words: ‘However, On the other
    hand, To summarise’
7. ‘Ask and answer about your and your partner’s
    plans for the weekend using going to’
        Language items: Answers
          What category are the following?
1. ‘Pleased to meet you’
lexis: set phrase - a lexical phrase.
1. Lexical set of jobs
     lexis: single words.
2. ‘How about –ing?’
3. Rules for forming comparative adjectives
4. Punctuation rules
5. Conditional sentences
6. A set of linking words: ‘However, On the other
   hand, To summarise’
7. ‘Ask and answer about your and your partner’s
   plans for the weekend using going to’
        Language items: Answers

What category are the following?
1. ‘Pleased to meet you’
   lexis: set phrase - a lexical phrase.
2. Lexical set of jobs
   lexis: single words.
3. ‘How about –ing?’
     lexis: pattern
4.   Rules for forming comparative adjectives
5.   Punctuation rules
6.   Conditional sentences
7.   A set of linking words: ‘However, On the other
     hand, To summarise’
       Language items: Answers

What category are the following?
1. ‘Pleased to meet you’
   lexis: set phrase - a lexical phrase.
2. Lexical set of jobs
   lexis: single words.
3. ‘How about –ing?’
   lexis: pattern
4. Rules for forming comparative adjectives
   grammar
5. Punctuation rules
6. Conditional sentences
7. A set of linking words: ‘However, On the other
         Language items: Answers
            What category are the following?
1.    ‘Pleased to meet you’
     lexis: set phrase - a lexical phrase.
2.     Lexical set of jobs
     lexis: single words.
3.    ‘How about –ing?’
     lexis: pattern
4.    Rules for forming comparative adjectives
     grammar
5.    Punctuation rules
     writing skill. or written grammar
6.    Conditional sentences
7.    A set of linking words: ‘However, On the other
         Language items: Answers
            What category are the following?
1.    ‘Pleased to meet you’
     lexis: set phrase - a lexical phrase.
2.     Lexical set of jobs
     lexis: single words.
3.    ‘How about –ing?’
     lexis: pattern
4.    Rules for forming comparative adjectives
     grammar
5.    Punctuation rules
     writing skill. or written grammar
6.    Conditional sentences
     grammar
7. A set of linking words: ‘However, On the
   other hand, To summarise’
  writing skill. Lexis (single words &
     phrases)
       Language items: Answers
What category are the following?
8. ‘Ask and answer about your and your partner’s
   plans for the weekend using going to’
   grammar practice
9. Formation of opposites of adjectives, e.g:
    ‘impatient, insensitive’
10. Students devise a short news presentation

11. ‘Find 3 interesting TV programmes to watch in
    today’s TV schedule’
12. Students brainstorm news stories prior to
    listening to today’s news headlines
       Language items: Answers
What category are the following?
8. ‘Ask and answer about your and your partner’s
   plans for the weekend using going to’
   grammar practice
9. Formation of opposites of adjectives, e.g:
   ‘impatient, insensitive’
   lexis. Single words
10. Students devise a short news presentation
       Language items: Answers
What category are the following?
8. ‘Ask and answer about your and your partner’s
    plans for the weekend using going to’
   grammar practice
9. Formation of opposites of adjectives, e.g:
    ‘impatient, insensitive’
   lexis. Single words
10. Students devise a short news presentation

   speaking skill
      Language items: Task 1.
               Work with a partner!

What category are the following?

11. ‘Find 3 interesting TV programmes to watch in
    today’s TV schedule’

   reading skill: scanning and skimming

12. Students brainstorm news stories prior to
    listening to today’s news headlines
      Language items: Task 1.
         What category are the following?


11. ‘Find 3 interesting TV programmes to watch in
    today’s TV schedule’
   reading skill: scanning and skimming


12. Students brainstorm news stories prior to
    listening to today’s news headlines
   listening skill - a subskill: prediction
    Why analyse language?
• Lesson planning
     Why analyse language?
• Lesson planning
• Lesson aims
• Stage aims
       Why analyse language?
•   Lesson planning
•   Lesson aims
•   Stage aims
•   Anticipate student problems
       Why analyse language?
•   Lesson planning
•   Lesson aims
•   Stage aims
•   Anticipate student problems
•   Student errors
            Student Mistakes
Student error   My father work in Beijing.



Corrected       My father works in Beijing.
sentence


Type of error   Present Simple tense. affirmative,
                3rd person with ‘s’
         Student Error Task
• Do Tasks 1 and 2 in your notes
• Do alone then check with a partner!
                 (3 mins)
                Answers Q2
Student error   These days I study English very
                hard


Corrected       These days I am studying English
sentence        very hard


Type of error   Present continuous tense.
                For temporary action in a period
                including the present.
                Answers Q3
Student error   “Give me coffee!” (said to a waiter)



Corrected       - “(Could I have) a cup of coffee,
sentence        please?”

Type of error   “Give me coffee!” is not
                appropriate, or polite in this
                situation.
                Answers Q4
Student error   I watched /ɪd/ TV yesterday.



Corrected       I watched /t/ TV yesterday.
sentence

Type of error   Pronunciation of past tense –ed
                form of the regular verb ‘to watch’
                is a /t/ sound (after unvoiced /tʃ/
                sound in ‘watch.
                Answers Q5
Student error   Played you basketball yesterday?



Corrected       Did you play basketball yesterday?.
sentence


Type of error   Past simple tense.
                Yes/No questions are formed with
                ‘did’ + Verb infin.
                Answers Q6
Student error   When you telephoned yesterday, I
                played computer games


Corrected       When you telephoned, I was
sentence        playing computer games


Type of error   Past continuous tense.
                For longer action in past, which
                started before another action
                Answers Q7
Student error   This book is

                 o   o   o
                interesting .
Corrected       This book is
sentence
                o    o   o
                 interesting ..
Type of error   Wordstress on ‘interesting’ is on
                the first syllable.
                Answers Q8
Student error   – (“My father died yesterday.” )
                - “Never mind!” .

Corrected       - “I’m sorry to hear that”
sentence

Type of error   Never mind! is not appropriate in
                this situation
                    Task 2
•   Meaning
•   Form
•   Pronunciation
•   Appropriacy
           Answers to Task 2

•   Meaning (Q2, Q6)
•   Form (Q1, Q5, )
•   Pronunciation (Q4, Q7)
•   Appropriacy (Q3, Q8)
           Answers to Task 2

•   Meaning (Q2, Q6)
•   Form (Q1, Q5)
•   Pronunciation (Q4, Q7)
•   Appropriacy (Q3, Q8)
           Answers to Task 2

•   Meaning (Q2, Q6)
•   Form (Q1, Q5)
•   Pronunciation (Q4, Q7)
•   Appropriacy (Q3, Q8)
           Answers to Task 2

•   Meaning (Q2, Q6)
•   Form (Q1, Q5)
•   Pronunciation (Q4, Q7)
•   Appropriacy (Q3, Q8)
           Areas to Consider
•   Meaning
•   Form
•   Pronunciation
•   Appropriacy

• Anticipate Students’ problems
          Analysing Language
Two example sentences
(in a table)
Name of structure

Form

Meaning

Pron

Student difficulties
(Anticipated Problems)
                     Example
             Two example sentences
                   (in a table)

        Present continuous tense
                be     + Verb -ing
These days      I’m    studying      very hard.

China           is     developing    very fast.
Name of     Present Continuous
structure



Form        ‘to be’ + V. - ing


Meaning     Action taking place around ‘now’
                        Pron
• Sentence stress
                              O
These days I’m studying very hard

• Contractions:

I’m, He’s You’re etc.

• Sounds

The ‘–ing’ sound in ‘studying’ is difficult
         Anticipated Problems
Meaning:

Students confuse with simple present tense


Form:

Students say, “I’m study..” etc.
      Task Analysing language
Now analyse in the same way the 3 sentences
  on your notes:

1. When you phoned, I was playing * computer
   games.
2. My father works in Beijing.
3. If I lost my mobile phone, I’d buy a new one.

(*The structure to be analysed is underlined)
Task Analysing language
    Work with a partner!
         (5 mins)
                 Answers (1)
          Two example sentences
                (in a table)

         Past continuous tense
           was/were + V-ing

I          was       playing   computer games
the        was       talking   on his mobile
driver                         phone
Name of     Past continuous
structure


Form        Was/were + Verb-ing



Meaning     longer action in the past
             interrupted by a short action
                    Pron
Sentence stress
           O           O
When you phoned, I was playing
     O
computer games.


Weak forms
 I was playing
 /wəz/
        Anticipated Problems
Meaning
Students confuse with simple past tense


Form:
Students say ‘I was play’
             Answers (2)

              Present Simple
            (3rd person affirmative)

              V + ‘-s’
                 ‘-es’

My father     works             in Beijing

He            drives            a fast car
Meaning: Habit (a repeated action)

  CQ: Is this something I do regularly? (yes)
      Am I doing it now? (no)


Pron of -s:
• works /s/
• drives /z/
         Anticipated problems
Meaning
• Students confuse with present continuous tense


Form
• students forget the ‘–s’
                  Answers (3)
         2nd Conditional

    Meaning
    • Condition
    • Future time
    • Possible, low probability

If + past                    ‘would’ + infin
If I lost my mobile phone,   I’d buy a new one.
If I saw a thief,            I’d call the police
         Anticipated Problems
Pron
(1) Sentence stress
   O                                O
If I lost my mobile phone, I’d buy a new one.
(2) Contractions:
I’d (= I would)
Listening: students don’t hear the contracted ‘d form
Meaning
Use of past tense for future meaning

								
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