United States Government

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					United States Government

   Miss Garrido’s 5th Grade
    Pocantico Hills School
        Sleepy Hollow, NY
What is Government?
          • The organization
            people set up to
            protect the community
            and enforce its rules
Powers of Government
          • Legislative: Power to
            make laws
          • Executive: Power to
            carry out laws
          • Judicial: Power to
            interpret laws
              What is a Law?
• Official rules and
  regulations, generally
  found in the constitution
• Used to govern a society
  and control the behavior
  of its members
            Kinds of Government
• Monarchy: kings and queens are rulers
   – King George III


• Dictatorship: government with one ruler
   – Cuba


• Democracy: people have power
   – U.S. Government
                   Democracy
• Political system
• Rule by the people
• People have basic
  freedom
• Representative
  Democracy
          The Mayflower Compact
• Mayflower carried Pilgrims
  from England to
  Massachusetts
• Before they left the ship, the
  passengers wrote a
  document called the
  Mayflower Compact
• Promised to pass only laws
  that were fair to everyone
  and good for the whole
  community
   The Declaration of Independence
• British raised colonists
  taxes
• Colonist protested
• Fighting began
• Committee chosen to write
  the document
  – Benjamin Franklin
  – John Adams
  – Thomas Jefferson
• Laid the foundation
  for the nation’s future
  system of government
• Approved on July 4,
  1776
• 56 people signed
• John Hancock signed
  first
     Articles of Confederation
• First Constitution of the
  United States
• Adopted November 15, 1777
• A preamble and 13 articles
• State governments had most
  of the power
• Little power given to the
  central government
           The Constitution of
            the United States
• Document that tells
  basic rules and explain
  rights of a US citizen
• Written 200 years ago
• Written to unite all the
  13 colonies
                 Constitution

• 57 men helped write it
  in 1787
• Ratified by the states
  in 1788
• It has 7 sections called
  Articles telling how
  the government works
Three Separate Branches
            • Each branch has
              power to check the
              others
            • Legislative: Power to
              make laws
            • Executive: Power to
              carry out laws
            • Judicial: Power to
              interpret laws
             The Bill of Rights
• First 10 amendments
• It guaranteed certain
  freedoms and rights
• Added after the
  Constitution
• Freedom of Speech
• Freedom of Religion
• Freedom to Assemble
                Amendments
• Amendments change
  the Constitution
• 2/3 of both the Senate
  and House of
  Representative must
  approve
• 3/4 of all states must
  approve
            Federal Government
• Federal government
  deals with matters that
  affect the whole
  country
   –   Defense
   –   Transportation
   –   Postal Delivery
   –   Federal Taxes
            Federal Government
             Executive Branch
• Executive Branch carries out national laws
• The President is head of the Executive Branch
• Commander in Chief of nation’s army
• Elected to a four year term
• Approves the laws that
  congress makes
• Proposed national budget
• Can veto a bill
           Federal Government
            Legislative Branch
• Legislative branch
  makes laws for the
  nation
• Two parts of the
  Legislative Branch
   – U.S. Senate
   – U.S. House of
     Representatives
              Federal Government
               Legislative Branch
           Senate
                            House of Representative
•   Each state has 2
                            • Number according to
•   Senators must live in     size of state’s
    the state they            population
    represent               • Representative must
•   30 years or older         live in the state they
•   Citizen of the U.S.       represent
    for 9 years             • 25 years or older
•   Elected to 6 year       • US Citizen for 7 years
    term                    • Elected to 2 year term
            Federal Government
              Judicial Branch
• Judicial Branch interprets and applies national laws
• Make up of the court system
• Highest is the Supreme Court
  - appointed for life terms
• Lowest levels are
  Justice of Peace
• Gets its powers from
  Article III of the Constitution
               State Government
• State Government
  deals with matters
  within their own state
   –   Schools
   –   State Roads
   –   State Taxes
   –   State Police
             State Government
             Executive Branch
• Headed by the governor
• Elected to 4 year term
• Carries out laws of the
  state
• Proposes state budget
• Commander of the state
  militia
• Can veto bills
State Government
Legislative Branch
         • Makes state laws
         • New York Senate has 61
           members - 4 year terms
         • New York assembly has
           150 - 2 year terms
         • Chief Officer assembly
           speaker
         • Legislature convenes in
           January
State Government
 Judicial Branch
        • Interprets and applies
          state laws
        • New York Court of
          Appeals - appointed
          for 14 years
        • State Supreme Court -
          elected for a 14 year
          term
Other Kinds of Government
              • County Government
                – NY has 62 counties
              • City Government
                – controls an area with
                  large population
              • Town Government
              • Village Government

                    The People
                  Establish local
                       fire             Build Roads
                   departments                   Provide Public
  Protect the
                                                    Service
Safety of their
   Citizens                                          Sanitation
                                                      facilities
Patrol state
 highways                  Purpose of
                          State & Local
   Provide a              Governments               Promote the
   System of                                       Well Being of
    Justice                                        their Citizens
Maintain state                                         Provide state
prison system                       Protect the          funds for
                                     Rights of            schools
                 Pass local fair    Individuals
                 housing laws
          What is a Citizen?
• Two kinds of citizens
• Native-born citizens
   – Born here
   – Children of American citizens born while visiting
     other countries
• Naturalized citizens
   –   Have to be at least 18
   –   From other countries
   –   Lived here 5 years to qualify
   –   3 years if they’re married to an American citizen
                Citizen’s Rights
• Countries protect their
  citizens and give them rights
• Naturalized and Native-born
  citizens have the same rights,
  except one
• Naturalized citizens can’t run
  for president
• Citizens can vote
• Freedom of Religion
• Freedom of Speech
• Freedom of the Press
      Citizen’s Responsibilities
• Duty to obey the law
• Vote in elections
• To pay taxes
• If the country is at
  war, citizens may be
  called to serve in the
  armed forces
• Serve on a jury if
  called
                Patrick Henry
• Born May 29, 1736 in
  Hanover County, Va.
• Storekeeper and farmer
• Member of the
  revolutionary
  convention of Va.
• Died on June 6, 1799
• “Give me Liberty or
  Give me Death”
Thomas Jefferson
       • Third President of the
         United States in 1801-
         1809
       • Member of the second
         Continental Congress
       • Drafted the Declaration of
         Independence in 1776
       • Politician, Educator and an
         Architect
Alexander Hamilton
         • Helped secure New
           York's ratification of the
           Constitution
         • First Secretary of the
           Treasury
         • Shot and killed in a duel
           with former U.S. vice-
           president Aaron Burr, a
           long-time political rival
                    John Jay
• Continental Congress
• Commissioner Treaty of
  Paris Continental
  Congress 1774-1775
• First Chief Justice of the
  Supreme Court
• Helped negotiate peace
  with Great Britain
• Governor of N.Y.
                Thomas Paine
• Wrote Common Sense,
  which called for American
  independence from Great
  Britain
• Born in Thetford, England
• 1774-Moved to Philadelphia
• Influenced fighters in the
  Revolutionary War
• Buried in New Rochelle, NY
            George Washington
• Born February 22, 1732
• General in the French and
  Indian War
• General in Revolutionary
  War
• President of the
  Constitutional Convention
• First President of the
  United States
               Sam Adams
• Adams was born in
  Boston on September
  27, 1722.
• After college was a
  success law student.
• Adams was a delegate
  to the Second
  Continental Congress
• also subsequently
                James Madison
•   From Virginia
•   Founding Father
•   Wrote Bill of Rights
•   Signed the Constitution
•   Married Dolly Madison
•   Congressman
•   4th President of the
    United States
Francis Scott Key
     • Watched the bombardment of
       Fort McHenry, in Baltimore
       Harbor by the British in
       September 1814
     • The fort withstood the attack,
       and the sight of the American
       flag at dawn inspired Key's
       verses, set to a popular English
       drinking tune
            National Anthem
• “O say can you see...”
• Hymn of loyalty to our country
• Designation as national anthem by
  executive order in 1916 was
  confirmed by an act of Congress in
  1931
• Written by Francis Scott Key, a
  Washington D.C. lawyer
American Flag
      • Symbol of our nation
      • Original had 13
        alternating red & white
        stripes and 13 stars-one
        for each colony
      • Now one star for each
        state (50)
      • Legend is that Betsy Ross
        sewed 1st flag for George
        Washington
         Pledge of Allegiance
• I pledge allegiance to
  the flag of the United
  States of America and
  to the republic for
  which it stands: one
  nation, under God,
  indivisible, with
  liberty and justice for
  all.

				
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