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Academic grading in Russia

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					Academic grading in Russia
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Russian Federation implements a five point grading system, where:
                                                                                                Academic grading
"5", "Excellent" (Russian "пять"([pʲætʲ]), "отлично"()) equal to Highest
Distinction (The best possible grade, representing excellent knowledge in a
given subject)
"4", "Good" (Russian "четыре"(), "хорошо"([xɐrɐʂo])) represents a good
knowledge of a subject
"3", "Satisfactory" (Russian
"три"([trʲi]),"удовлетворительно"([ʊdɐvljɪtvɐrjitɪljnɐ])), sometimes translated                           Africa
into English as "Fair" (This is a credit passing grade)                                  Egypt · Kenya · Morocco · South Africa ·
"2", "Unsatisfactory"(Russian "два"([dva]),"неудовлетворительно"([nʲeʊd]))                               Tunisia ·

hardly any knowledge, below average, represents the first level of failing                           North America
                                                                                             Canada · Mexico · United States ·
"1", "Poor" (Russian "кол"([kol], "единица")) represents complete failure and is                     Central America
the lowest possible grade, very rarely used.                                                      Costa Rica · Nicaragua ·
                                                                                                     South America
This system, with minor changes, has been in use in Russian schools since 1837.                     Chile · Venezuela ·
Between 1917 and 1935, the Communist government had tried to implement a                                     Asia
radically new evaluation system with no grades at all, but it has never fully taken      Bangladesh · China · Hong Kong · India ·
root.                                                                                     Indonesia · Iran · Israel · Japan · Korea ·
                                                                                        Kyrgyzstan · Nepal · Pakistan · Philippines ·
Qualifiers + and – are often used to add some degree of differentiation between          Singapore · Syria · United Arab Emirates ·
the grades, e.g. 4+ is better than 4 but a little worse than 5–. Grading varies                           Vietnam ·
greatly from school to school, university to university and even teacher to teacher,                        Europe
and tends to be entirely subjective even for courses that lend themselves to                ECTS · European Baccalaureate ·
objective marking such as mathematics and applied sciences. Even though the                GPA in Central and Eastern Europe ·
                                                                                        Albania · Austria · Bosnia and Herzegovina ·
grades technically range from "1" to "5", "1" is not very common and is rarely
                                                                                            Bulgaria · Croatia · Czech Republic ·
given for academic reasons—in many cases a "1" is given as a result of failure to         Denmark · Finland · France · Germany ·
show up for an exam or to answer any questions. A "2" grade usually means that          Greece · Hungary · Iceland · Ireland · Italy ·
the student did not show/hardly showed any knowledge in a subject.                           Latvia · Liechtenstein · Lithuania ·
                                                                                           Luxembourg · Moldova · Netherlands ·
It's fair to mention that "1" is somewhat an unusual grade in Russian schools, but
                                                                                          Norway · Poland · Portugal · Romania ·
it does exist officially. The mostly used grades are five to two. (Plus and minus      Russia · Serbia · Slovakia · Slovenia · Spain ·
modifiers follow the same tendency: they are used rarely in middle school, and               Sweden · Switzerland · Ukraine ·
almost never in colleges or universities.) Some institutions and teachers,                            United Kingdom ·
unsatisfied with the five-point scale, work with various larger ones, but these                           Oceania
grading systems are not recognized by the state and have to be converted for                     Australia · New Zealand ·
                                                                                                                              V   · T· E·
official use.
In higher education, the majority of subjects are graded on ‘Pass/Not pass’
(Credit/No Credit) basis (зачёт/незачёт, pronounced as "zachot/nezachot"), and the rest is graded in terms of numbers. The
'Pass/Not Pass" grades do not have any official numeric representation. When "zachot" (credit or pass) type of subjects are
graded as ‘Pass/Not pass’ (sometimes translated as ‘Credit/No credit’) this simply represents student's good/bad knowledge of
a subject, and in numeric terms could be interpreted as "more than or equal to "3"/less than "3". Each university implements
its own understanding of the appropriate level of knowledge a student must have to pass each subject. Students in Russia
typically must pass all the offered subjects to graduate.
Due to several ways to translate the word "zachot" from Russian into English (could be translated as "credit" or "pass"), this
type of grades are the source of problems for Russian students applying to Western Universities. Such grades may confuse
Western Universities and make it hard to correctly calculate students` GPA in terms of Western systems.
  V   · T· E·                                                           Academic grading in Asia
                             Afghanistan · Armenia · Azerbaijan · Bahrain · Bangladesh · Bhutan · Brunei · Burma (Myanmar) · Cambodia ·
                             People's Republic of China · Cyprus · East Timor (Timor-Leste) · Egypt · Georgia · India · Indonesia · Iran · Iraq · Israel ·
                Sovereign
                             Japan · Jordan · Kazakhstan · North Korea · South Korea · Kuwait · Kyrgyzstan · Laos · Lebanon · Malaysia · Maldives ·
                   states
                             Mongolia · Nepal · Oman · Pakistan · Philippines · Qatar · Russia · Saudi Arabia · Singapore · Sri Lanka · Syria ·
                             Tajikistan · Thailand · Turkey · Turkmenistan · United Arab Emirates · Uzbekistan · Vietnam · Yemen ·
  States with limited
                             Abkhazia · Nagorno-Karabakh · Northern Cyprus · Palestine · South Ossetia · Taiwan ·
            recognition

  Dependencies and
                             British Indian Ocean Territory · Christmas Island · Cocos (Keeling) Islands · Hong Kong · Macau ·
       other territories

  V   · T· E·                                                         Academic grading in Europe
                              Albania · Andorra · Armenia · Austria · Azerbaijan · Belarus · Belgium · Bosnia and Herzegovina · Bulgaria · Croatia ·
                              Cyprus · Czech Republic · Denmark · Estonia · Finland · France · Georgia · Germany · Greece · Hungary · Iceland ·
                 Sovereign
                              Ireland · Italy · Kazakhstan · Latvia · Liechtenstein · Lithuania · Luxembourg · Macedonia · Malta · Moldova · Monaco ·
                    states
                              Montenegro · Netherlands · Norway · Poland · Portugal · Romania · Russia · San Marino · Serbia · Slovakia · Slovenia ·
                              Spain · Sweden · Switzerland · Turkey · Ukraine · United Kingdom (England · Northern Ireland · Scotland · Wales · ·
      States with limited
                              Abkhazia · Kosovo · Nagorno-Karabakh · Northern Cyprus · South Ossetia · Transnistria ·
             recognition

       Dependencies
                              Åland · Faroe Islands · Gibraltar · Guernsey · Jersey · Isle of Man · Svalbard ·
  and other territories

           Other entities


External links
      Russian Ministry of Education and Science


via Academic grading in Russia

				
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posted:9/14/2012
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