catchphrase lesson 76 by 1zCgCS

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									                                     GWERS 76


CYFLWYNYDD:                  ANN M. JONES


NOD:     Defnyddio ffurfiau personol 'bod' (using the personal forms of 'bod').


      Geirfa


               gartre(f)         -    at home       trên             -       train

               meddwl            -    to think      credu            -    to believe
               siðr              -    to be sure    clywed           -    to hear
               dweud             -    to say        gwybod           -    to know
               cwrdd â           -    to meet       cydnabod         -    to acknowledge
               cyfarfod â        -    to meet       'nabod           -    to know (a person)
               darllen           -    to read       cofio ati hi -   to remember to her
               dweud wrth        -    to tell

               sâl               -    ill           eisiau bwyd      -       hungry
               yn well           -    better        iawn             -       right, correct
               yn briod          -    marriedhwyr            -         late
               tew               -    fat           cynnar     -         early
               golygus           -    handsome      pert (S.W.)      -      pretty
               gwych             -    excellent     tlws (N.W.)      -      pretty
               gwan              -    weak          gwell            -      better
               yn cysgu          -    asleep,
                                      sleeping

               cyfreithiwr       -    solicitor     drama f              -       play
               pas               -    lift          actorion         -       actors

               hefyd             -    too, also     o hyd            -       still



RHAN 1


 1.     As we saw in Gwers 74, 'bod' can only be followed by a noun


                         .....bod y plant
                         .....bod Tom
                         .....bod y ffilm
               ‘Dw i’n meddwl bod John yn gweithio yn Lerpwl yr wythnos ‘ma.
               - I think that John is working in Liverpool this week.

               Fe ddywedodd hi fod y ffilm yn ardderchog.


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        - She said that the film was excellent.


2. When we use a personal pronoun (e.g. that I) then notice what happens


                  fy mod i     -    that I am / was


   'Fy' is used in front of 'bod' causing the usual Nasal Mutation       -    and
   we use the confirming 'i' to finish the pattern


        'Dw i'n meddwl fy mod i'n hwyr.
        - I think that I'm late.

        Fe ddywedodd hi fy mod i'n dew.
        - She said that I was fat.


   As you know the word 'fy' can be omitted in ordinary speech       -       in the
     same way that we can omit the word 'that' in English


        Mae hi'n gwybod (fy) mod i'n dod heno.
        - She knows (that) I'm coming tonight.

        'Dw i'n gwybod (fy) mod i'n rhy dew.
        - I know (that) I am too fat.

        Fe ddywedodd, Tom ‘mod i'n rhy hwyr.
        - Tom said I was too late.


   Remember that both Present and Past Tenses can be conveyed by the
   same pattern


        Mae Tom yn dweud ‘mod i’n rhy hwyr.
        - Tom says that I am too late.

        Mi ddywedodd Tom mod i’n rhy hwyr.
        - Tom said that I was too late.

3. The second person singular, familiar

   'Dy' is used in front of ‘bod’ causing a Soft Mutation and the confirming
   ‘ti’ completes the pattern.


                  dy fod ti    -    that you are / were



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          'Dw i'n meddwl dy fod ti'n 'nabod Bill.
          - I think (that) you know Bill.

          What ti'n gwybod dy fod ti'n hwyr?
          - Do you know (that) you're late?

          Fe ddywedodd hi dy fod ti'n mynd ar y bws.
          - She said that you were going by bus.


 4. The second person singular,’polite’ and plural

    No mutation after ‘eich’. The confirming ‘chi’ completes the pattern.


                    eich bod chi      -      that you are / were


          Fe ddywedodd Tom eich bod chi’n mynd.
          - Tom said (that) you were going.

          Fe ddywedodd Tom eich bod chi wedi mynd.
          - Tom said (that) you had gone.

          Mi glywais i eich bod chi'n sâl.
          - I heard (that) you were ill.



RHAN 2


 1. The third person singular, feminine

     No mutation after ‘ei’ (feminine). The confirning ‘hi’ completes
     pattern.


                   ei bod hi     -   that she is / was
          Pwy ddywedodd ei bod hi'n dod heno?
          - Who said (that) she was coming tonight?

          Mae Tom yn meddwl ei bod hi'n bert.
          - Tom thinks (that) she is pretty.


 2. The third person singular, masculine

    ‘ei (masculine) is followed by a Soft Mutation and the confirming ‘e / o’
    completes the pattern.



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                    ei fod e(o)       -    that he is / was


          Wyt ti'n meddwl ei fod e(o)'n olygus?
          - Do you think (that) he's handsome?

          Roedd Mair yn credu ei fod e(o)'n gyfreithiwr.
          - Mair believed (that) he was a solicitor.


 3. The first person plural

     There is n mutation after ‘ein’. The confirming ‘ni’ completes
     pattern


                   ein bod ni     -       that we are / were


          Wyt ti'n siðr ein bod ni'n cael pas gyda Tom?
          - Are you sure (that) we're having a lift with Tom?

          Mae hi'n dweud ein bod ni'n rhy dew.
          - She says (that) we're too fat.


 4. The third person plural

     There is no mutation after ‘eu’. The confirming ‘nhw’ completes
     pattern.



                    eu bod nhw        -   that they are / were

          Fe ddarllenais i eu bod nhw wedi cael damwain.
          - I read (that) they'd had an accident.

          'Dw i'n meddwl eu bod nhw'n actorion gwych.
          - I think (that) they're excellent actors.


5.   Here are the personal forms of 'bod' in full


               (fy) mod i          ein bod ni
               dy fod ti           eich bod chi
               ei fod e(o)         eu bod nhw
               ei bod hi




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6. Sgwrs


       Delyth:      Shwmai Gareth? Shwd wyt ti?
       Gareth:      Iawn, diolch. Shwd mae Dafydd ar ôl y ffliw?
                    Ydy e'n well?
       Delyth:      Wel mae e 'n dweud ei fod e'n well - ond mae e'n
               wan iawn o hyd.
       Gareth:      Roedd Mair yn dweud neithiwr ei bod hi'n teimlo'n
               dost. 'Dw i'n meddwl bod y ffliw arni hi hefyd. Ond
               mae'r plant yn dweud eu bod nhw'n iawn, diolch         byth.
       Delyth:      Cofia ddweud wrth Mair (fy) mod i'n cofio ati hi.




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