VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE
CADET REENACTMENT BATTALION
EXTRACTS FROM THE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE
ARMY OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES
WHITMORE & CO,
These regulations for the VMI Cadet Reenactment Battalion
are assembled and modified from the:
1854 Regulations of the Virginia Military Institute,
Regulations for the Army of the Confederate States,
Published orders of General Francis H. Smith.
These are intended to supply structure and discipline to this
reenactment organization to properly honor and remember the
historical memory and legacy of the Virginia Military Institute
The Virginia Military Institute is the only existing modern-day
military unit that formerly served on the side of the Confederate
States of America that also has the distinction of having been in
nearly continuous operations since 1839. VMI even thrived
during the War Between the States and contributed over 2000
graduates to the cause. Not even the South Carolina Military
Academy can claim this.
These regulations may seem strict to many of today’s re-
enactors, but they are reasonable given that life for the cadets
was often harsh and demanding. The regulations are derived
directly from the regulations of 1854. We are attempting to
accurately emulate the life of the VMI Cadet during the War
Between the States.
We also do not want to allow ourselves to bring disrespect upon
the current Corps of Cadets and the VMI. We must ensure we
protect the cherished Institution of higher education: the
Virginia Military Institute, our alma mater.
Rah Virginia Mil!
Dedicated to preserving and honoring the history,
heritage, legacy, memory, and sacrifices of the
Virginia Military Institute Corps of Cadets and the
common soldier of the several armies of the
Confederate States of America; to foster awareness of
the role of the Virginia Military Institute and its
Corps of Cadets in the successes of the Southern
Confederacy; to promote interest in and study of the
War for Southern Independence.
1. Educate ourselves and others about the history and
heritage of the VMI Corps of Cadets through research,
study, and education;
2. Educate and inform the general public of the role of the
VMI Corps of Cadets not only at the Battle of New
Market, but in the lifeline of the Confederate States of
3. Support ideals of the Confederate States, to include:
State’s Rights and the right of a people to determine the
course of their own futures per the 10th Amendment to
the US Constitution;
4. Strive to be among the premier reenactment
organizations in the country: dedicated, authentic, well-
trained, and disciplined.
1. Attendance at the annual Reenactment of the Battle of
2. Instruction, Seminars, and Talks at Public Schools that
allow us to showcase the legacy of the VMI Corps of
Cadets in the War;
3. Articles and Letters written to magazines and
historical reviews regarding the role of the Cadets in
the War Between the States;
4. Supporting the New Market Battlefield State
Historical Park in New Market, Virginia through
donations and volunteer activities, when possible;
5. Practicing our skills through comprehensive drills in
both Gilham’s and Hardee’s Manual of Arms;
6. Supporting qualified cadets and candidates, especially
among the reenactment community, for cadetship at
the Virginia Military Institute;
7. Supporting the rebirth and growth of the VMI Civil
War Round Table;
8. Supporting the efforts of the Civil War Preservation
Trust to preserve and safeguard Civil War Battlefields
and other resources.
9. Supporting the legacy of the Confederate States,
including the rights of persons to display correct
Confederate symbols and fostering a dialog of the
history and a discussion of ALL aspects of the war.
VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE }
OCTOBER 15TH, 2002 }
The following revised Regulations, having been
prepared by the Board of Visitors under the authority vested in
them, shall be in force from and after the 11th day of November
By command of the Board of Visitors,
PAUL H. WHITMORE,
Superintendent, V.M.I. Cadet Reenactment Battalion
Captain & Tactical Officer, Company A
C O N T E N T S.
ARTICLE I. ORGANIZATION. . . . . . . . 23
II. ADMISSION OF CADETS. . . . . . 27
III. UNIFORM, FURNITURE, &C. . . . . 31
IV. ACCOUNTS. . . . . . . . . 32
V. COURSE OF INSTRUCTION. . . . . . 33
VI. CLASSIFICATION OF CADETS AND MANNER
OF INSTRUCTION. . . . . . . 37
VII. GENERAL EXAMINATIONS. . . . . 38
VIII. MERIT ROLLS. . . . . . . . . 39
IX. LEAVES OF ABSENCE. . . . . . . 42
X. DISCIPLINE. . . . . . . . . 44
XI. MISCELLANEOUS. . . . . . . . 50
XII. REGULATIONS FOR THE INTERIOR POLICE
AND DISCIPLINE OF THE INSTITUTE. . 52
APPENDIX.- EXTRACTS FROM THE GENERAL REGULATIONS
OF THE C.S. ARMY. . . . . . 73
HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR OF VIRGINIA,
BOARD OF VISITORS.
Paul H. Whitmore ‘94, Superintendent Colorado Springs, CO
Joseph W. Doyle ‘95, President Roanoke, VA
Charles A. Leggett ’93, Vice-President Fort Hood, TX
Gary S. Gulliksen ’94, Member Charlottesville, VA
President, VMI CWRT, Member Lexington, VA
Col. Charles Leggett Commandant
Capt Paul Whitmore Tactical Officer, A. Co. &
Instructor of Tactics
Capt Joseph Doyle Tactical Officer, B. Co. &
Instructor of Tactics
Cadet Sgt Maj Gary Gulliksen Adjutant
SYNOPSIS OF THE COURSE OF STUDIES
VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE
CADET REENACTMENT BATTALION
STUDIES TEXT BOOKS
Cadet Battalion Regulations VMI, CSA, Whitmore
Spec. Issue: Battle of New Market Blue and Gray Magazine
1st Year The Battle of New Market Davis
Infantry Tactics Hardee
Gilham’s Manual of Arms Gilham
Cadet Battalion Regulations VMI, CSA Whitmore
Infantry Tactics Hardee
2d. Year Gilham’s Manual of Arms Gilham
History of the Va Military Institute Smith
The Young Lions Conrad
Cadet Battalion Regulations VMI, CSA, Whitmore
Infantry Tactics Hardee
3d. Year Gilham’s Manual of Arms Gilham
Military History of the V.M.I. Wise
The New Market Campaign Turner
Cadet Battalion Regulations VMI, CSA, Whitmore
Infantry Tactics Hardee
4th Year Gilham’s Manual of Arms Gilham
Seed Corn of the Confederacy Gindlesperger
Crowd of Honorable Youths VMI: Davis, Ed
All new Cadets are initially assigned to the 4th Class.
However, previous preparation may allow one to be assigned no
higher than the third class. The cadets are daily practiced in
military exercises. Cadets are reminded to supplement their
knowledge of VMI and the War Between the States through
CODE OF VIRGINIA
VMI CADET REENACTMENT BATTALION
1. The Military Reenactment Organization established in the
county of Rockbridge, near the town of Lexington, shall be
continued under the name of “The Virginia Military Institute
Cadet Reenactment Battalion,” and for the support of the said
school, the sum of ten dollars ($10) shall be annually collected
from the cadets designated as “Pay Cadets.”
2. There shall be a Board of Visitors for the Battalion
composed of six persons, two of whom shall be non-alumni. One
of the latter shall be a current Cadet of the VA Military Institute.
3. The Board shall meet at a time determined by the several
members. A meeting shall be held, annually, at such time as
may have been designated for their annual meeting in their last
resolution on the subject. A meeting may also be called at any
time by the Superintendent, the Commandant, or the President of
the Board when deemed advisable. And the Board may adjourn
from time to time. Meetings may be conducted via telephone,
via chat room, or other means determined by the Board.
4. Any vacancy in the Board of Visitors shall be
communicated to the Board as a whole, who shall forthwith fill
5. Such reasonable expenses as the Board may incur in the
discharge of their duties, shall be allowed by the Superintendent,
and paid by warrant on the treasury. Receipts shall be
6. The Board may make additional by-laws and regulations,
not inconsistent with the laws of this Regulation, for their own
government and the management of the affairs of the Battalion,
and may, for the purpose of transacting such business as in its
opinion can be properly transacted, by a less number than the
majority, authorize not less than three members to constitute a
quorum, one of which must be the Superintendent or President.
7. The Board shall, annually, appoint a Treasurer, for the
performance of the duties of his office; said Treasurer shall sign
a notarized agreement accepting full responsibility for the public
funds and absolving the Battalion as a whole from the same.
8. The Treasurer shall, annually, on or before the first day of
December make a detailed report of his accounts to the Board to
be by them reported to the membership at large. The Board of
Visitors shall cause a careful examination of the accounts to be
9. The Board of Visitors shall appoint Professors to give
instruction in Military Tactics, and in such other branches of
knowledge as they may deem proper and may remove them for
good cause; but no order for the removal of a Professor shall be
made without the concurrence therein of a majority of the whole
number of the Visitors; and the Board shall forthwith
communicate to the membership a full statement of the reasons
on which the removal was made.
10. They shall prescribe the terms upon which Cadets may be
admitted, their number, the course of their instruction, the nature
of their service, and the duration thereof. All so admitted shall
make full compensation except as are provided for in the
10. They shall admit State Cadets, free of charge, upon
evidence of fair moral character. The position of State Cadet is
an honorary one, limiting the rights and privileges of said Cadet
in the Battalion.
11. The Board may enter into an arrangement with other units,
either individually or collectively, by which the Cadets of the
Military Battalion, and the members of the other organization(s),
may respectively be admitted to the advantages of instruction
provided by the other.
12. The cadets shall be a military corps under the command of
the Superintendent, and constitute the Guard of the Institution.
Field Command shall be at the command of the Commandant or
the first officer in the chain able to command according to the
number of cadets at the event.
13. The Superintendent shall, annually, by the first day of
October, make a return to the Adjutant General, showing the
names, and the number of the officers and Cadets at the Institute,
distinguishing those between the ages of eighteen and forty-five,
and showing also the public arms, ordnance, equipments, and
accoutrements at the Arsenal, and under the charge of the same
14. The Board of Visitors, and Faculty of the Institute, may
confer the degree of graduate upon any Cadet found qualified to
receive it, after examination upon all the branches of Military
Tactics, VMI Knowledge, and History of the War Between the
15. Every Cadet who has been, or hereafter shall be, received
as a State Cadet, and shall have remained in the Institution
during the period of two years or more, may act in the capacity
of Assistant Professor of Tactics, for a period specified by the
Board, or until excused by the Board of Visitors.
16. The Board of Visitors shall, annually, inspect the arms and
other property of the Battalion, and make a report of their
condition Superintendent, to be by him laid before the General
Membership. All non-standard equipment shall be disallowed.
17. Commissions shall be issued to the Superintendent,
Commandant, and Tactical Officer at the Institute, corresponding
with those of Major General, Lt Colonel, and Captain of the
Confederate States Army.
18. There shall be enlisted in the public guard a Sergeant to
serve as Ordnance and Quartermaster Sergeant at the Institute;
he shall be borne on the roll of the guard, paid as other soldiers
of the guard are paid, and when in service at the Institute, be
under the control of the officers thereof.
19. The Superintendent or Board may enlist musicians for
20. The first four members of the Board of Visitors shall be
permanent appointees; the President of the Civil War Round
Table at the Institute shall be appointed yearly. He shall retain
membership on the Board as long as he holds the position.
21. The President, Commandant, and Tactical Officers for
Companies A and B, shall be permanent positions for those
currently appointed, unless resigned.
22. If a vacancy occurs in the positions listed in 20 and 21,
VMI Alumni and Cadets shall be considered first.
VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE
CADET REENACTMENT BATTALION
VMI CADET REENACTMENT BATTALION
1. A permanent Superintendent will have the immediate
government of the Institution, and be held responsible for its
correct management. He will direct the duties and field
exercises; and all Instructors, Cadets, and other attached
personnel shall be under his command. He will render all
estimates and communications to the Board of Visitors, and will
report to the membership annually, the number of officers,
cadets, and other persons on duty with the Battalion, with a full
return of the number, and condition of the public property.
2. The Superintendent will be required to give to the Board of
Visitors three month’s previous notice before resignation, and
other instructors, Board members, and officers one month.
3. The Professors and teachers shall receive every mark of
respect, to which their rank and office may entitle them,
respectively; but no Officer, Board Member, or Instructor, shall
receive any fee, present, or reward from any Cadet of the
4. The Professors shall rank according to date of military
appointment in such military grade in all details for military
5. All the members will be styled Cadets. The Superintendent
is authorized to detail as many cadets to act as Assistant
Instructors or Cadet Officers as may be required, and the
appointment shall be considered an honorable distinction.
6. During the yearly examination of the Class or Section,
Cadets will be examined on the basics of Infantry Tactics and
general knowledge of the VMI and the War Between the States.
7. An Academic Board, comprised of Alumni, shall be in
charge of all examinations, whether in the field or in the normal
8. It shall be the duty of the Academic Board to designate the
Class books to be used in each department of instruction, to
recommend for the purchase all such books, maps, models, and
apparatus as may be required for purposes of instruction; to
examine cadets and decide on their merits, and recommend to
the Board of Visitors such as are qualified to receive diplomas.
9. It shall be the duty of each member of the Academic Board
to keep note of the Examination of each Cadet, and vote upon
the merits of every Cadet, when the Class standing is assigned.
10. It shall be the duty of the Superintendent to lay before the
Board of Visitors a table showing the Class standings, indicating
in such table the names of those cadets deemed by their
professors of doubtful proficiency. Any of those Cadets passing
an unsatisfactory examination shall be pronounced deficient.
11. No member of the 1st Class pronounced deficient by the
Academic Board or Board of Visitors shall receive a diploma.
12. A Treasurer shall annually be appointed by the Board of
Visitors, who shall give oath and security for the faithful
performance of his duty. All funds belonging to the Institute,
and all deposits made on account of the Cadets, shall be
deposited in the an appropriate financial institution to the credit
of the VMI Cadet Reenactment Battalion, all deposits and
withdrawals to be deposited with the Superintendent. The
Treasurer shall keep accounts and all debts and credits to these
accounts shall be made upon the order of the Superintendent. No
money shall be drawn from the funds of the Institute or from the
deposits of the Cadets but on order of the Superintendent or
President of the Board of Visitors, and by a check drawn by the
Treasurer and countersigned by the Superintendent or President
of the Board of Visitors. The Treasurer’s account shall be
subject to the revisal and approval of the Superintendent. He
shall make a monthly balance sheet showing the condition of the
Treasury for the use of the Superintendent. He shall return to the
Superintendent, monthly, all receipts for payments made on
account of Cadets. He shall make annually a detailed report, to
be laid before the Superintendent setting forth all payments and
receipts on account of the Battalion, separating in distinct
sections, those belonging to the Battalion, the Quartermaster,
Commissary, &c., with the necessary vouchers, and make such a
consolidated exhibit as shall show the actual condition of the
13. The Quartermaster, who shall be appointed annually by
the Board shall have in charge the collective supplies furnished
to the Cadets and shall issue them upon orders given by the
Superintendent or the Board of Visitors. He shall keep correct
accounts of all supplies which he may receive and of all articles
furnished to the cadets, separating in both accounts, the several
species of articles. He shall keep an account against the
Treasurer, in which he shall charge that officer with all the
articles delivered to the Cadets at their proper prices and shall
enter therein all proper credits to the Treasurer which may arise
in the department. He shall annually prepare a detailed report of
his transactions for the preceding year, together with an
inventory of the property remaining in his hands and its cost, to
be laid before the Board of Visitors by the Superintendent.
14. A Commissary shall be annually appointed by the Board
of Visitors, whose duty it shall be to see that the provisions he
obtains or is furnished are properly cooked and served up. He
shall make requisitions for the necessary supplies for the Mess
and be held accountable for them. He shall be responsible for
the public property belonging to the Mess, see that the Cadets
attached thereto discharge their duties and keep the Mess and its
property at all times in a thorough state of police. He shall report
all violations of Mess regulations coming under his observations
and control to the Commandant of Cadets.
15. The Superintendent shall keep a register, in which shall be
recorded the name of every Cadet, as soon as he shall enter the
Institute, with his age and height, and City, County, and State
from which he may come; a transcript of which so far as may
relate to the Cadets, shall be transmitted to the General
16. A Surgeon shall be appointed for the Battalion by the
Board of Visitors. He shall hold his office for one year; he shall
be subject to removal for cause at any time by the Board; and in
this case, the Board so removing, shall appoint another for the
residue of his term; he shall promptly and faithfully attend in
person upon the Cadets, at any event, whenever called upon
professionally for that purpose by any of the officers of the
Battalion; shall, at the requisition of the Commanding Officer,
make careful examination into, and report in writing upon the
health of any Cadet, who, complaining of sickness, may ask on
that account to be relieved from any of his duties; and he shall
generally do whatsoever is proper to be done by him as health
officer of the Battalion. The Surgeon shall have the commission
of a Major of the Confederate Medical Service, but shall exercise
no field or command authority over the Cadets or the lower-
ranking commissioned staff of the Battalion.
ADMISSION OF CADETS
17. All applicants for admission into the Virginia Military
Institute, as Cadets, shall be addressed to the Superintendent,
accompanied by notarized applications. Persons must be of fair
moral character. Candidates selected by the Board will be
required to repair to Lexington or other designated location
forthwith and report themselves to the Board or Staff.
18. Admissions will be allowed at any time especially to fill
vacancies occasioned by death, resignation, or dismissal, or
when the candidate may have been prevented by sickness or
other unavoidable cause from reporting himself at the time
mentioned in the previous regulation.
19. Each candidate before he is admitted into the Institute, as a
Cadet, or Student, must be able to read and write well, and to
perform with facility and accuracy the various operations of
20. Candidates for admission will be examined by the
assigned to the 4th Class, unless circumstances are evident to
warrant assignment to the 3d Class.
21. No Pay Cadet shall be admitted who is less than sixteen
years of age, or deformed, or afflicted with any disease or
infirmity which would render him unfit for military service. All
those who are under the age of sixteen-the minimum age for
bearing rifles at most reenactments-shall be assigned to a special
class of Cadet known as Advisory Cadets.
22. Cadets who are under age sixteen as described in
paragraph 21 of this regulation, but who will be of the age of
sixteen prior to the next event attended by the Battalion, shall be
promoted to the category of Pay Cadet, and shall have all rights
and privileges of the Pay Cadet.
23. The term of service of the State Cadets shall be permanent,
unless evidence is presented of the State Cadet failing to achieve
or maintain the standards to which an honorary membership is
24. No Cadet shall be admitted who has been dismissed from
the following: The Virginia Military Institute, The South
Carolina Military Academy, the Virginia Polytechnic Institute,
Norwich University, Texas A&M, or any of the US Military
Colleges. Furthermore, no Cadet shall be admitted who has been
discharged from active military service with a less than
honorable discharge. No person convicted of a felony will be
25. No person dismissed or convicted of a drug charge,
weapons violation, crime of violence, or honor violation
(cheating, stealing, lying, or toleration) shall be admitted.
26. Each Cadet when he joins the Battalion shall to the
following matriculation promise:--“I hereby engage to serve as a
Cadet in the Virginia Military Institute for the term for which I
have entered, and I promise on honor, while I constitute a
member thereof, to obey all legal orders of the constituted
authorities of the Institute and to discharge all my duties with
regularity and fidelity.”
27. Whenever vacancies shall occur in the Corps of Cadets,
whether by resignation or otherwise appointments shall be made
from the populace at large.
28. In the admission of Cadets other than State Cadets, the total
number of Pay Cadets admitted shall be no higher than 100 in
total, staff is excepted.
29. If, after the appointment of a State Cadet, he elects to
serve as a Pay Cadet, he shall be immediately transferred to this
Class of Cadets.
30. No Cadet discharged from the Institute shall be
reappointed or restored under any circumstances, unless
application is made to the Board of Visitors to reconsider his
case, and it can be clearly shown that his case was
31. No Student under sentence of suspension, dismission, or
expulsion from the Institution shall be received as a Cadet or
Student of the Institute; unless in such cases as may seem to the
Board of Visitors to form proper exceptions to this rule.
32. When an applicant shall be selected for admission, his
selection shall be immediately communicated to him by the
President of the Board of Visitors, together with such of the
regulations as relate to admissions.
33. Cadets, other than State Cadets, shall defray their own
expenses, and in addition shall pay annually in advance for
instruction in the Institute the sum of $10.
34. Each Cadet will be required to deposit annually in advance
with the Treasurer, a sum sufficient to cover his expenses for 12
months; and upon the failure of any Cadet to make the deposits
above mentioned, for the space of six weeks after the time
required, such Cadet shall be required to withdraw, at the
discretion of the Superintendent. Such payment shall be made
by the 15th of February, annually.
35. The Superintendent shall make all contracts on behalf of
the Board of Visitors and for the Cadets, for supplying the
Cadets certain necessary articles.
36. All moneys for the use of the Cadets must be remitted
directly to the Superintendent.
37. For all purposes, every Cadet leaving the Battalion shall
forfeit his money, unless special circumstances exist, to which
application must be made to the Superintendent or the Board.
38. Upon dissolution of the VMI Cadet Reenactment
Battalion, all funds remaining in the treasury shall be donated
75% to the New Market Battlefield State Historical Park and
25% to the Civil War Preservation Trust for preservation,
research, education, and upkeep. Equipment shall be retained by
members of the Board or donated to the VMI CWRT.
UNIFORM, FURNITURE, &C.
39. Each cadet shall keep himself supplied at all times with the
following. This list is not exhaustive. Cadets must check the
website for further and more complete information.
Uniform Item Description Supplier
5-7 button front
Richmond Depot III County Cloth
Richmond Depot Unlined, untrimmed
Trousers Match the Jacket
Union Blue or Solid Quartermaster Shop
Forage Cap or Kepi
Color Confederate Dirty Billy’s
Cartridge Box 1855 .58 Cal Box CD Jarnagin
Jacket Buttons Recast VMI buttons Owned By VMI CRB
Cartridge Box Plate Oval VMI Box Plate Hanover Brass
Belt and Buckle 2 piece round VA
Cap Box Standard CD Jarnagin
Canteen Wood or Bullseye
Ft Branch Supply
Union Tarred or
Fall Creek Suttlery
Socks Medium Gray Wool At discretion
US Jefferson or CS
Shoes Robert Land
3-band .58 Enfield Company QM
Weapon/Bayonet 3-bd .58 Springfield Lodgewood
3-bd Austrian Lorenz Reg’t Quartermaster
Scabbard To Match Bayonet
Bedroll Wool blanket Fall Creek Suttlery
Bedroll 2 Gum Blanket/Poncho CD Jarnagin
Underwear At discretion
Shelter Half 2 for pup tent Trans-Mississippi
Tinware No Blue Enamelware CD Jarnagin
Knapsack CD Jarnagin
Eyeglasses If needed Reenact. Eyewear
Cartridge Box Sling Unauthorized
Rank Chevrons Unauthorized
Breast Plate Unauthorized
Hat Brass Unauthorized
40. One fatigue jacket of unbleached Russian drilling, with a
stand collar, one flat gilt button on each side of the collar, half
and inch in diameter, and eight similar buttons down the front.
41. The dress of the Superintendent, Commandant, and
Instructors, which shall always be worn when on duty, will
conform to that of the Infantry of the Confederate States’ Army,
except the button, which shall be the same as that prescribed for
the Militia of the State.
42. All articles of uniform, clothing, and equipments, shall be
made in strict conformity to patterns and of materials approved
by the Superintendent or Board, unless purchases are made from
suppliers of HIGHER quality than those listed.
43. No other dress than that which is prescribed, shall be worn
by the Cadets or kept in their possession.
44. Each Cadet may unite with others in purchasing for their
common use, necessary furniture.
45. No Cadet shall contract any debt on behalf of the Battalion
without permission of the Superintendent. Any such contract
shall be null and void on the part of the Battalion and the sole
responsibility of the contracting party.
46. No Cadet shall obtain from the Superintendent an order for
goods or money, unless there be, in the hands of the Treasurer,
an amount equal to the amount of such order.
57. The Treasurer shall keep an account open in which money
shall have been deposited in his hands, in which he shall be
credited, with the sum so deposited and charged with the sums
paid to his creditors and for such disbursements proper receipts
shall be taken by the Treasurer and kept on file with the
58. Any Cadet will be permitted to inspect the accounts and
the public records on application for that purpose.
COURSE OF INSTRUCTION.
59. The studies which shall be pursued and the instruction
which shall be given at the Military Institute, are comprised
under the following heads;
1st. Infantry Tactics and Military Police
2d. Artillery Tactics, the science of Gunnery
3d. VMI and Civil War History
INFANTRY TACTICS AND MILITARY POLICE
60. This course will conform to the system of Infantry Tactics
and Military Police established for the government of the Army,
and will embrace the schools of the soldier, company, and
battalion, the evolutions of the line, the manual exercises, and
maneuvers, of Light Infantry and Riflemen together with the
police of camp and garrison.
ARTILLERY TACTICS, SCIENCE OF GUNNERY, &c.
61. Nomenclature, and description of the different kinds and
parts of artillery; exercise of the field piece, of mortar, &c;
maneuvers of field battery.
Gunnery—Theory of Gunnery, target practice, with various
Pyrotechny—Manufacture of implements of war
VMI AND CIVIL WAR HISTORY
62. VMI History, a study of the Institute from 1839-1865
Civil War History, a study of the causes and outcomes of
the War Between the States, from 1860-1865 and the effect of
Reconstruction on Virginia and the VMI.
CLASSIFICATION OF CADETS, AND MANNER OF INSTRUCTION.
63. The Cadets shall be arranged in four distinct classes. The
Cadets employed in the first year’s course, will constitute the
Fourth class; those in the second year’s course, the Third Class;
those in the third year’s course, the Second Class, and those in
the fourth year’s course, the First Class.
64. The Class shall be considered as taking their
Commencement following the annual event at New Market, VA,
and at no other time shall a Cadet be advanced or transferred
from one class to another, unless prevented by sickness or
authorized absence from attending the annual graduation, in
which case a special examination shall be granted him; but in no
case shall a Cadet be passed from one Class to another without a
previous examination by the Academic Board.
65. An annual examination of all the classes, preparatory to
their advancement, will occur at which time the Cadets will be
examined by the Academic Board, in the presence of the Board
66. Any Cadet found deficient at the annual examination in
the studies of his Class, shall not be advanced to the next higher
Class; and if, in the opinion of the Faculty, his deficiency is to be
attributed to utter incapacity, or habitual want of application, or
his conduct be grossly or generally immoral or improper, his
case shall be reported to the Board of Visitors, to the end he may
67. Immediately after each examination, the Superintendent
shall report to the Board of Visitors, who will hold a special
meeting for the purpose of receiving and acting on such report,
the names of all such Cadets as shall have shown utter
incapacity, or whose conduct has been grossly, or generally
improper or immoral, and whom he may deem it advisable to
68. The Board of Visitors in conjunction with the
Superintendent will, annually, immediately after the General
examination, select for special report the names of such Cadets
as have most distinguished themselves in the examination, not
exceeding two in each class, and will specify the studies in
which they particularly excel; and the standing both for conduct
and scholarship of each Cadet shall also be at the same time
communicated to them.
69. Whenever a Cadet shall be found deficient in any one of
his studies for two successive years, he shall stand ipso facto
70. After the annual examination, a diploma signed by the
Visitors and Faculty of the Institute, shall be granted to each
qualified Cadet desiring it, who shall be found to have deserved
it, as well by his moral deportment as his proficiency in his
71. At every January examination, the Academic Board will
form rolls, in which the names of Cadets shall be arranged in
their respective classes, in the order of their merit or proficiency
in each branch of instruction upon which they are examined.
72. Rolls exhibiting the relative merit of the Cadets in
conduct, shall be formed by the Board, from the register of
delinquencies, for the whole of the academic year, in the
following manner, viz:
1st. All the recorded delinquencies of the Cadets shall be
arranged in Seven Classes, each of which shall comprise those
on nearly the same degree of criminality.
2d. The degree of criminality of an offense of each of the
Classes so formed, shall be expressed as follows:
Offenses of the First Class by 10.
“ “ “ Second “ “ 8.
“ “ “ Third “ “ 5.
“ “ “ Fourth “ “ 4.
“ “ “ Fifth “ “ 3.
“ “ “ Sixth “ “ 2.
“ “ “ Seventh “ “ 1.
3d. The total demerit of each Cadet will be expressed by the
sum of the products of the number of offences of each class,
4th. The names will be arranged throughout in the order of
demerit, those of the least degree being placed first.
73. Copies of all merit rolls, will be reported to the Board of
Visitors at their annual meeting, and the rolls will also be copied
into the register of merit of the Battalion.
LEAVES OF ABSENCE.
74. The Superintendent or Commandant are authorized to
grant leaves of absence to Cadets during an encampment.
75. Every Cadet who shall overstay his leave of absence, will
subject himself to be tried, unless he shall produce a certificate
satisfactory to the Superintendent on his return, of his having
been prevented from returning by sickness or some other
76. Any Cadet who shall willfully absent himself from the
Battalion encampment, without leave, for a period of twelve
hours, shall be dismissed.
77. Every Cadet upon returning from leave of absence shall
immediately report himself to the Superintendent, the
Commandant of Cadets and the First Sergeant of his Company.
78. No Instructor shall absent himself from the Institute for a
longer time than one day, without the permission of the Board of
Visitors; nor shall any Instructor be absent from his duty at any
time, without the assent of the Superintendent.
79. The Cadets of the Institute shall constitute a Military
Corps, and be subject to Military discipline, under the immediate
command of the Commandants of Cadets.
80. The punishments to which a Cadet shall be liable, are
comprised in the three following classes:
1st. Privation of recreation, &c.; extra tours of duty, reprimand
2d. Arrest or confinement in his room or tent.
3d. Dismission, with the privilege of resigning or public
dismission. the punishment of the first and second classes,
mentioned in the preceding paragraph, may be inflicted by the
Superintendent, or with his approval; those of the third class
after a trial by court martial, except in cases of a cadet being
willfully and culpably negligent of his duties or studies-or
manifesting a disposition and determination to resist the
authorities of the Institute, in which cases, the Superintendent is
authorized to dismiss, without the intervention of a court-martial.
81. In cases of irregularity or insubordination on the part of
Cadets, requiring in the opinion of the Superintendent the
infliction of the 3d class of punishment, the Superintendent may
convene by public orders a General Court Martial, to consist of
not less than three, nor more than five members, and in case it
consists of three members, then two officers of the Battalion and
one Cadet officer shall be detailed on the Court, provided that no
officer preferring the charges, or interested personally in them,
shall sit on the Court, whose duty it shall be to try the Cadet
upon the charges preferred, and make finding upon the
82. The senior officer of the Court shall act as President of the
Court, and the duties of the Judge Advocate will devolve upon
the junior member, but at no time shall a Cadet so serve.
83. The mode of proceeding in such Courts, shall conform as
far as practicable to the rules for the government of Courts-
Martial in the Confederate States Military Service.
84. The proceedings of the Court, properly authenticated, shall
be laid before the Superintendent, and if approved by him, shall
be promulgated in orders.
85. A right of appeal from the decision of the Court is
reserved to the Cadet; in which case he shall immediately notify
the Superintendent of the same, with a copy of his appeal, whose
duty it shall be to forward a copy of the proceedings of the Court
to the President of the Board, accompanied by the appeal of the
Cadet, with his own remarks thereon. Should the case, in the
opinion of the President of the Board, require reinvestigation, the
President may direct the original proceedings to be suspended,
and refer the same to a meeting of the Board of Visitors, to be
called by the President for that purpose; otherwise the sentence
of the Court shall go into effect.
86. As obedience and subordination are essential to the
purposes of this Institution, any Cadet who shall disobey a
command of the Superintendent, or any Professor, Teacher,
Instructor, or other Superior Officer, to behave himself in a
refractory or disrespectful manner to the constituted authorities
of the Institute, shall be dismissed, or less severely punished,
according to the nature and degree of his offence.
87. Cadets are reminded that they are representing the VMI
and the VMI Corps of Cadets and they are responsible for their
actions at all times. Neglect of this obligation may cause said
Cadet or Cadets to be dismissed from the Battalion.
88. Any Cadet bringing disrespect unto himself, the Battalion,
or the Virginia Military Institute, shall be dismissed.
89. Cadets who have been dismissed from the Battalion shall
forthwith leave the premises.
90. Any underage Cadet found drinking or drunk shall be
91. No Cadet shall, in any way, use a drug of any type, except
92. No cadet shall, in any way, use tobacco in ranks.
93. Cadets in camp shall be primarily responsible for their
94. No Cadet shall be allowed to keep a waiter or a dog.
95. Any Cadet who shall wantonly damage any public or
private quarters, property, or their appurtenances (other than his
own) shall, besides making good such damages, be otherwise
punished, according to the nature of his offense, to include
dismissal from the Battalion and civil or criminal charges as
desired by the owner of said property or quarters.
96. Each Cadet before he leaves the Battalion, shall furnish to
the Superintendent, a certificate from the Quartermaster and
other proper officers, that he has returned all property charged to
him in good order, or made good any deficiency.
97. Any Cadet who shall lose, damage, destroy, sell, or
otherwise dispose of the arms, accoutrements, books,
instruments, or other public, private (other than his own), or
Battalion property in his possession, shall, besides paying for the
same, be otherwise punished, according to the nature of his
98. No Cadet shall go beyond the limits of the Battalion, or
other limits as the Superintendent may prescribe without the
permission of his Company Tactical Officer; nor shall any
permission to be absent from the Institute at night be granted,
unless upon special invitation, or to attend divine worship, or
upon such occasions, as shall be deemed proper exceptions to
this regulation by the Superintendent, Commandant, or President
of the Board.
99. Any Cadet who shall insult by words or gesture, shall be
dismissed, or otherwise less severely punished.
100. Any Cadet who shall answer for another at any roll call
or who shall engage any other Cadet to answer for him, shall be
101. No Cadet shall, between tattoo or reveille, be absent from
his room at those times for any purpose, without permission
from the proper authorities.
102. Any Cadet who shall absent himself from his room at
night between tattoo and reveille, for a longer time than half and
hour, on any one occasion, or from post at any time without
leave, and shall fail to satisfy the Superintendent or Board of
Visitors that he did not so absent himself for any immoral
purpose, shall be dismissed, or otherwise less severely punished.
103. Duties appropriate for the Sabbath, including attendance
upon Divine Service, are encouraged.
104. Any Cadet who shall behave indecently, or irreverently
while attending Divine Service, or shall use any profane oath, or
execration, or profane the Sabbath, shall be dismissed or
otherwise less severely punished.
105. The Cadets are not only required to abstain from all
vicious, immoral, or irregular conduct, but they are enjoined on
every occasion to conduct themselves with the propriety and
decorum of gentlemen.
106. Any Cadet who shall be guilty of conduct unbecoming an
officer and a gentleman, shall be dismissed, or otherwise less
107. No Cadet shall send or accept a challenge to fight, nor be
the bearer of such challenge, written or verbal; nor in any way,
directly or indirectly, countenance or promote a duel, nor
upbraid another for declining to fight, on pain of being
108. Every Cadet who knows that a challenge to fight has
been, or is about to be sent or accepted by any other Cadet, shall,
without delay, give information thereof to the Superintendent.
109. No Cadet shall use any reproachful or provoking
speeches or gestures to another.
110. Any Cadet who shall by any means whatever traduce or
defame another, shall be dismissed or otherwise less severely
punished—according to the nature of his offense.
111. Any Cadet who shall strike, or in any manner offer
violence to another, shall be punished in a like manner.
112. Any Cadet who shall beat, or otherwise maltreat any
citizen, shall, besides being amenable to the law, be otherwise
punished according to the nature of his offense.
113. Any Cadet who shall wantonly abuse the person of any
Cadet, shall be dismissed, or otherwise less severely punished,
according to the nature of his offense.
114. All combinations under any pretext whatever, are strictly
prohibited. Any Cadet, who in concert with others, shall adopt
any measure under pretence of procuring redress of grievances,
or sign any paper, or enter into any written or verbal agreement
with a view to violate or evade any regulation of the Institute, or
to do any act contrary to the rules of good order and
subordination, or who shall endeavour to persuade others to do
the same, shall be dismissed.
115. Any Cadet who shall manifest an insubordinate or
refractory spirit—evincing a disposition to resist the authorities
of the Institute, thereby disturbing its peace and order, shall be
forthwith sent to his home by the Superintendent—but such
Cadet shall, after such dismissal, have the right of appeal to the
Board of Visitors from the decision of the Superintendent.
116. If any Cadet shall consider himself wronged by another,
or by any officer, he is to complain thereof to the
Superintendent, who is hereby required to examine into the said
complaint, and to take the proper measures for redressing the
wrong complained of. Should the party complaining be refused
redress, he may appeal to the Board of Visitors for their
examination and order on the case.
117. All communications to the Board of Visitors, from any
person or persons, belonging to the Institute, shall be made
through the Superintendent, whose duty it shall be to forward
them to the Board, with such remarks as he may think proper.
118. All publications relative to the Institute, or to transactions
at the Institute, are strictly prohibited, except by permission of
the Superintendent and or the Board of Visitors. Any Instructor
or Cadet therefore, who shall be at all concerned in writing or
publishing any article of such character in any newspaper of
pamphlet, or in writing or publishing any handbill, shall be
dismissed, or otherwise severely punished.
119. The strictest attention to study and all other duties will be
required. Every Cadet, therefore, who shall absent himself from
any duty of any kind, and fail to render a satisfactory excuse in
writing for such absence, shall be reprimanded, put upon extra
duty, or confined, according to the circumstances of the case.
120. Any Cadet who shall evince a culpable neglect of his
studies or duties, shall be required to return to his home by the
121. The Instructors and Tactical Officers, will be held
accountable for the regular and orderly conduct of their
respective classes or sections while under their immediate
122. It shall be the duty of every Instructor or Officer, who is
knowing to any violation of the rules and regulations, or to any
crime, irregularity, neglect or other improper conduct of which a
cadet has been guilty, to report the same without delay to the
123. All immoralities, disorders, misbehaviour, or neglect, of
which Cadets may be guilty, to be prejudice of good order and
military discipline, though not herein expressly mentioned, are to
be punished according to the nature and degree of the offense.
124. In all details of military duty, the rules and regulations
for the government of the army of the Confederate States are to
be observed so far as they are applicable to, and do not conflict
with, the regulations adopted for the government of the
125. Each Instructor at the head of a separate company will
have charge of, and be accountable for, the instruments and
apparatus supplied for the use of the company.
126. No Cadet will tender his resignation unless impelled
thereto by urgent reasons which must be fully set forth in his
letter of resignation.
127. The Superintendent is authorized to accept the
resignation of Cadets. In such cases, the resignation of a Cadet
must be tendered to the Superintendent or Board of Visitors,
which may take such action thereon as he may think proper,
subject at the instance of the Cadet to the revision of the Board
128. The Superintendent, and in his absence the officer in
command, shall have power to arrest any Professor or
Subordinate Officer, for mutiny, disobedience of orders,
unofficerlike conduct, or other offense, prohibited by the rules
and regulations prescribed for the government of the Battalion;
and on such arrest, it shall be the duty of the Superintendent, or
other officer making the same, to appoint a day for trial of said
Professor, or other subordinate officer, not less than ten, nor
more than thirty days from the date of such arrest, and
immediately notify the several members of the Board of Visitors
that said arrest has been made, and shall also furnish the person
arrested with a copy of the charges preferred against him.
129. Upon the application of any Professor or subordinate
officer, it shall be competent for any two or more of the Board of
Visitors to arrest the Superintendent, for unofficerlike conduct,
or other offenses prohibited by the rules and regulations for the
government of the Battalion, and upon such arrest, it shall be the
duty of the members making the same, to furnish the
Superintendent with a copy of the charge or charges upon which
the arrest was made, and furthermore, to fix a day for his trial not
less than ten, nor more than thirty days from the date of the
arrest, and also to notify the several members of the Board
130. No Cadet shall be admitted into the Institute until he has
shown evidence of their physical capacity to discharge military
131. It shall be the duty of the Superintendent to cause the
Regulations of the Institute to be read upon parade from time to
time, provided all the Regulations be published to the Cadets at
least once each year.
REGULATIONS FOR THE INTERIOR POLICE AND DISCIPLINE OF THE
VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE.
132. The Cadets shall be organized into one or more
companies according to number, and the officers and Cadet
officers shall be appointed by the Superintendent. The selection
shall be made from those Cadets who have been most active and
soldier-like in the performance of their duties, and most
exemplary in their general deportment. In general, the officers
will be taken from the first class, and the non-commissioned
officers from the second and third classes.
133. There shall be infantry or artillery drill every day when
the weather is favourable, at such regular hour of the day as the
Commandant of Cadets may appoint.
134. There shall be a dress parade every morning, when the
135. There shall be an inspection of the Cadets when the
weather permits, prior to the use of any arms, or prior to an event
136. No Cadet shall be absent from any duty whatever,
without the permission from the Superintendent, or upon the
recommendation of the Surgeon. When a Cadet considers
himself too unwell to attend his recitation, or other duties, he
shall apply to the Surgeon, to be placed upon the sick list.
137. No Cadet shall, without permission, retain in his quarters
any article of dress, other than the uniform for the Cadets
prescribed by the regulations.
138. The overcoat shall not be worn between the 1st of April
and the 1st of October, except in rainy weather, or in quarters at
any time during study hours.
139. The fatigue jacket shall only be worn in quarters or camp
within the limits of the chain of sentinels or at military exercises
140. Every Cadet shall be neatly attired whenever visited by
141. The hair to be short, or what is generally termed cropped,
whiskers and mustaches shall not be worn. Exceptions to this
clause will be made by the Superintendent or Board of Visitors,
but it is requested that Cadets comply with this regulation.
BADGES OF DISTINCTION
142. Cadets acting as officers and non-commissioned officers
shall be distinguished by the following badges:
Captains, chevrons of four bars of single lace on each arm,
above the elbow, points up.
Lieutenants, chevrons of three bars of single lace on each arm,
above the elbow, points up.
Adjutants.—The Lieutenant’s chevron, with an arc.
Quartermaster.—The Lieutenant’s chevron, with a horizontal
First Sergeant.—Chevrons of two bars of single lace, on each
arm, above the elbow, points up—with a lozenge.
Sergeants.—Chevrons of two bars of single lace on each arm,
above the elbow, points up.
Sergeant-Major.—The Sergeant’s chevron, with an arc.
Quartermaster Sergeant.—The sergeant’s chevron, with a
Color Bearer.—The Sergeant’s chevron, with a star.
Corporals.—Chevrons of two bars of single lace on each arm,
below the elbow, points up.
Corporals of the Color Guard.—The Corporal’s chevron, with
143. No Cadet shall lend or exchange Battalion-owned arms
144. The arms issued to Cadets will not be taken from their
quarters except for duty.
145. No Cadet shall alter any Battalion-owned musket, by
scraping, filing or varnishing the stock, barrel, or any other part
of it; nor shall the lock be removed, or taken apart, without the
permission of the officer having charge of the same.
146. Cadets are prohibited from having in their possession any
description of firearms or other weapons, not issued to them by
proper authority or not in accordance with the weapons or arms
provided or other guidance.
POLICE OF QUARTERS.
147. Every Cadet, on rising in the morning, shall place his
bedstuffs in proper inspection order, subject to inspection by the
Superintendent of Division, Tactical Officer, Commandant, or
148. Every Cadet shall attend to the good order and
arrangement of his own arms, accoutrements, clothing, and their
effects; the Orderly shall attend to the general police of the room
and shall require each occupant to discharge his proper duty.
149. Cadets shall walk the streets of the camps and pass, with
as little noise as possible; running, loud talking, scuffling, or
unnecessary noise in barracks are strictly prohibited at all times.
150. Every Cadet leaving his room on a necessary occasion, of
for water, when the sentinels are on post, shall report his
departure and return to every sentinel he passes, and shall be
absent as short a time as possible. If his absence occurs after
taps, he shall report to the officer of the guard, whose duty it
shall be to pass him in or out, and to report the names of all
individuals thus passed.
151. Whenever a Cadet received permission to be absent from
his quarters during study hours, or from any duty, he shall show
his permit to the officer in charge, and the Superintendent of his
division, and shall leave it with the officer of the day.
152. No Cadet shall mark, cut, or in any manner deface or
injure any public buildings or private property.
153. No Cadet shall introduce a citizen into the barracks
during study hours, upon any pretence whatever, without
154. There shall be an Orderly detailed for each two tents or
rooms occupied by the Cadets, who shall perform the duties of
police until he is relieved by the proper officer.
155. Each Cadet shall be held responsible for the preservation
of all public property attached to the room or tent, for the
common use of its occupants.
156. The Orderly shall be held responsible for the cleanliness
of the room or tent, the proper arrangement of its contents, and
for the strict observance of regulations and orders therein.
SUPERINTENDENTS OF DIVISIONS.
157. Each of the Instructors of Infantry Tactics shall
superintend a company of Cadets and its company quarters, and
shall see that the regulations are duly observed therein. He shall
superintend, or instruct at the military exercise of his company,
and be responsible for the proper observance of all parades and
158. He shall inspect the tents of his division between reveille
159. He shall make to the Commandant of Cadets a report in
writing of all delinquencies that may have come to his
knowledge since his last report and of the conditions of each
room or tent with regard to police. Specifying those in the best
and those in the worst order, and the names of the Orderlies.
a roster of the occupants of each room or tent of his subdivision.
160. He shall also visit and thoroughly inspect all rooms or
tents under his charge thirty minutes after reveille, immediately
after which he shall make a report in writing to the
Superintendent of his division, subjoining the word “certified”
with his signature.
“COMMANDANT OF CADETS.”
161. The Commandant of Cadets shall make a minute
inspection of the Cadets and their camp, at least once, and will
make a special report thereon to the Superintendent.
162. He shall prescribe the order in which the furniture,
bedding, books, clothing, equipments, &C., shall be arranged
throughout the barracks or camp.
163. He shall make a report to the Superintendent every
morning between 8 and 9 o’clock AM, of the condition of the
barracks or camp and of the discipline of the Cadets, noting
especially such matters as may require his consideration and
164. He shall be responsible for the safe keeping and good
order of all arms, accoutrements and other public property in use
by the Cadets.
“OFFICER IN CHARGE.”
165. Each of the Instructors of Tactics shall be detailed in turn
as officer in charge for the day; his tour to commence at guard
166. He shall superintend the performance of all the duties of
the day which do not require the presence of the Commandant,
and see that they are performed according to regulations and
167. He shall promptly correct all irregularities that may occur
in the barracks, or in the vicinity, and shall be in the barracks
yard at taps to receive the reports of Inspectors.
168. He shall be present at class parades and roll calls, during
his tour; and shall not absent himself from the barracks or their
vicinity, except at meal times, without the approbation of the
Commandant of Cadets.
“OFFICER OF THE DAY.”
169. The officer of the day shall be detailed generally from the
roster of Cadets acting as officers, but every Cadet of the First
Class shall be detailed to perform this duty once.
170. He shall, after receiving his guard, report for orders to the
Commandant of Cadets, and shall receive and obey such orders
as may be given him during his tour by the officer in charge.
171. He shall give the guard the orders of the day, regulate the
reliefs, and have such of the guard dismisses as are not required
172. He shall cause the sentinels to be posted at proper times,
shall visit them ten minutes after they are posted, and see that
they are properly instructed in their duties.
173. He shall take prompt and effectual measures for
suppressing all irregularities and disturbances that may occur in
or near the barracks.
174. He shall be held responsible for all public property
deposited with the guard.
175. He shall report to the officer in charge for orders,
immediately after taps.
176. On the back of his guard report, he shall note all
violations of the regulations which may have come to his
knowledge during his tour, stating the name of each delinquent,
with a clear and precise description of his offence and the
circumstances of time and place, when they are not necessarily
understood; he shall also state, particularly, the orders given him
by any authorized officer, and the time at which each absentee at
taps returned to his room; and he will subjoin to his report the
word “certified” with his signature.
177. There being perhaps no better test of soldiership, and the
discipline of a command than the manner in which the duties of
sentinels are performed, Cadets should understand the honor and
responsibility of a soldier on post.
178. All persons of whatever rank are required to observe the
greatest respect towards sentinels, and no officer or other person
shall make use of any expression, language, or gesture to a Cadet
179. Every sentinel shall obey the orders of the
Superintendent, Commandant of Cadets, Tactical Officers,
Officer in Charge, Officer of the Day, and the officers and non-
commissioned officers of the guard.
180. At evening parade each First Sergeant shall warn the
Cadets of his company, who are detailed to mount guard the
ensuing day, always taking those for this duty first who have
been the longest off. The guard this detailed, shall be on duty all
night, at least one sentinel being on post at a time.
181. Every Cadet of the guard shall appear at guard mounting
in perfect order.
182. Cadets detailed for guard shall wear their side arms when
not on post, and shall not, during their tour, leave the vicinity of
the Battalion or their post.
183. As soon as a sentinel is posted, he shall visit every area
under his charge. If he fail to obey the order, he shall forthwith
call the Sergeant of the Guard and report his disobedience.
184. Every Sentinel on post, when the call “to quarters” is
sounded, shall visit the area under his charge ten minutes after
185. No sentinel shall permit a violation of the regulations to
take place within the limits of his post, without taking proper
measures to prevent it; nor shall he fail in any case to call for the
Corporal of the Guard, and report to him immediately every such
violation which comes within his observation or knowledge
while on post.
186. Any Cadet who shall neglect his guard duty, by deserting
or sleeping on his post, or in any manner impair the security of
the public property, by the neglect of the duties devolving upon
the guard, by laws, shall be dismissed or otherwise less severely
187. Any non-commissioned officer of the guard who shall
fail to post his relief at the prescribed hour, or hours, after taps,
shall be subject to the penalty attached to the neglect of duty of a
sentinel under paragraph 252.
188. The Sergeant of the guard shall parade and inspect every
189. In all cases not provided for in the foregoing paragraph,
the service of the guard shall be performed as prescribed in the
general regulations of the Army of the Confederate States.
190. The Superintendent and the Commandant of Cadets alone
have power to arrest a Cadet, except in cases of mutiny, direct
disobedience of orders, or gross disrespect to a superior officer,
in which cases offenders may be arrested; but all such arrests
shall be promptly reported, through the Commandant of Cadets
to the Superintendent for his approbation.
191. Every Cadet arrested shall confine himself forthwith to
his quarters until released, (unless otherwise specially ordered,)
except when required to be absent therefrom for the performance
of some of his military duties, (to all of which, except those of
guard, he shall strictly attend,) and except on a necessary
occasion, and for the purpose of going to the mess hall for meals.
192. Every Cadet charged with a breach of arrest, shall be
tried, and if found guilty, shall be dismissed.
193. When a Cadet is confined to the limits of Camp any
breach of such confinement will subject him to the penalty
prescribed by paragraph 258 for breach of arrest.
194. When a Cadet is under arrest or confinement to his room,
barracks, camp, or the Institute grounds, he will not apply for
permission to go beyond such limits, unless impelled thereto by
strong emergency, and when thus impelled, he will make
personal application to the Superintendent in writing, setting
forth in such application that he is under arrest, and the reasons
for which he desires the permission he asks.
195. No general permit granted to Cadets to go beyond the
limits of the Institute, will be valid to any Cadet under arrest or
confinement—except for attendance at Church in the morning
and afternoon services on the Sabbath, and any Cadet who shall
go beyond the limits for any other purposes, when under arrest or
confinement upon such general permits will subject himself to
the penalty of the 258th paragraph.
196. The sick Cadets who remain in quarters, shall not leave
their rooms, except for the purpose of performing some duty, or
of taking exercise at such times as the Surgeon may have
prescribed, with the approbation of the Superintendent; but no
such Cadet shall, for any purpose whatever, be absent from his
room during any drill, parade, roll call, from which he may have
been excused on account of indisposition.
197. Every Cadet excused on account of sickness, from all
duties shall be sent to the hospital or to the Surgeon.
198. The sick in hospital, shall obey all orders of the Surgeon,
and all such police regulations as he may prescribe, with the
approbation of the Superintendent.
199. No patient shall leave the hospital without permission
from the Surgeon.
200. No patient shall go beyond the hospital yard without a
written permission, signed by the Surgeon, and approved by the
201. When a Cadet is too unwell to attend to duty, he will
forthwith report to the Surgeon.
202. Any Cadet reported for a delinquency, and having a
satisfactory excuse, shall express his excuse in writing, in the
form prescribed, and hand it to the Commandant of Cadets (to be
submitted to the Superintendent,) within his first orderly hour,
after the publication of the report on parade. No excuse shall be
made by any Cadet in any other manned, nor at any other time
than is here prescribed, unless he is unavoidably prevented from
complying with the above direction, in which case the cause of
delay shall be annexed to the excuse, for the consideration of the
Commandant of Cadets; but no such excuse shall be handed in at
a later period than one week after the unavoidable cause of delay
shall have been removed.
203. Any Cadet who shall present a false excuse shall be
dismissed; and any Cadet who shall present a disrespectful
excuse shall be punished according to the degree of the offense,
and the report for which such excuse shall have been presented
shall not be removed.
204. No Cadet shall address an Officer or Cadet who have
reported him for a delinquency, on the subject of such report
unless specially permitted by the Superintendent of Commandant
of Cadets; and every officer of Cadet having made such report
against a Cadet, shall hold no conversation with him relating to
it, unless referred to with the proper permission.
205. When a Cadet is reported absent from quarters, or from
any duty, he shall be required to render an excuse or explanation
for the same, and when it is not stated that he was at the time in
the Barracks, Camp, or within the Cadet’s limits, he will be
considered as having been beyond the said limits, and liable to
be punished accordingly.
206. All absences from quarters at night, which are
unauthorized, and without excuse, will be considered as
involving special penalty.
207. Any Cadet Officer failing to properly learn his duty will
be forthwith reduced to the ranks.
208. FORM OF EXCUSE FOR DELINQUENCY.
(Date) _______________________, 18
To Commandant of Cadets.
(Endorsement for the above excuse, on the reverse, and at the
top, the whole not to extend more than three inches below the
(Date) _______________________, 18
All excuses shall be written on a sheet of letter paper, folded in
three equal parts.
209. No Society shall be organized among the Cadets without
a special license from the Superintendent; nor shall any assembly
of Cadets be held for this or any other purpose, without his
express permission, promulgated in orders.
210. The Superintendent is authorized to prescribe temporarily
such regulations of discipline or police as may be omitted and
experience may show to be necessary, which shall be reported to
the Board of Visitors at its next meeting, and when approved by
them, shall be permanent.
211. Cadets shall at all times salute the officers of the
Battalion, Officers of the Army of the Confederate States,
whether in uniform or not, the Governor of the State, and the
members of the Board of Visitors.
“ORDER OF ATTENDING CHURCHES.”
212. As no preference is given to any religious sect or
denomination in the Institute, officers commanding companies
will be held accountable for their faithful compliance that the
principle of the Institution may not be violated by their neglect
RESPONSIBILITY OF CADETS ON LEAVES OF ABSENCE, &C.
213. No Cadet on leave of absence shall remain in the vicinity
of the Battalion camp (except when the parent of guardian
resides there,) unless specifically authorized to do so.
214. A Cadet returning from leave of absence will report for
duty by “guard mounting.”
215. At events, Cadets shall report no later than 1800 hours
(6PM) on Friday. Cadets are expected to report beginning at
1200 hours to set up camp and begin guard detail.
216. A copy of these Regulations will be supplied each Cadet,
and it is made the duty of the Inspector of Divisions and
Commandant of Cadets, to see that this regulation is complied
VARIOUS SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS
217. The Superintendent shall also serve as the overall
President of the organization. He shall be appointed a Captain
and Tactical Officer. The Superintendent shall only use the rank
of Major General in official correspondence, and only when
necessary. Shall act as Inspector General of the Battalion.
218. The President of the Board shall be appointed a Captain
and Tactical Officer. Shall serve as a training officer.
219. The Commandant shall be appointed to the rank of Lt
Colonel, unless previous commission authorizes the full rank of
Colonel. Shall be the highest ranking person unless the Battalion
is authorized the use of (a) Tactical Officer(s).
220. Other persons shall be appointed to the positions in ratio
to the actual positions used in the Corps in 1864, with
221. The primary symbol of the Battalion shall be the logo of
the name of the Battalion encircling the Virginia Military
Institute entwined acronym (aka the “Spider.”) In no case shall
this symbol be used for personal or unit financial gain.
222. The other primary symbol shall be the unique replica of
the flag of the Virginia Military Institute created in 1992. No
other replica, except one created by members of the Battalion
may be used. Only VMI graduates and cadets may carry the
colors unless another individual is acceptable to the Board.
223. In no case shall the VMI Cadets carry a Confederate Flag
into Battle on Sunday at New Market. Historically, the Cadets
only carried their own Battalion colors. The VMI Cadet
Reenactment Battalion may carry Confederate colors when not
specifically serving as VMI Cadets.
224. The distinctive oval VMI box plate may only be used as a
cartridge box plate. In no cases shall it be worn as a belt buckle.
The authorized manufacturer is Hanover Brass Company of
Virginia. Personnel may ask for the buckle to be cast as a box
225. The VMI Cadet buttons shall remain the property of the
Battalion and will be returned to the Battalion inventory upon
direction of the Board.
226. This organization maintains no official ties to the
Virginia Military Institute, its organizations, or alumni agencies,
other than having cadets and alumni as founding members and
participants. Cadets must make clear to inquirers that no official
227. The Representative of the VMI CWRT (or other cadet so
appointed) shall serve as the coordinator of cadets and students
from the VMI and Washington and Lee University, eliciting
support from among the general populations of those two
228. The Commandant, President of the Board, and
Superintendent of Battalion shall act as military liaisons with the
reenactment community, with the highest ranking individual in
229. The Board Member-at-Large shall be elected by majority
vote of the entire membership and will be so elected for the term
of one year. He may be reelected indefinitely. He shall act as
the general membership’s ‘voice.’
230. The Superintendent, President of the Board, and
Commandant shall be VMI Alumni. All other positions are open
to all members.
231. All persons will portray historically accurate roles! Only
males will serve as infantry at this time.
232. All persons will sign a liability waiver and medical
release for any person as deemed necessary. These forms must
be notarized and forwarded to the Superintendent.
Parents/guardians will sign for minors.
233. Cadets have one year to equip themselves with
appropriate gear, but will not be allowed to take the field with
incomplete uniforms or unsafe/substandard equipment.
234. All members shall act as recruiters. The more we have
the better we will be and the more clout we will have.
235. Any tentage used shall be: 1. None; 2. Shelter Half; 3.
Dog Tent. A-frames are acceptable only for reenactors that have
spouses/significant others present. Members are encouraged to
remain with the main Battalion camp.
236. Members will be responsible for both membership costs
and the cost of attending an event. Dues are required to be paid
by the date specified by the Board or Superintendent. Failure to
pay event fees or membership dues suspends and individuals
rights and privileges within the unit. Members will then need to
pay as a walk-on, if walk-ons are allowed.
237. The VMI Cadet Reenactment Battalion will not act in
any official capacity to help any Cadet in legal trouble as a result
of his actions at an event. Members may individually assist.
238. The VMI Cadet Reenactment Battalion accepts NO
responsibility or liability for any injuries whatsoever in or out of
uniform and any unit function. The VMI CRB insists members
take responsibility for their own actions.
239. All gear must be marked in an inconspicuous place with
appropriate identification information. Weapons may or may not
be free of bluing. This is at the discretion of each member.
Historically, Cadet weapons were generally free of bluing
240. Persons who fraudulently enlist shall be dismissed
(purposeful errors on applications).
241. Contemptuous language against the United States and its
government shall be unacceptable. Contemptuous language
against the United States of the 1860s shall be acceptable.
Members are reminded to separate the two eras.
242. Personnel are responsible for their own liability insurance
against injury to themselves or other persons.
243. Members of the Board may only be removed by 4/5 vote
of the population as a whole.
244. Members of the Battalion may be removed by 2/3 vote of
the population or a 100% vote of the Board.
245. Committees may be appointed by the President and are
relieved by the President or upon expiration of their assignment.
Committee leaders are responsible for their committee
246. The Battalion’s fiscal year is January 1 to December 31.
247. Membership shall be open to all persons with a serious
interest in the American War for Southern Independence without
regard to sex, creed, color, or origin, who are willing to
participate as determined by the Board of Visitors, within strict
historical context as 19th century soldiers and civilians of the
248. Cadets of any of the organizations listed in paragraph 24
shall be required to pay only $8 per year.
249. Any member may make a statement of grievance against
the Battalion or any member of the Battalion. This grievance
must be made in writing to the Board, who will serve as the
adjudicators of the grievance. Any member of the Board against
which grievance is made shall recuse himself from the
250. Informal meetings are preferred, but it is essential that
proper decorum be maintained.
251. Donations in the form of monies, services, or items that
are of service or use to the membership shall be accepted. The
Board shall not accept any donations, which in any way violates
the regulations of the Battalion, creates a conflict of interest, or
presents a quid pro quo conflict for the Battalion.
252. No contribution shall be accepted for the direct benefit of
any specific member.
253. No member shall receive any compensation for any
expenses, unless authorized by the Board.
254. All requests or solicitations for fund-raising shall be
submitted to the Board of Visitors who will evaluate this request.
the proposal shall be detailed in what it will accomplish, the
timeframe of the project, what the funds shall be used for, and
how it directly relates to the Battalion goals.
255. Use of Battalion Logo, Letterhead, or Name, without
prior approval from the Board or Superintendent is prohibited.
In no way shall any be used for personal purposes.
256. While in uniform, no modern anachronisms shall be
257. Cadets shall be properly attired in at LEAST an authentic
shirt, trousers, or shoes. Glasses must be period or contacts must
258. All orders given by officers or NCOs shall be properly,
promptly obeyed. No order considered improper or hazardous to
one’s health shall be given. Any order so given shall be ignored.
259. All proper respect shall be given to the Superintendent,
Board members, or officers and staff of the Battalion in
accordance with rank and position at all times.
260. Cadets will salute officers of both armies at all times. If
officers and men remain in camp, salutes are not required, except
the first time one greets said officers, when called to report to a
tent, or when making a report to an officer.
261. The flag of the Confederate States is the only one
required to be saluted. Saluting the flag of the United States is
optional for those who may desire out of respect for the modern-
day military and United States. That will be left to personal
262. All weapons will be cleaned at the completion of an
event or at the end of each day’s events. All weapons will be
inspected daily. Dress parade will be held and a full inspection
held at least one time per event.
263. Chronic absenteeism shall not be tolerated unless medical
or other emergency exists.
264. Basic military discipline shall be maintained after
completion of daily activities. However, a more relaxed attitude
in military demeanor will be permitted.
265. Children must be under control of their sponsor at all
266. Civilians are reminded to dress and maintain appropriate
wear of civilian attire at all times in camp. Any civilian not
dressing as a 19th century civilian is asked to avoid the camp
during high-spectator-traffic times.
267. Amendments may be offered to the regulations by a 80%
majority vote of all members meeting, with a quorum present,
provided that any amendment be provided to all members at least
four weeks prior to the meeting. The Board may also change the
regulations by itself.
268. The Board of Visitors has the right to evaluate and pass
final judgment on the participation of any individual within its
ranks regardless of the individual's age.
POLICY OF JUVENILES AND CHILDREN IN BATTALION
269. Age 16 or older – Those in this age group can participate
as musket bearing military soldiers with no particular restrictions
unless a particular event sponsor places one on those who are
less than 18 or 21 years of age.
270. Age 14 and 15 –Participants in this age group must meet
all uniform and equipage requirements of the VMI Cadet
Reenactment Battalion. Any member in this age group must
have an active parent or another member of the Battalion serve
as a sponsor. Any member who serves as a sponsor, but is not a
parent of a participating child, is directly and at all times
responsible for the welfare and conduct of that child member.
Any breach of discipline or unacceptable behavior on the part of
a child in the age group is the direct responsibility of either the
active parent or sponsor.
271. Age 13 or Younger – Those in this age group will have
their potential participation evaluated on a case by case basis by
the Board of Visitors with this body having the final
approval/disapproval for participation with the company. Any
member less than 13 years of age must have a parent as an active
member of the unit, and must have the written approval by the
Board for participation. No children in this category are
authorized to wear a military uniform, but must appear in period
Civil War civilian clothing appropriate to that child’s
participation. Any breach of discipline or unacceptable
behavior on the part of the child in this age group is the direct
responsibility of the parent.
272. The Cadets as listed in paragraphs 269 shall be known as
‘Advisory Cadets’ and will automatically be upgraded to ‘Pay
Cadet’ status immediately after the New Market event within the
year prior to their turning sixteen (16). If other events are
attended, none in this category shall fire a weapon in combat
until they are sixteen years of age.
273. It is the direct responsibility of the parent or sponsoring
member to insure that the child member of the VMI Cadet
Reenactment Battalion has the necessary transportation to and
from an event; has food, clothing, and field equipment necessary
for full, authentic participation; and that the child is active in
support of Battalion activities. The purpose of this Battalion is
to provide an active outlet to a child member who is seriously
interested in the Civil War period impression.
274. President & Superintendent
Preside at all military and parliamentary and executive
committee functions and meetings.
Ability to appoint the committee chairman and members
and dissolve the same.
Give direction and purpose at a high level for the unit
through input from the general membership.
Coordinate programs with event organizers.
Is expected to attend all Board of Visitors meetings.
Will handle all the financial transactions within the
Will act in the capacity of a financial planner in
regards to company finances.
Will give a regular report through the newsletter.
275. Tactical Officer
In the absence of the president, he will perform the
duties of the president and all special duties assigned by
Shall be in a support role of maintaining order at all
Shall work in a more operational day to day capacity
with the First Sergeant, Second Sergeant, and Company
Clerk in the field.
Shall be in charge of recruiting for the company
Shall be in charge of a company of Cadets at an event.
Is expected to attend all Board of Visitors meetings or at
least provide any reports on projects that are currently
being worked on or completed to the Secretary for
distribution to the group.
Will command the VMI Cadet Battalion when possible
Will serve as a liaison for the VMI Cadet Battalion in
discussions with reenactment military commanders.
275. Cadet Sergeants
Appointed by the President or Commandant. Permanent
terms must be ratified by the Board of Visitors or
majority vote of the Battalion.
Will act in the stead of the Cadet Sergeant Major at
events in a military capacity only.
Expected to keep in contact with the Cadet Corporals to
keep up to date on the status of the membership. This
should be done periodically, twice a quarter at the
276. Cadet Corporal
Is appointed/voluntary position given by the Board of
Will have a platoon assigned to each of them by the First
Is expected to keep in contact with their respective
platoons on a periodic basis, once a month.
This may be accomplished by any means deemed
necessary by the individual Corporal, however
consistency is strongly encouraged. Also do not call just
to be calling, a purpose makes the difference. Contacting
the membership about a week before the next event
seems to be most effective, however, this does not
include events within the same month or at the
Is another communication link to the membership.
Should contact their platoon membership two to three
week prior to the scheduled events, special projects or
events with a short turnaround time, for event
participation, equipment needs, clarification, and
They should also strongly encourage and coordinate ride
sharing to events for the new men.
Is a volunteer that signs on to perform as prescribed by
the bylaws and policies of the company.
Is expected to attend the annual meeting and is to
provide input on topics that are brought to the general
membership so that everyone’s voice is heard.
Is expected to turn in an event signup sheet twice a year
to give the company an idea of what events they will be
Is expected to attend the Camp of Instruction to learn
and hone his skills as a soldier, as well as, learn firearms
safety, so that it may be performed at all times.
Is expected, at appropriate times to play the strict part of
a military soldier.
Is expected to work with the elected officers and
committees to their fullest, to make our company living
history experience a memorable and fun one.
Is expected to keep in contact with their corporal about
events and any problems that may arise concerning the
Keep minutes of parliamentary functions, organization
meetings, and military functions, as directed by the
President or Vice President.
Maintain external communication for the company
which in to include, but not limited to, event
information and registrations, vendor contacts (to be
coordinated with Uniform Committee Chairman)
and any other deemed by the President or Vice
Will keep in contact and give direction to NCO and
other appointed personnel.
279. Consumables Impression Policy Purpose: The VMI
Cadet impression is only as good as its members and how they
conduct themselves. One obvious point that all can improve is
the intrusion of modern day consumables (food, drink, and
280. Requirements: All members will adhere to this policy
during hours designated by a program or event. The Uniform
Committee will provide examples or sources for items required
for compliance for the different categories. Exceptions: Modern
medication will continue to be placed in its original container,
however it should be in a poke sack or out of public view as
much as possible. The Board of Visitors will gauge other
exceptions on a case by case basis.
281. Food falls into two situations, food for your Haversack
and the Company mess.
A. Haversack - When bringing period or modern food to
an event, it needs to be placed in a period wrapping paper
(brownish wax paper), tin container, or poke sack. Period food
should also be placed in such containers.
B. Company Mess - Canned goods should have the
labels removed. Meat should be thoroughly wrapped in brown
wax paper still in the plastic. Eggs should be transported in
cartons to the event then transferred to a box or cloth towel.
Bread will be taken out of the plastic wrap and placed in brown
paper or wax paper. No grocery bags will be permitted in camp;
a wooden box with rope handles should be used. This will take
some practice and preparation up front but will be worth it.
282. Drink and Food Containers - When modern drinking or
food containers are brought into camp, their contents are to be
transferred to a period container as soon as possible and the
modern container hidden till it can be placed in a proper trash
container. The preference is that these containers are not
brought to the camp at all, but this is impractical at times. If you
want to get a modern drink, take your cup with you and get it
filled it is usually a better deal for the money.
283. Tobacco Products – When portraying the VMI Cadet
Battalion, no tobacco products shall be used when in ranks. Only
period tobacco products may be used in camp or after hours.
284. Alcohol use - Alcohol use is restricted to after hours when
the camps are closed. Underage persons may not use alcohol.
Use of alcohol by underage members or by members deemed
"out of control" is grounds for immediate and summary
expulsion from the unit and the event.
285. Drug Use - Drugs may not be used by anyone, anytime,
for any reason. Users of illegal drugs will be expelled and may
be reported to the local authorities.
286. A potential recruit is defined as any person 16 years of
age or older that could be a new member of VMI Cadet
Battalion. Only potential recruits should sign the register book at
events and they will be contacted by the recruiting staff and or
other members. Any member that is contacted by a recruit under
the age of 16 should refer to the juvenile policy of the VMI
Cadet Battalion and contact the recruiting officer immediately.
287. The recruiting officer (Superintendent, President of the
Board, or other appointed person) should be contacted
immediately after any member makes contact with a potential
recruit. All leads and recruiting registration sheets should be
forwarded to the recruiting officer immediately. After all
information is compiled, the recruiting officer will assess the
potential recruit and distribute responsibility/procedures of
contacting the potential recruit.
288. A member of the recruiting staff and or designated
member will contact in person and or by phone all potential
recruits. The recruiting officer should be updated to any new
information on potential recruits. The recruiting officer will
authorize the mailing of membership application and new
member kit. The recruiting officer will contact the Board, with
any information about a recruit receiving a new member kit.
289. Purpose - The mandatory attendance to the VMI Cadet
Reenactment Battalion Camp of Instruction is to insure not only
that the recruit has the necessary soldier skills, but has been fully
familiarized with all the firearms safety procedures of the
company. This familiarization is meant to protect the personal
safety of the recruit and other members of the company, and
prevent any potential liability to the company.
290. Requirement – All recruits joining the VMI Cadet
Reenactment Battalion must attend the Annual Camp of
Instruction prior to participation in the field with the company.
The purpose of this policy is to insure not only the recruit has the
necessary soldier skills, but has been fully familiarized with all
the firearms safety procedures of the company.
291. Exception to Policy – A temporary waver not to
exceed a nine-month period can be granted with the approval of
the Board of Visitors. The only circumstances where such a
temporary wavier will be granted will be when a recruit joins
after the annual company sanctioned Camp of Instruction has
been conducted, and that recruit is uniformed and equipped to
take the field with the company prior to the next Camp of
Instruction. If a person joins after the Camp of Instruction, he
must arrive at the reenactment site the day prior to its start for an
intensive training session.
a. Squad NCO conducts and certifies that the
recruit passed a block of instruction of basic drill and weapons
b. Adjutant tests and certifies that the recruit has
satisfactorily completed the basic block of instruction of basic
drill and weapons.
c. The Board of Visitors considers the recommendation
of the Squad NCO and the First Sergeant and
approves/disapproves participation of the recruit.
d. Failure to have approval of any of the above
requirements will mean the recruit cannot participate as a
company member until he attends a Camp of Instruction.
292. Follow-on-Training – The recruit will attend the next
available Camp of Instruction even if previously receiving a
certification for exception to policy. Under no circumstances
will a second exception to policy be granted.
293. This is a volunteer organization, we are attempting to
recreate the quasi military atmosphere of the Civil War era
company. These means there will be times when you will need to
subordinate your ego and play the strict military role and there
will be times when you can bust loose, play pranks and just have
fun the way our ancestors did in an attempt to make the war
bearable. It also means in order to operate in the 21st century
you will be asked to do your part in making the VMI Cadet
Reenactment Battalion the "best in the field".
Excerpts from the
Army of the Confederate States, 1864
1. All inferiors are required to obey strictly, and to execute with
alacrity and good faith, the lawful orders of the superiors
appointed over them.
2. Military Authority is to be exercised with firmness, but with
kindness and justice to inferiors. Punishments shall be strictly
conformable to military law.
3. Superiors of every grade are forbid to injure those under them
by tyrannical or capricious conduct or by abusive language.
21. Cadets appointed by Confederate law, shall be assigned to
such duties, governed by the exigencies of the service, as will
best promote their military experience and improvement, until a
military school shall be established by the Government for their
70. Commanders of regiments are enjoined to avail themselves
of every opportunity of instructing both officers and men in the
exercise and management of field artillery; and all commanders
ought to encourage useful occupations, and manly exercises, and
diversions among their men, and to repress dissipation and
71. It is enjoined upon all officers to be cautious in reproving
non-commissioned officers in the presence or hearing of
privates, unless their authority be weakened; and non-
commissioned officers are not to be sent to the guard room and
mixed with privates during confinement, but be considered as
placed in arrest, except in aggravated cases, where escape may
79. Such articles as belong to companies are to be marked with
the letter of the company, and number and name of the regiment
and such as belong to men, with their individual numbers, and
the letter of the company.
94. Commanders of companies and squads will see that the arms
and accoutrements in possession of the men are always kept in
good order, and that proper care be taken in cleaning them.
96. Cartridge boxes and bayonet scabbards will be polished with
blacking; varnish in injurious to the leather, and will not be used.
97. All arms in the hands of the troops, whether browned or
bright, will be kept in the state in which they are issued by the
Ordnance Department. Arms will not be taken to pieces without
the permission of the commissioned officer. Bright barrels will
be kept clean and free from rust without polishing them; care
should be taken in rubbing not to bruise or bend the barrel. After
firing, wash out the bore: wipe it dry, and then pass a bit of cloth,
slightly greased, to the bottom. In these operations, a rod of
wood, with a loop at one end, is to be used instead of the
rammer. The barrel, when not in use, will be closed with a
stopper. For exercise, each soldier should keep himself provided
with a piece of sole-leather to fit the cup or countersink of the
98. Arms shall not be left loaded in quarters or tents, or when
the men are off duty, except by special orders.
99. Ammunition shall be inspected frequently.. Each man will
be made to pay for rounds expended without orders, or not in the
way of duty, or which may be damaged or lost by his neglect.
101. Special care shall be taken to ascertain that no ball
cartridges are mixed with the blank cartridges issued to the men.
102. All knapsacks are to be painted black. Those for artillery
will be marked in the center of the cover with the number of the
regiment only, in figures one and a half inches in length, of the
character called full face, with yellow paint. Those for the
infantry will be marked in the same way, in white paint. The
knapsack straps will be black.
103. The knapsacks will also be marked upon the inner side
with the letter of the company and the name of the soldier, on
such part as may be readily observed at inspection.
106. Officers at their stations, in camp or in garrison, will
always wear their proper uniform.
107. Soldiers will wear their prescribed uniform in camp or in
garrison, and will not be permitted to keep in their possession
any other clothing. When on fatigue parties, they will wear the
proper fatigue dress.
207. Deliberations or discussions among any class of military
men, having the object of conveying praise or censure, or any
mark of approbation toward their superiors or others in military
service; and all publications relative to transactions between
officers of a private or personal nature, whether newspaper,
pamphlet, or handbill, are strictly prohibited.
HONORS TO BE PAID BY THE TROOPS
224. The President or Vice-President is to be saluted with the
highest honors—all standards and colors dropping, officers and
troops saluting, drums beating, and trumpets sounding.
225. A General is to be received—by cavalry, with sabers
presented, trumpets sounding the march, and all the officers
saluting, standards dropping; by infantry, with drums beating the
march, colors dropping, officers saluting, and arms presented.
226. A Major-General is to be received—by cavalry, with
sabers presented, trumpets sounding twice the trumpet flourish,
and officers saluting; by infantry, with three ruffles, colors
dropping, officers saluting, and arms presented.
227. A Brigadier-General is to be received—by cavalry, with
sabers presented, trumpets sounding once the trumpet flourish,
and officers saluting; by infantry, with two ruffles, colors
dropping, officers saluting, and arms presented.
228. An Adjutant-General or Inspector General is to be
received at a review or inspection of the troops under arms—by
cavalry, with sabers presented, officers saluting; by arms
presented. The same honor to be paid to any field-officer
authorized to review and inspect the troops. When the
inspecting officer is junior to the officer commanding the troops,
no compliments will be paid; he will be received only with
swords drawn and arms shouldered.
229. All guards are to turn out and present arms to General
officers as often as they pass them, except the personal guards of
General officers, which turn out only to the Generals whose
guards they are, and to officers of superior rank.
230. To commanders of regiments, garrisons, or camps, their
own guards turn out, and present arms once a day; after which,
they turn out with shouldered arms.
231. To the members of the Cabinet, to the Chief Justice, the
Presidents of the Congress of the Confederate States; and to
Governors within their respective States or Territories—the
same honors will be paid as to a General.
232. Officers of a foreign service may be complimented with the
honors due their rank.
233. American and Foreign Envoys or Ministers will be
received with the complements due a Major General.
234. The colors of a regiment passing a guard are to be saluted,
the trumpets sounding, and the drums beating a march.
235. When General officers or persons entitled to salute, pass in
the rear of a guard, the officers is only to make his men stand
shouldered, and not to face his guard about or beat his drum.
236. When General officers or persons entitled to a salute, pass
guards while in the act of relieving, both guards are to salute,
receiving the word of command from the senior officer of the
237. All guards are to be under arms when armed parties
approach their posts; and to parties commanded by
commissioned officers, they are to present their arms, drums
beating a march, and officers saluting.
238. No compliments by guards or sentinels will be paid
between retreat and reveille, except as prescribed for grand
239. All guards and sentinels are to pay the same compliments
to the officers of the navy, marines, and militia, in the service of
the Confederate States, as are directed to be paid to the officers
of the army, according to their relative ranks.
240. It is equally the duty of non-commissioned officers and
soldiers at all times and in all situations, to pay the proper
compliments to officers of the navy and marines, and to officers
of other regiments, when in uniform, as to officers of their own
particular regiments and corps.
241. Courtesy among military men is indispensable to
discipline. Respect to superiors will not be confined to obedience
on duty, but will be extended to all occasions. It is always the
duty of the inferior to accost or to offer first the customary
salutations, and of the superior to return such complimentary
242. Sergeants, with swords drawn, will salute by bringing them
to a present—with muskets, by bringing the left hand across the
body, so as to strike the musket near the right shoulder.
Corporals out of the ranks, and privates not sentries, will carry
their muskets at a shoulder as sergeant, and salute in a like
243. When a soldier, without arms, or with side arms only,
meets an officer, he is to raise his right hand to the right side of
the visor of his cap, palm to the front, elbow raised as high as the
shoulder, looking at the same time in a respectful and soldier-
like manner at the officer, who will return the salute just offered.
244. A non-commissioned officer or soldier being seated, and
without particular occupation, will rise on the approach of an
officer, and make the customary salutation. If standing, he will
turn toward the officer for the same purpose. If the parties
remain in the same place or on the same ground, such
compliments need not be repeated.
245. The national salute is determined by the number of States
comprising the Confederacy, at the rate of one gun for each
246. The President of the Confederate States alone is to receive
a national salute.
247. The Vice-President is to receive a salute of two guns less
than a national salute.
248. The Heads of the great Executive Departments of the
National Government; the Generals; the Governors of States and
Territories within their respective jurisdictions, two guns less
than Vice President.
249. A Major General, one gun less than General.
250. A Brigadier General, one gun less than Major General.
251. Foreign Ships of War will be saluted in return for a similar
compliment, gun for gun, on notice of being officially received
of such intention. If there be several posts in sight of, or within
six miles of each other, the principal only shall reciprocate
compliments with ships passing.
252. Officers of the Navy will be saluted according to relative
253. Foreign Officers invited to visit a fort or post, may be
saluted according to their relative rank.
254. Envoys and Ministers of the Confederate States and foreign
powers are to be saluted with 7 guns.
255. A General officer will be saluted but once in a year at each
post, and only when notice of his intentions to visit the post has
256. Salutes to individuals are to be fired on their arrival only.
257. A national salute will be fired at meridian, on the
anniversary of the adoption of the provisional constitution, 8th
February, 1861, at each military post and camp provided with
artillery and ammunition.
INSPECTIONS OF THE TROOPS
290. The inspection of troops, as a division, regiment, or other
body composing a garrison or command, not less than a
company will generally be preceded by a review.
291. There will be certain periodic inspections, to wit:
1. The commanders of regiments and posts will make an
inspection of their commands on the last day of every month.
2. Captains will inspect their companies every Sunday morning.
No soldier will be excused from Sunday inspection except the
guard, the sick, and the necessary attendants in the hospital.
3. Medical officers having charge of hospitals will also make a
thorough inspection of them every Sunday morning.
4. Inspection when troops are mustered for payment.
292. Besides these inspections, frequent visits will be made by
the commanding officer, company and medical officers, during
the month, to the men’s quarters, the hospital guard-house, &c.
FORMS OF PARADE
322. On all parades or ceremony, such as reviews, guard-
mounting, at Troop or Retreat parades, instead of the word
“Rest” which allows the men to move or change the position of
their bodies, the command will be “Parade- Rest.” At the last
word of this command, the soldier will carry the right foot six
inches in the rear of the left heel, the left knee slightly bent, the
body upright upon the right leg; the musket resting against the
hollow of the right shoulder, the hands crossed in front, the
backs of them outward, and the left hand uppermost. At the
word “Attention!” the soldier will resume the correct position at
order arms. In the positions here indicated, the solider will
remain silent and motionless; and it is particularly enjoined upon
all officers to cause the commands above given, on the part of
the soldier, to be executed with briskness and spirit.
323. Officers on all duties under arms are to have their swords
drawn, without waiting for any words of command for that
I. DRESS PARADE
324. There shall be daily one dress parade, at Troop or Retreat,
as the commanding officer may direct.
325. A signal will be beat or sounded half an hour before Troop
or Retreat, for the music to assemble on the regimental parade,
and each company to turn out under arms on its own parade, for
roll-call and inspection by its own officers.
326. Ten minutes after that signal, the Adjutant’s Call will be
given, when the Captains will march their companies (the band
playing) to the regimental parade, where they take their positions
in the order of battle. When the line is formed, the Captain of
the first company, on notice of the Adjutant, steps one pace to
the front, and gives to his company the command “Order –
Arms. Parade – Rest,” which is repeated by each Captain in
succession to the left. The adjutant takes post two paces on the
right of the line; the Sergeant-Major two paces on the left. The
music will be formed in two ranks on the right of the Adjutant.
The Senior officer present will take the command of the parade
and will take post at a suitable distance in front, opposite the
center, facing the line.
327. When the companies have ordered arms, the adjutant will
order the music to beat off, when it will commence on the right,
beat in front of the line to the left, and back to its place on the
328. When the music has ceased, the Adjutant will step two
paces to the front, face to the left, and command,
1. Attention 2.Battalion 3. Shoulder – Arms 4. Prepare to
open ranks 5. To the rear, open order 6. March.
At the sixth command, the ranks will be opened according to the
system laid down in the Infantry Tactics, the commissioned
officers marching to the front, the company officers four paces,
field officers six paces, opposite to their positions in the order of
battle, where they will halt and dress. The adjutant, seeing the
ranks aligned, will command,
And march along the front to the center, face to the right, and
pass the line of company officers eight or ten paces, where he
will come to the right about, and command,
Present – Arms!
When arms will be presented, officers saluting.
329. Seeing this executed, he will face about to the commanding
officer, salute, and report, “Sir, the parade is formed.” The
adjutant will then, on intimation to that effect, take his station
three paces on the left of the commanding officer, one pace
retired, passing round his rear.
330. The commanding officer, having acknowledged the salute
of the line by touching his hat, will, after the Adjutant has taken
his post, draw his sword and command,
1. Battalion 2. Shoulder - Arms!
And add such exercises as he may think proper, concluding with
Order - Arms!
Then return his sword, and direct the adjutant to receive the
[For the Corps of Cadets, additional movements of the Manual
of Arms shall continue, to include, but not limited to: Left
shoulder arms, right shoulder arms, support arms, port arms and
331. The Adjutant will now pass round the right of the
commanding officer, advance upon the line, halt midway
between him and the line of company officers, and command,
1. First Sergeants, outward - Face! 2. To your posts - March!
At the first command, they will shoulder arms as Sergeants,
march two paces to the front, and face inward. At the second
command, they will march to the center and halt. The Adjutant
will then order,
1. Front - Face! 2. Report.
At the last word, in succession, being on the right, will salute by
bringing the left hand smartly across the breast to the right
shoulder, and report the result of the roll call previously made on
the company parade.
332. The Adjutant again commands,
1. First Sergeants, outward - Face! 2. To your posts - March!
When they will resume their places and order arms. The
Adjutant will then face to the commanding officer, salute, report
absent officers, and give the result of the First Sergeant’s Report.
The commanding officer will next direct the orders to be read,
when the Adjutant will face about and announce,
Attention to Orders!
He will then read the orders.
333. The orders having been read, the Adjutant will face to the
commanding officer, salute, and report; when on an intimation
from the commander, he will again face to the line, and
Parade is dismissed.
All the officers will now return their swords, face inward, and
close on the Adjutant, he having taken position in their line, the
field officers on the flanks. The Adjutant commands,
1. Front - Face! 2. Forward - March!
When they will march forward, dressing on the center, the music
playing; and when within six paces of the commander, the
Adjutant will give the word,
The officers will then salute the commanding officer by raising
to the cap and there remain until he shall have communicated to
them such instructions as he may have to give, or intimates that
the ceremony is finished. As the officers disperse, the First
Sergeants will close the ranks of their respective companies and
march them to the company parades, where they will be
dismissed the band continuing to play until the companies clear
the regimental parade.
334. All field and company officers and men will be present at
dress parade, unless especially excused, or on some duty
incompatible with such attendance.
335. A dress parade once a day will not be dispensed with,
except on extraordinary and urgent considerations.
386. Sentinels will be relieved every two hours, unless the state
of the weather or other causes, should make it necessary or
proper it be done at shorter or longer intervals.
387. Each relief, before mounting, is inspected by the
commander of the guard or its post. The corporal reports to him,
and presents the old relief on his return.
388. The countersign, or watchword, is given to such persons as
are entitled to pass during the night and to officers, non-
commissioned officers, and sentinels of the guard. Interior
guards receive the countersign only when ordered by the
commander of the troops.
389. The parole is imparted to such officers only as have a right
to visit the guards, and to make the grand rounds; and to officers
390. As soon as the new guard has been marched off, the officer
of the day will repair to the office of the commanding officer and
report for orders.
392. The officer of the day visits the guards during the day at
such times as he may deem necessary, and makes his rounds at
night at least once after 12 o’clock.
401. Sentinels will report every breach of orders or regulation
they are instructed to observe.
403. No sentinel shall quit his post or hold conversation not
necessary to the proper discharge of his duty.
404. All persons, of whatever rank in the service, are required to
observe respect toward sentinels.
407. Sentinels will present arms to general and field officers, to
the officer of the day, and to the commanding officer of the post.
To all other officers, they will carry arms.
ORDERS AND CORRESPONDENCE
423. An order will state at the head, the source, place and date,
and at the foot, the name of the commander who gives it; as for
Headquarters, VMI Cadet Reenactment Battalion
Camped at New Market, Virginia, 15th May, 1864
General Orders, }
No. , }
By command of the Lieutenant Colonel C.A.L.
P.H.W. Captain, Tactical Officer, Co A
442. Official letters should generally refer to one matter only.
In regard to an enlisted man, the company must be stated.
443. Letters on letter paper will be folder in three folds, parallel
with the writing.
444. All communications…are to be marked on the cover
“official business,” and to receive attention, must conform to the
requirements [of being addressed to the appropriate person in the
chain of command or appropriate office through which the
correspondence will be routed.
CAMP OF INFANTRY
503. Each company has its tents in two files, facing on a street
perpendicular to the color line. The width of the street depends
on the front of the camp, but should not be less than five paces.
The interval between the ranks of tents is two paces; between the
files of tents of adjacent companies, two paces; between
regiments, twenty-two paces.
504. The color line is ten paces in front of the front rank of
505. The company officers are in rear of their respective
companies, the Captains on the right.
506. The Colonel and Lieutenant Colonel near the center of the
line of field and staff; the Adjutant, a Major, and Surgeon, on the
right; the Quartermaster, a Major, and Assistant Surgeon on the
UNIFORM AND DRESS OF COMMISSIONED OFFICER
1466. All officers shall wear a frock coat of gray cloth, known
as cadet gray; the skirt to extend half-way between the hip and
knee; double breasted for all grades….Two rows of seven
buttons, placed at equal distances…the distance between the
rows four inches at the top and three inches at bottom; stand up
collar, to rise no higher than to permit the chin to turn freely over
it, to hook in front at the bottom and slope thence up and
backward, at an angle of thirty degrees, on each side; cuffs two
and a half inches deep on the under side, there to be buttoned
with three small buttons, and sloped upwards to a point four
inches from the end of the sleeve…
1467. Buttons shall be of the Virginia State Seal variety.
1468. Caps shall be of the form known as French kepi.
1469. Marks to distinguish rank: Three gold braids for Field
Officers, two for Captains, to extend from the band on front,
back, and both sides to the top of the cap- and the center of the
crown to be embroidered with the same number of braids. (Cap
braiding is optional)
1470. Sleeve braid/waist sashes are optional.
1471. Rank is as proscribed for the Confederate Army.
All the Articles of War shall be followed and shall apply to both
the 19th Century Confederate and 21st Century United States
Parades in Review will be conducted according to the method
established by the Virginia Military Institute.