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					DFG-Project
Discontinuous     Noun     and
Prepositional Phrases




Questionnaire Frame

Language :

Interviewer :

Informant :

Date & Place :


            FIRST INSTRUCTIONS
PART 0:     Checklist
PART 1 :    Grammatical Background
PART 2 :    Universal Question Set
PART 3 :    Set of Questions to be Prepared
PART 4 :    Phonological Questionnaire




                                              1
                                       First Instructions
When you start working on a language, please determine first whether it has split

constructions by consulting the checklist beginning on the next page.

      If the language has split constructions, please fill in the entire questionnaire.


      If the language has no split constructions, please proceed to the “grammatical background
       part” (Part 1) and complete the sections with an underlined headline. Proceed the same way
       with the “Phonological Questionnaire” (Part 4). No data other than these need to be
       provided for languages without a split construction.




          Please proceed to the checklist on the next page
                                                  




                                                   2
                                        PART 0: Checklist.

                             Please read these instructions carefully:

         For each construction, please give first the sentence in canonical order and second the
          sentence with the discontinuous arrangement of the noun phrase. Please add a morpheme-
          by-morpheme gloss, and a translation.
          If no discontinous XP can be formed for the category in question, you only need to insert “*” into
          the box.


         You need not follow the English example in all its details. You may change content words,
          but please try to keep as close to the content of the English model as you can. However, feel
          free to make all changes in content words that you think are necessary to improve
          acceptability.
         Often, the words in discontinous noun phrases differ morphologically from the words in the
          continuous noun phrase. E.g., adjectives often need to bear a nominalizing affix in a discontinuous
          NP. When you determine whether split constructions are possible or not, make sure that such
          morphological changes are taken into account

         Discontinuous constructions are often acceptable with a marked pragmatics only. When you or
          your informants judge a sentence, the sentence should be considered acceptable if there is a
          context in which it cou ld be used.


2.        General Properties of Splits
2.1       Can determiners, numerals, and quantifiers be fronted independent of the rest
          of the noun phrase?
2.1.1 wh-determiner [If wh-phrase can be moved to the left in the relevant language]
          Is there an equivalent of
          How many has Peter bought __ chairs? ('How many chairs has Peter bought?') in the language




                                                      3
2.1.2   quantifiers/numerals [if focused or topicalized elements can be moved to the left]
        Three has Mary bought __ chairs.
        'Mary has bought three chairs.'




        Many has Mary bought __ chairs.
        'Mary has bought many chairs.'




2.5     Can a noun be moved leftward independent of the noun phrase?
        Book, Peter has read an interesting.
        'Peter has read an interesting book.'




        Books, Peter has read many

        “Peter has read many books”




           Please check your results for this section with the Potsdam split project people.

                   Please proceed then to the grammatical background part.




                                                    4
                     PART 1: Grammatical Background


PART 1 :    Grammatical Background
PART 2 :    Universal Question Set
PART 3 :    Set of Questions to be Prepared
PART 4 :    Phonological Questionnaire



Instructions :
If the language has splits according to the tests in the checklist, then please provide
all the information asked for in this Part 1 “Grammatical Background” of the
questionnaire, preferably by consulting reference grammars or the like.

After you have completed part 1, and before you begin with the other parts of the
questionnaire, you are then asked to eliminate in PART 2 all questions that do not
apply in the language under investigation. E.g., if the language does not displace
question words at all, the question word parts should be eliminated from the set of
questions in PART 2. Similarly, if the language moves phrases to the right only, then
all parts refering to movement to the left should be replaced by sentences
representing movement to the right.

After you have prepared PART 2, it would be a good idea to contact the Potsdam
project people once again. Please also transform the abstract issues of PART 3 into
concrete questions on the basis of the grammatical information of this PART 1. After
you have completed this, please begin the work on PART 2 with your informant.

If the language has no splits, then PART 2 and PART 3 can be ignored. In PART 1,
you can confine yourself to providing the information asked for in sections with an
underlined header. After having provided this information, please proceed directly to
PART 4:Phonological Questions.




                                              5
0 The Structure of the Language
Information concerning the basic aspects of the grammar of the language should be obtained from reference
grammars or similar sources before the interview. Normally, this information is not obtained from the
informant
Indicate the sources of your information here:




0.1 Structure of the Noun Phrase
0.1.1 Which different parts of speech exist in the NP?
A positive answer should be given only if there are clear formal (not semantic) grounds for distinguishing the
following categories from the noun, such as word order or morphology. Indicate the reasons for having
separate categories very briefly, (if you think it is necessary, you might give references)
        Noun                            yes/no
        Adjective                       yes/no
        Numeral                         yes/no
        Quantifier, Determiner.         yes/no
        Article                         yes/no

How does N differ from A grammatically?




How does Num differ from A?




What is the difference (if any) between Q, Num, Det, Art and Adj?




                                                      6
0.1.2   Obligatoriness of Heads in the NP
Is the noun obligatory in the NP?                                   yes/no

That is: can one say something like I saw a red and refer to some red object that is contextually
given?
Or does one have to insert a nominal dummy (such as in I saw a red one) or use a special morphology for the
adjective not used when it appears in an NP with a noun?
If N is not obligatory, are there any changes we observe in the syntax & morphology of NP without an noun?




If a nominal element is obligatory, what morpheme is used as a pro-from for “I saw a red”? (like
one in English, no in Japanese).




Is there an obligatory definite or indefinite determiner for singular or plural noun phrases? If so, is
the determiner obligatory in all syntactic positions (subject vs. object, etc.). (Ex.: in German, only
singular count noun must be accompanied by an article, plural nouns and mass nouns need no article)




Are there other categories that have to be obligatorily present in the noun phrase? Does the language have a
classifier system?




                                                         7
0.1.3 Other Elements
How are possessors expressed? As adjectives? As noun phrases with a “possessive” syntax? Or both?




How are complements of nouns (such as in president of Germany, introduction to linguistics) expressed?




0.1.4 Morphology
Which elements realize the grammatical features of the noun phrase morphologically (i.e.: which elements
bear overt Case or number marking, specificity, definiteness, etc.). The nouns? The adjectives? The
determiners?




Under what conditions could such a marking be suppressed? (E.g..: marking is optional on all elements but
the head – on all elements but the first one.




Do Det, Art, Q and N always agree with respect to their grammatical features? Or can they enter other
relations of morphological dependency (as in Slavic: numerals (over 5) combine with genetive rather than
agreeing nouns).




Are there morphological regularities that may be important for the splitting of noun phrases (Material that
can only/cannot appear at the left/right periphery of a noun phrase. Material that can only appear in the
second position of a noun phrase, etc.) ?




                                                    8
0.1.5 Word Order
What are the serialization possibilities for Det, Q, Art, Adj, N, PP-complements, PP-adjuncts, possessors
and for focus/topic particles in the noun phrase?




Is there a canonical order of these elements?




What function does reordering relative to this canonical order fulfil?




0.1.6 Other Aspects
Are there any other properties that may be of interest for splits? Factors such as: the existence of double
determiners in Greek, etc.




0.2 Structure of the Prepositional Phrase
Do prepositions appear at the left or at the right part of the preposition phrase?




Does the preposition have any important influence on the structure of the noun phrase?




                                                        9
0.3 Clausal Structure
0.3.1   What is the canonical position of Subject, Verb, and Object in the language. Or, to put it differently,
        what is the canonical position of the verb, the agent and the undergoer/theme in a standard transitive
        sitution?




        What is the canonical position of the verb and the argument in a simple intransitive construction,
        if the argument(subject) is an agent




        if the a argument(subject) is a patient/undergoer.




0.3.2   Does the Language have free word order/scrambling




0.3.3   How are constituent questions formed (movement to left/right)




0.3.4 How does the language mark (contrastive) topics? Are there special topic positions? Where
are these topic positions?




                                                      10
0.3.5 How does the language mark focus? Are there special focus positions? Where are these focus
positions?




0.3.6 What is the case and agreement system of the language? Ergative? Accusative? Active? Other
option?




0.3.7   Does the language have noun incorporation? To what extent is the language polysynthetic?




0.3.8   Does the language have classifiers?




0.3.8   Does the language have adverbial quantifiers?




                                                 11
                            PART 2: Universal Question Set

PART 1 :       Grammatical Background
PART 2 :       Universal Question Set
PART 3 :       Set of Questions to be Prepared
PART 4 :       Phonological Questionnaire



On the basis of the results of the background questionnaire,
eliminate ALL questions that are irrelevant for the language
in question before you show the questionnaire PART 2 to
the informant.

For each construction, please give first the sentence in canonical order and then in the
order with the discontinuous noun phrase. Please provide a translation and a word-by-
word gloss.
While you need not follow the English example in all details (you may change
content words), please try to keep as close to it as you can. However, make any
changes in content words necessary to improve acceptability. Please recall also that
the grammaticality of a split construction may involve morphological changes, and
may be possible in certain restricted contexts only.

1 General Aspects of noun phrase (prep phrase) discontinuity
1.1 Operator movement leaving NP/PP
1.1.1   wh-Questions

Eliminate this section and proceed directly to 1.1.4 if wh-phrases must be left in situ in the
language under consideration.

The following questions check for “standard” movement of XPs out of noun phrases.
Please give all ways of expressing the individual questions in the language: If it is impossible to have a
grammatical translation, please indicate what the structure would have to look like, and mark the
ungrammaticality with an “*”.



                                                   12
IMPORTANT!
The English example material illustrating the kind of construction we aim at is formulated with
leftward movement of the question word. They should of course be interpreted as checking for
rightward movement, if the language moves wh-phrases to the right periphery of the sentence


1.1.1.1 Themes of transitive verbs (objects)
About whom have you bought a book/ Who have you bought a book about?




1.1.1.2 Themes of intransitive verbs (subjects-objects)
About what has a book appeared? About what does a book please you?/What has a book appeared about




If it has turned out that the only way of formulating these questions involved pied piping
        that is, if you can only get the equivalent of
                a book about whom did you buy?
        and under no circumstances
                about whom did you buy a book
then stop working on this section and proceed to 1.1.2.

If piep piping is not obligatory, please continue with this section of the questionnaire.


1.1.1.3 Agents of transitive verbs (subjects)
Of whom did the mother invite you? (meaning: whose mother)? Of whom did the mother read this book?




1.1.1.6 Goals of ditransitive verbs
of which bus did you show the driver __ the way to the city?




                                                       13
1.1.3   Preposition phrases
1.1.3.0. Preposition Stranding

Can prepositions be stranded in the context of wh-movement ?

Who did you laught at? Who did you laugh about? Which city do you live in?




1.1.4 Focus movement [If focused phrases may undergo movement to a position
for foci in the language]
In many languages, focused phrase can be placed into special position in the clause:

        - the left or right periphery, or very close to the left or right periphery

        - the position immediately to the left of the verb, or to the right of the verb

to mention just a few options.

You have classified the language in Part 1, 0.3.5. in this respect. Please proceed now as follows:

Eliminate 1.1.4 and proceed to 1.1.5 directly, if there is no focus movement

Otherwise, specify for ALL types of focus movement the grammatical options in the aspects specified below.

                                                 IMPORTANT
                                     Please proceed in the following way:

       Ask for/provide a translation of the sentence given under each number (CANONICAL
        ORDER)

       Ask how the sentence would be formulated if it would be an answer to a complement
        question asking for the word/the phrase in capitals.

        If no split construction is used, try to formulate the split construction yourself on the basis of the
        canonical order you have got from the informant, and ask the informant if the split version is
        grammatical, too, or what would have to be changed in order to render it grammatical.


The English example material illustrating the kind of construction we aim at is formulated with leftward
movement of the focus/topic phrase.They should of course be interpreted as checking for rightward
movement, if the language moves focus or topic phrases to the right periphery of the sentence.


                                                         14
1.1.4.1 Themes of transitive verbs (objects)
You have bought a book about BIRDS
Is it possible to place (about) BIRDS alone into the focus position(s) of the language?




1.1.4.2 Themes of intransitive verbs (subjects-objects)
A book about BIRDS appeared

Is it possible to place (about) BIRDS alone into the focus position(s) of the language?




If the only way of formulating these sentences involve pied piping (i.e. if you only get something like“a
book about BIRDS have you bought”), then stop now with this section, and proceed to 1.1.5.
Otherwise, please continue with all those focus constructions that do not require pied-piping.


1.1.4.3 Agents of transitive verbs (subjects)
The mother of JOHN read a book

Is it possible to place (of) JOHN alone into the focus position(s) of the language?




1.1.5 Topicalization
Section 1.1.5 needs to be filled in only if Focus Movement and Topic Movement differ formally in
the language. If they do not, please proceed to section 1.1.6.

Likewise, if topic phrases cannot be placed into specific positions in the clause, then please proceed
to section 1.1.6.

In some languages. focus and topic phrases go to different positions,. or topicalization has formal
consequences different from those of focus movement (say: resumptive pronouns). Please fill in the present
section 1.1.5. in this case.

                                                      15
Please give all ways of expressing the topical status of a part of a noun phrase/PP in the language.
Proceed in the following way:

       Ask for a translation of the sentence given under each number (CANONICAL ORDER)

       Introduce a specific referent that could stand for the NP in capitals. Ask how one would phrase the
        sentence if uttered in a context in which this specific referent is the topic
                (“Let us talk about Max. I think that Mary hates THIS MAN).

       If the NP is not already split in the answer of the informant, construct the split yourself and ask the
        informant if the split construction could be used as well, or how it would have to be modified.
Construct a contrastive topic situation. Ask if the discontinuous sentence could be used in this situation.


1.1.5.1 Themes of transitive verbs (objects)
[Talking about Germany… ] Bill has bought a book about this country

Check if (about) this country can be moved to a topic position independent of the rest of the
noun phrase (This country, Bill has bought a book about)




If formulating these sentences necessarily involves pied piping (i.e. if you only get something
like“the book about Germany, Bill has bought ”), then stop working in thus section and
proceed to 1.1.6.
1.1.5.3 Agents of transitive verbs (subjects)
[Let’s talk about Bill] The mother of this man read a book

Check if this man can be moved to a topic position independent of the rest of the noun phrase
(Bill, the mother of read a book)




                                                       16
1.1.5.6 Goals of ditransitive verbs
[Let’s talk about this vehicle] you showed the driver of a this vehicle the way to the center.
Check if (of ) this vehicle can be moved to a topic position independent of the rest of the noun
phrase




1.1.6   Scrambling [If the language has scrambling besides topic movement]
If the language has no scrambling, proceed to 1.2.



                                               Instruction
       Get a translation of the following sentences.

       Construct an order in which the underlined XP is scrambled to a position preceding the subject
        and/or the adverb (but different from the topic or focus position.

       Check the wellformedness of this scrambled order with your informant.

Nobody read a book about this man yesterday




John said that nobody read a book about this man yesterday




                                                        17
3 Simple Typology of Split Constructions
3.1 Simple splits?
-   We presuppose a structure [DET .. [ ADJ ,,, N ]]] independent of order-
-   Can the highest head in the noun phrase be moved independently to a position corresponding to its
    semantic/pragmatic value? I.e.: for [DET A N] – can DET be moved to such a position?

3.1.1   Are simple splits okay for wh-questions? Can the determiner be moved to the position
        for question words alone?
        How many has Mary seen chairs?
        'How many chairs has Mary seen?'




        Don’t forget: splitting may require some morphological changes of the words of the
        discontinous noun phrase!

        Don’t forget: if the language moves wh-words to the right, please check for rightward
        movement (Mary has seen chairs yesterday how many?)


IF your answer to 3.1.1 is positive: is splitting possible for ALL wh-determiners, or only for some?

please check for

which

what kind of

whose (if adjectival)


3.1.2   Are simple spits okay for quantifiers/numerals/determiniers
        Many has Peter seen chairs. [Peter has seen chairs yesterday many]
        'Peter has seen many chairs.'




        IF SO, for which elements of Q and Num is it okay?


                                                    18
Numerals (Three, he has bought chairs)



Demonstratives (This, he has bought chair)



Negative Quantifier (he has bought no chairs  No he has bought ___ chairs)




3.1.3   Are simple splits okay for adjectives
        Red has Peterbought cars.
        'Peter has bought red cars.'
        Don’t forget: splitting may require some morphological changes of the words of the
        discontinous noun phrase!




        IF SO, are there restrictions for adjective class?

he has seen likely winners 
Likely he has seen the winners




he has seen only former ministers
only former, he has seen ministers




3.2 Pied Piping
-   If the fronting of X is possible, check what elements below X may be pied-piped.
-   Otherwise. proceed to section 3.3.




                                                    19
3.2.1 DET
For the construction in 3.1.1/2.., determine if an adjective can go to the focus/topic position together with the
quantifiers/wh-determiners

How many good have you read books




Three good have I read books




        Don’t forget: splitting may require some morphological changes of the words of the
        discontinous noun phrase!



3.2.2 ADJ
Check the same for the construction in 3.1.3

new good have I read books




3.3 Inverted splits?
Can the lowest head in the noun phrase be moved independently to a position corresponding to its
semantic/pragmatic value (for head initial noun phrase: can the leftmost head be fronted independently ... )?

3.3.1   Noun
       Books has Mary read many interesting.
       Can the noun be moved to a topic/focus position alone, stranding adjectives and/or
determiners?
        'Mary has read many interesting books.'




                                                       20
        Don’t forget: splitting may require some morphological changes of the words of the
        discontinous noun phrase!
3.3.2   Are inverted splits okay for adjectives?
        Red has Peter seen many.
        'Peter has seen many red.' (e.g. talking about cars)
        Can the adjective be moved to a topic/focus position alone, stranding determiners?




        Don’t forget: splitting may require some morphological changes of the words of the
        discontinous noun phrase!



3.4 Pied Piping
When a head X is fronted as an instance of a inverted split, what other elements may be pied piped? And
under which pragmatic and/or semantic conditions?


3.4.1 Noun
Can an adjective go with the noun in the construction identified in 3.3.1?

Good books has he read many




Good books has he read new




3.4.2   ADJ

Good new has he read many




                                                       21
3.5 Intermediate heads
-   Can intermediate heads be fronted? If so, under what conditions?

        Red has Mary seen three ___books.
        'Mary has seen three red books.'




        Don’t forget: splitting may require some morphological changes of the words of the
        discontinous noun phrase!


-   Does the fronting of intermediate heads lead to split constellations ...X ...Y ... in which XY would not
    constitute a well formed noun phrase in the language in question?




3.6 Can splits arise when constituents dominating the noun phrase are moved?
3.6.1   VP-Preposing or VP-Extraposition
Determine whether the verb phrase can be preposed or extraposed in the language:
        as in English

        Read a book (though) John will




Determine whether an object can be stranded when the verb phrase is preposed or extraposed in the
language,       as in the German equivalent of

                give books, he will only to Mary




                                                     22
        Can the NP be split up when VP is preposed?

        [Books read] Mary has many interesting.
        'Mary has read many interesting books.'




        Many read Mary has interesting books.
        'Mary has read many interesting books.'




3.6.2    PP-Preposing
-   Can NPs be split when they are part of a PP? Use those types of constructions that were best for NP-
    splits.

        In which he will go town?        < -- In which town will he go)




Don’t forget: splitting may require some morphological changes of the words of the discontinous
noun phrase!

Use the wh-determiner for which splitting up simple noun phrases yields the best result!

        Which he will go in town? (simple split, P stranded)
        'In which town will he go?'




        In town he will go nice. (inverted split, P fronted)
        he goes to a nice town'




                                                      23
        Town he will go in nice? (inverted split, P stranded)
        'Will he go in a nice town?'




   In what respects do PP and NP-splits differ?




2.9 Can a split constructions be formed if the noun phrase is part of a prepositional
     phrase? If so, are there any differences to splits not involving PPs?
As indicated above, the constructions should be checked only if the language has the pertinent displacement
operation for simple XPs.

2.9.1   independently fronted Det/Num/Q
        wh-determiner
        How many has Peter talked about paintings?
        'Peter has talked about how many paintings?'




        quantifiers/numerals

        Many has Mary talked about paintings.
        'Mary has talked about many paintings.'




                                                       24
4 Distance of the parts of a split
4.1 Intervention of negation
4.1.1   How is negation expressed?




4.1.2   Can negation intervene between the parts of a simple split?
If simple splits are possible, check whether one can insert a negation between its part.




-   wh phrase split.
    Construct the simple split corresponding to

        How many does Peter not like cars?
        which does Peter not like cars
        (Peter does not like which car.)
with an inserted negation




4.1.3   Can negation intervene between the parts of an inverted split?
Focus-topic split

        Books Peter did not give his sister many good __ .
        (Peter did not give his sister interesting books.)




                                                        25
4.2 Intervention of a quantifier
4.2.1   Can a quantifier intervene between the parts of a simple split?
        Which does nearly every man / only John like car




        How many does nearly every woman / only Mary own cars




        Many does nearly every child / only Mary own toys




4.3 Intervention of a sentential boundary
4.3.1   Infinitives: simple/inverted
        How many does he promise to buy cars




        Many he promises to buy cars




        Cars he promises to buy many new




4.3.2   Indicatives: simple/inverted

                                                   26
        how many, Mary thinks that he buys cars / simple




        Many, Mary believes that he buys cars / simple




        Cars, Mary believes that he buys many / inverted




4.3.3   Relatives

        how many, Mary knows a man who owns :: cars




        Many, Mary knows a man who owns __ cars




        Cars, Mary knows a man who owns many ___




                                                   27
5 Grammatical function of the split XP
5.1 Simple splits
5.1.1   Theme/patient of a transitive verb
How many did you buy books




Many he bought books




5.1.2   Themes of intransitive verbs (subjects-objects)

How many did books appear




Many did books appear




5.1.3   Agents of transitive verbs (subjects)

How many did students buy a book? How many did students invite you?




                                                   28
Many did students buy a book. Many did students invite me




5.1.6 Goals of ditransitive verbs
How many did you show _ drivers the way to the center




Many you showed __ drivers the way to the center




5.2 Inverted splits
5.2.1   Theme/patient of a transitive verb
Books he bought many




5.2.2 Themes of intransitive verbs (subjects-objects)
Books did many _ appear




5.2.3   Agents of transitive verbs (subjects)
Students did many read a book . Students have many invited you




                                                   29
5.2.6   Goals of ditransitive verbs
Drivers, you showed many __ the way to the center




8 Morphology and Regeneration
8.3 „Regeneration“
8.3.1   PP splits
Can the preposition be doubled, in simple/inverted splits?

in many has he lived in nice houses

        (He has lived in many nice houses.)




Is the repetition of the preposition optional, or obligatory?

In nice houses has he lived in many.
(He has lived in many nice houses.)




Is the repetition of the preposition optional, or obligatory?

Are there other contexts in the language in which you can repeat the preposition of a PP?




                                                    30
8.3.2    Regeneration: Det/Num

Can a Det/a Num be repeated in a split construction?
         a car has he an American
         (He has an American car.)
         this man he meets this intelligent
         two cats he owns two black




Do the two determiners have to be identical?

         a car I can afford no American
         (I can not afford any American car.)




-   Is det-doubling possible in general in the language in question (as it is in Greece)?




8..3.3   Can N be repeated/regenerated
-   Hyponymy - simple vs. inverted; PP-split
         birds he only knows nightingales
         cars he only buys Toyotas




pro-from
                 birds he only likes blue ones




                                                    31
11 Combinatorics

11.1 Can the NP be split up in more than two parts
Inverted:

          books has he interesting probably yet never more than three read
          (He has probably never read more than three interesting books yet.)




Simple:

          more than three has he interesting probably books never read
          (He has probably never read more than three interesting books yet.)




Mixed

          more than three has he books probably interesting never read
          (He has probably never read more than three interesting books yet.)




11.2 Can more than one NP be split up per clause?
          men have sonatas of Bach so far only few all perform could
          (So far only a few men could have performed all sonatas of Bach.)




                                                       32
11.3 Can split types be combined?
      how many has chairs he expensive from France?
      (He has how many expensive chairs from France.)




11.4.1 Is it possible to form cleft constructions?

       It was books, that I bought.

       “It was books, that I bought.”




11.4.2 Can a split NP be used in a cleft construction?

      It was books, that I bought three.

      “It was three books, that I bought.”




      It was three, that I bought books.

      “It was three books, that I bought.”




                                                33
11.5.1 Is it possible to form left dislocated NPs?

      Books, I read them. / Books, them read I.

      “Books, I read them.”




11.5.2 Can a split NP be used in a left dislocation construction?

      Books, I read them many. / Books, them I read many.

      “Many books, I read them.”




      Many, I read them books. / Many, them I read books.

      “Many books, I read them.”




                                                     34
                    PART 3: Set of Questions to be Prepared
PART 1 :     Grammatical Background
PART 2 :     Universal Question Set
PART 3 :     Set of Questions to be Prepared
PART 4 :     Phonological Questionnaire




The test material for the following constructions must be
constructed on the basis of a grammar and the results of Q2
before the informant is contacted again.




12 Matching
12.1 Identify the syntactic and morphological wellformedness restrictions on noun
     phrases, such as “every singular count noun must have a determiner” (German)
     or “the last element in a noun phrase must be inflected for case (Warlpiri), “a
     classifier must be used”
      Construct split sentences, in which the continuous noun phrase would fulfil the requirements,
      but not the parts in which it is split up. Identify the consequences, such as

      the noun phrase can be split up without any changes




                                                  35
        the noun phrase cannot be split up




        the morphology of the parts has to be adjusted




        the lexical composition of the parts is adjusted




12.2 Do the parts of a simple - an inverted split always agree with respect to
features?
Identify the set of grammatical features appearing in a noun phrase in the relevant language.

For Number

Try things such as

books I have read only one



                                                      36
For Gender

Try constructions in which the natural gender of a referent is not identical with the grammatical gender of the
noun, as in

girls.neuter knows the only intellgent.fem

Girl-neut know he only an.fem intelligent fem




Classifiers

Try to find examples in which the classifier classifier is lexically determined rather than semantically. In case
of a split NP: does the semantically appropriate classifier replace the lexically determined sometimes?




                                                       37
Case

Is the Case in both parts of a split NP always the one you would get in a continuous NP? Or could one part
simply bear the most unmarked Case?




                                                   38
12.3 Are there cases of split constructions, which, when linearized together, deliver
     ungrammatical word sequences?
Check for ordering restrictions involving focus or topic particles and search for examples similar to

    Nur Freunde hat er keine

    Only friends has he none

which could not be linearized accordingly in a non-split fashion

    *Er hat keine nur Freunde

    He has no only friends




12.4 Are there differences in the realization of features in split an continuous NPs?
Examples: strong-weak distinction in German. Case in Russian. Check for morphological properties the
expression of which may depend on (in)definiteness, the presence of overt material in the noun position,
partitivity, etc.

er hat keine polnischen Gänse. aber: polnische Gänse hat er keine




Are there features that may be realized only once in a NP, but appear twice in a split construction?

(say, Case particles in Japanese ... )




                                                      39
40
12.5 Where are the morphologically visible features of the noun phrase (Case,
     number, etc.) realized in a continuous and a split construction (as a function of
     types)?
Continuous:

Feature(s) F realized on Det / ADJ / N




Simple Split

Feature(s) F realized on Det / ADJ / N

__________________________________________________________________________________
Inverted Split

Feature(s) F realized on Det / ADJ / N

__________________________________________________________________________________



Do the features have to be realized in each part of the split? Check the grammatical features identified in
sect. 0.




                                                    41
13.2 Semantics/pragmatics
-   What semantic/pragmatic functions may be fulfilled by the left part. In simple and inverted splits?

Simple:




Inverted:




14.2 Semantics/pragmatics
What semantic/pragmatic functions may be fulfilled by the right part? In simple and inverted splits?




Does the function of the left part have an influence on the function of the right part?




                                                       42
                            PART 4: Phonological Questionnaire


PART 1 :         Grammatical Background
PART 2 :         Universal Question Set
PART 3 :         Set of Questions to be Prepared
PART 4 :         Phonological Questionnaire




Instructions:
If the language has split, according to the tests of Q_Frame, then
please provide all the information asked for in this part of the
questionnaire.


If the language has no split, please confine yourself in providing the
information of sections with an underlined header. After completing
this, send the questionnaire back, together with the recorded sentences
in wav. format.




1. Recordings

1.1 What is to be recorded

1.1.1. A few words and ten sentences
These words and sentences should reveal the intonational properties of the language, such as stress and phrasing, and at
least some of the information structural properties, such as focus and topic. They should be pronounced with clearly
realized accents and phrase boundaries, in a slow rhythm, without being unnatural. Feel free to change the word
order, or to changes some words, to add particles if this renders the sentences better.

        0. Pronounce a few monosyllabic, disyllabic, trisyllabic and longer words in solation. If the language has lexical
                                                           43
    stress or tones, please give all possibilities of location of lexical stress, as well as all tones.

1. An intransitive sentence: The child is laughing (or The woman slept or The man dances…)

    Provide different intonational patterns as answers to different questions:

              Focus-eliciting: - Who is laughing?

                                  - What does the child do?

                                  - What happens?

                                  - Does the woman laugh? (Answer contrastively: No, the child is laughing)

              Topic-eliciting: - There is a child and a woman in the context.. What do they do?
              ( Answer with a contrastive topic: the child is laughing but the woman is crying)

2. A transitive sentence: The woman is drinking water (or The lion killed the antelope, or The dog
    chases the cat…)

              Focus-eliciting: - Who is drinking water?

                                  - What is the woman doing?

                                  - What is the woman drinking?

                                  - What happens?

                                  - Does the woman drink wine? (Answer contrastively: No, she is drinking water)

              Topic-eliciting: - There is a woman and a man in the context.. What do they do?

              ( Answer with a contrastive topic: the woman is drinking water but the man is sleeping)

3. A ditransitive sentence: A woman is giving a book to her mother (A man takes a fruit from a tree,
    Mary introduces her husband to her friend,…)

              Focus-eliciting: - Who is giving a book to her mother?

                                  - What is the woman doing?

                                  - What is the woman giving to her mother

                                  - To whom is the woman giving a book?

                                  - Who is giving what to her mother?


                                                            44
                                - Who is giving what and to whom?

                                - What happens?

                                - Is the woman giving flowers to her mother? (Answer contrastively: No, she is
                     giving a book to her mother)

             Topic-eliciting: - There are a book and an umbrella. What happens with these objects?

    ( Answer with a contrastive topic: The book, the woman is giving it to her mother and the umbrella,
the man is giving it to his.)

4. A sentence with adjuncts and modifiers A tall man is smoking by the river.

             Focus-eliciting: - Who is smoking by the river?

                                - What does the man do?

                                - Where is the man smoking?

                                - Who smokes and where?

                                - What happens?

                                - Does the man spleep by the river? (Answer contrastively: No, he is SMOKING)

             Topic-eliciting: - There are a tall man and a short man in the context.. What do they do?

             (Answer with a contrastive topic: the tall man is smoking by the river but the short man has
already gone)

5. Only as a focus operator:

             - Only John has eaten a banana

             - John has only bought the book (he did not write it)

             - John has only watered the plants (the only thing that John did was to water the plants)

             - John has only watered the plants (he watered only the plants not the trees)

6. Also as a focus operator

             - Also John has eaten a banana

             - John has also bought the book (on top of reading it)


                                                     45
              - John has also watered the plants (John fed the animals earlier)

              - John has also watered the plants (he watered the trees earlier)

7. Even as a focus operator

              - Even John has eaten a banana (Mary and Bill also ate a banana)

              - John has even bought the book (after having written it)

              - John has even watered the plants (he did a lot in the house earlier)

              - John has even watered the plants (he watered, the trees, the vegetables, the flowers…)

8. Negation

              - The child is not sleeping

              - The woman is not drinking water

              - Neither the woman nor the man is giving a book to their mother

              - There is no man smoking by the river

              - John did not also buy the book.

9. Subordinate clause:

    - When Peter was a child, he used to meet his friends after school and play with them for hours.

    - Mary has heard the rumor that John will become the president

10. Questions:

              - Who has come?

              - What did Mary drink?

              - Who gave what to whom?

              - Where did the man smoke?

              - Has Mary come?

              - Does it rain?

              - Do you want coffee or tea?


                                                    46
The interviewer is required to indicate stresses, tones, and prosodic phrase boundaries on the
corresponding written versions of the sentences thus elicited, and to ask confirmation from the
informant of the correctness of the transcriptions. At the points of major prosodic phrasing, it is
usually possible to insert a small break in the utterance, which can help the informant to identify the
phrasing. Other correlates of phrasing can be tonal boundaries (a rise of a fall in the melody, which
does not correspond to a stress), segmental phenomena, or blocking thereof (as for instance elision,
epenthesis, assimilation, neutralization).

Please take care that the informant does not realize a list intonation (that is, knowing that there is a
following sentence to be read, she could be tempted to end the present sentence with a kind of rising
tone which is adequate for a list)


1.1.2. All grammatical sentences of the morphosyntactic part of the
questionnaire
All sentences should be produced first in canonical order and second in all possible intonational variations,
as far as phrasing, accenting and information structure is concerned.

A good method is to insert recording sessions at different points of the interview. Reflecting about
intonational variants brings the informant to think differently about possibilities.



1.1.3. Technicalities
    1. The DAT recorder can be on during the whole recording sessions. There is no need to switch the
    recorder on and off between each sentence.

    2. Keep quiet when the informant utters a sentence. Take care that nobody touches the microphone or the
    table it is on, manipulates paper, and so on. Avoid all kind of background noise.

    3. Check whether the recording has been successful before finishing the session.

    4. Prepare the material to be recorded carefully. The sentences should be written down and numbered
    before the recording takes place. Let the informant tell the number of the sentence before s/he
    pronounces it. Tell also on the tape which language it is, the date of the recording, and the name of the
    informant.

    5. The canonical order should be the first one to be pronounced. The informant is then invited to
    pronounce the sentences with as many intonational variants as possible. The interviewer should help the
    informant to imagine contexts for new variants.



                                                        47
1.1.4. Preparation of the recorded material for the database


                1. All sentences should be saved as individual wav. files.

                2. In Praat (to be downloaded at http://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/praat/):

                Prepare all sentences as pictures (including the sound wave, the pitch track (with the appropriate Hz
range for the speakers) and the corresponding text grid (the written sentence)), preferably with a translation.
Save the pictures as Praat-pictures. Example:




      400


      300


      200


      100


        0
                  Njúchí ìzí    zìnàw álúmà       àlènjè àw à ópúsà

            0                                                          4.66669
                                       Time (s)




2. Checklist of the phonological properties of the language
On the basis of the recordings, the following phonological properties of the language should be
checked.

2.1             Phrasing Properties
                Every language forms prosodic phrases on the basis of syntactic structure, and information structure.
Usually major syntactic phrases are falling together with corresponding prosodic phrases, but there are some
variations:

2.1.1           Do predicate and adjacent argument phrase together? Or predicate and subject?

2.1.2           Verb and two arguments?

2.1.3.          What about adjuncts?



                                                                      48
2.2       Correlates of Phrasing

          Prosodic phrasing is realized by corresponding correlates which can be tonal,                  rhythmic,
durational or segmental

2.2.1.    Are prosodic phrases (PhP) signaled by tonal boundaries (a rising tone, a falling tone)?

2.2.2     Are they signaled by segmental properties: segments changing their quality, their voicing,
neutralization of some feature, epenthetical segments, deleted segments

2.2.3     Are they accompanied by a break? (Is is possible or natural to insert a short break at the end of a
phrase?)



2.3       Intonation (maybe more for phonologists…)

2.3.1     Basic descriptive features: how are pitch accents, phrase accents and boundary tones realized?

2.3.2     How does the tonal structure of a declarative intonation phrase (IP) look like?
      1) at the level of the main accent of the IP. Is it a H*, (monotonal high tone) L* (monotonal low tone),
          H*L or HL* (falling tone), L*H or LH* (rising tone), …?

      2) At the level of the secondary accent of the IP. Is it preferably a H*, L*, or a bitonal tone?

      3) At the level at the phrase accent: does the phrase accent look for a stressed syllable? Is it realized at
          all? Is it different when the phrase is final and when it is non-final? (For instance it could be high or
          rising at the end of a nonfinal phrase, and low at the end of a final phrase)

      4) At the level of the final boundary: how is the end of an IP realized? (Probably with a low L% in the
          case of a declarative sentence)



2.4       Lexical Accent and Stress



2.4.1     Has the language lexical stress? (If not go to 2.6.)

2.4.2     Is the language trochaic (a strong syllable followed by a weak one) or iambic (a weak syllable
           followed by a strong one)?

2.4.3     Bi-, tri- and more syllabic monomorphemic words? Where does the stress go?


                                                         49
2.4.4    Is stress fixed, variable, does it move under suffixation or prefixation?

2.4.5    How is stress realized?

2.5      Phrasal stress and accent

         Phrasal stress and sentence stress have to be identified: final, initial, preverbal, on the most
         embedded constituent…

         Is there an obligatory or preferred focus position? Do focused constituents have to move to this
         position?



2.6      Tone Languages

         Is the language a tone language? Or is it does it have lexical tones (like Japanese or Swedish)?
2.6.1      Tone Inventory

2.6.2    Tone Sandhi




3.      Phonological Properties of Splits
3.1. Phrasing

3.1.1    Does the left part of a split constituent form its own prosodic phrase?

3.1.2    The right part?

3.1.3    Can more than one prosodic phrase be fronted in a split constituent?



3.2 Stress

3.2.1    Does the left part of a split construction need to be stressed, or is no stress also an option?

3.2.2    Does the right part (in situ) need to be stressed, or is no stress also possible?

3.2.3    Are there differences in the phrasing and stressing of wh-words, numerals, quantifiers? Does the
         presence of an individual phrase correlate with the syntactic status (for instance, if an adjective or a
         numeral alone may be a DP, it should be able to form its own Phonological Phrase).
3.2.4    Can the left part be deaccented? The right part? Both at the same time?




                                                         50
3.3      Information Structure and Intonation

3.3.1.   Is the left part always a topic, or can it also be a focus?
3.3.2    Identify the tonal and phrasing properties of topic constructions

3.3.3    Is the right part always a focus or can also be a topic?

      Example of topic and focus for German

            L*H                 H*L

         [Bücher/] IP [hat sie viele\ gelesen]IP

         books         has she many read




                                                         51

				
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