"Interrogative with special meaning"
Running head: INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE - ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE A Contrastive Analysis of Interrogative conveying special functions in English and Vietnamese Trương Thị Thanh Thảo Class: 4B07 University of Education Interrogative conveys special functions 2 Interrogative conveys special functions Introduction Supposed that one day you are invited to an English family and the host says to you ‘Could you pass the salt for me?’ How would you best respond to this question? Indeed, a native speaker can easily interpret the actual meaning of what the host has said. Therefore, an appropriate answer to this situation is ‘yes, of course’ or ‘Certainly’. Most importantly, the respond is followed by the performance action ‘passing the salt’ subsequently to indicate you know exactly what the speaker means. However, it is not easy for second language learners to recognize that this is not the question about the ability but a request for someone to do something. Brian (2000, p. 18) says we often (but not always) use a question or interrogative form to find something out. What can be inferred from the statement is that interrogative is used not only to seek information but to perform other purposes as well. According to linguist Cao Xuan Hao in the book Vietnamese Basic Grammatical functions (1991, p.19), there are 374 sentences in interrogative form in all. However, up to 229 sentences conveys special functions while only 125 sentences are really for enquiring information in Kieu story by Nguyen Du. Buồn trông cửa bể chiều hôm Thuyền ai thấp thoáng cánh buồn xa xa? Buồn trông ngọn nước mới sa Hoa trôi man mác biết là về đâu? Interrogative conveys special functions 3 At that time, to protect her family from being kept in prison, Kieu volunteers to sell herself and has to live in Ngung Bich brothel. Clearly, when asking two questions, she requires no answer at all. Indeed, It is just her monologue, which expressing the worry about the future life. The point is that I will not focus on the functions of language, but rather special functions created by the interrogative form. In the first part of the paper, I would like to give a very brief definition of interrogative with special functions. The second part will focus on special functions carried out by interrogative in English and judge how the Vietnamese express the same idea through questions to see whether they are similar to or different from each other. Lastly, through the contrastive analysis about “interrogative conveys special functions” between English and Vietnamese, I strongly hope to help Vietnamese learners understand the real purpose of special questions and respond appropriately to these kinds of questions. Interrogative with special functions It is a fact that interrogative is the form which is used widely in everyday conversations with a high frequency. According to Professor Le Quang Thiem, the main purpose of using interrogative is to find out and seek information. With this kind of question, askers are looking forward to being provided enough information they need. However, there are cases when language structures do not reflect exactly language functions. Brian (2000, p 18) says: ‘an interrogative might be used to elicit information...There are, however, many occasions when this is not the case.’ This means that an interrogative is not always for asking for information. Indeed, there is a variety of cases where interrogative can be employed for special functions such as greetings, making an invitation, expressing the feeling of the speaker….This causes Interrogative conveys special functions 4 many difficulties for language learners to interpret the actual purpose of the questions. As a result, it is important to draw language learners’ attention to such questions. Besides the function to ask the information, interrogative in English with special purposes can be classified as: a. Interrogative functions as greetings b. Interrogative functions as invitation c. Interrogative functions as requests d. Interrogative functions as affirmation of information e. Interrogative functions as scepticism f. Interrogative functions as exclamation g. Interrogative functions as asking permission h. Interrogative functions as suggestion i. Interrogative functions as making offer I will analyze each function in terms of English first and then explore how Vietnamese express these same functions through interrogative. a. Interrogative functions as greetings Greeting is a part of cultural norms in any society. Interesting enough, both English and Vietnamese tend to use interrogative as a way to greet each other. Let me take ‘How do you do?’ as a typical example. Although it follows exactly the form of a question, it does not require any information from the listener at all. Actually, it is a very formal greeting in a formal situation such as in the first meeting between business associates. However, especially younger people do not so commonly use such adjacency pair these days. Interrogative conveys special functions 5 And another example is “How are you?”. It is not exactly a serious question concerning about your health. It is just a way to greet someone or start a conversation both at an informal and formally level. At the most informal level, among friends and particularly among young people, the English also conveys interrogative as a means of greetings. Here are a series of Qh - questions used just as a greeting: How are things? How’s it going? These kinds of questions are frequently used in daily life in English to greet somebody who are close to them. The purpose of these questions is just a signal to start the conversation. Consequently, do not bother yourself giving a detailed answer concerning how have you been getting on so far. As I have mentioned earlier, Vietnamese also use interrogative as a way of greeting. However, the difference is that English have a tendency to ask about the health as greeting while Vietnamese often ask questions concerning about the activity the listeners are involved in although the answers become apparent to the askers. For example, a Vietnamese boy comes to visit his uncle. Although he certainly sees what his uncle is doing. He still puts this question to his uncle: Bác đang xem ti vi à? (Are you watching television?) In this case, he is asking the question not because he is concerned about what his uncle is doing but because he wants to indicate that he has realized the existence of his uncle. In return, by a question about the activity his uncle is involved, Interrogative conveys special functions 6 his uncle can also realize his presence. Therefore, interrogative functions as greetings successfully. b. Interrogative functions as invitations It cannot be denied that interrogative is used in a variety of purposes. Language learners should take into account the fact that interrogative is also used as an invitation both in formal and informal situations in English. If both of you have a close relationship, yes/no question is suitably accepted: Won't you come to my party? The question with the negative meaning indicates that the askers strongly expect their partners to accept the invitation rather than refuse it. On the contrary, the English commonly use Wh-question to ask somebody to go somewhere or to do something formally. Below are some common expressions in the interrogative form to invite somebody to take part in an activity with you: Would you like to come to my party? Would you care to join us for dinner at our house tonight? Would you be interested in going to the circus this weekend? How do you fancy joining the dancing club? Obviously, the English use a wide variety of interrogative sentence patterns to make an invitation. It is certainly that the structure “would you like” is not exactly the same as “would you be interested in” or “how do you fancy”. Therefore, in order to communicate effectively, as an English language learner, you have to take into account some factors: the context, the social relationship between the speaker and Interrogative conveys special functions 7 the listeners (formal or informal), and the aims of the speakers. Then, choose the best way to express yourself appropriately. In English, besides yes/no question and Qh-question, tag question also functions as a message to ask somebody to go somewhere in formal situations. The first part is imperative form, the question tag is ‘won’t you?’ For instance, when you are called for an interview, the interviewer is likely to invite you to sit down by using tag question: Take a seat, won’t you? In Vietnamese, we do not use a variety of different kinds of interrogative like English to perform an invitation. Instead, yes/no question commonly functions as an invitation. If we would like to ask our aunt to have the meal with us: Bác ăn chút gì lót dạ nhé? From the above example, forming such question in Vietnamese is not so troublesome for language learners. In English, when we change an affirmative form into an interrogative, we have to pay attention to its tense to use correct auxiliary. However, we do not need to do that because in Vietnamese, there are no tenses like in English. Simply, to make an invitation in Vietnamese, we just need to add ‘nhé’, ‘nhỉ’, ‘nha’… after an affirmative sentence. c. Interrogative functions as requests Commonly, both the English and Vietnamese use interrogative as a request because it is important to be polite when asking somebody to do something for you. Interrogative conveys special functions 8 Therefore, it is better to convey the request indirectly by interrogative form rather than directly by imperative. Using interrogative as a request creates good effects on the feeling of the listener in comparison with the use of imperative. As a result, the listener still feel good even when asker’ need is not to be accepted because listeners feel less pressure to accept the request thanks to the use of interrogative as making a request .Supposed that you find the atmosphere in the room stuffy, you are currently immersed yourself in the work. So, you want to ask your friend to do it for you: "Can you open the door for me, please?' However, if you would like to ask a person who is superior to you such as your boss, your manager..., you are supposed to use a more formal request: Could you open the door for me, please? Will you open the door for me, please? Would you open the door for me, please? The key point is how the listener can understand that this is a request, a requirement or an order. According to Searle, there are ten steps in the strategies to understand the real purpose of the interrogative: 1. The literal meaning of the interrogative is whether the listener can open the door or not. 2. According to the rule of cooperation in the conversation, there must an aim or point in the question. 3. The fact of the possibility to open the door has no interest to both interlocutors. Interrogative conveys special functions 9 4. Moreover, the asker can be sure that the listener is very capable of opening the door. 5. Therefore, the asker has a different purpose when asking this question. 6. A key point of the request is the listener is able to perform the action mentioned in the sentence. 7. If the answer to the interrogative is ‘yes’, it must followed by the action opening the door. 8. It is very hot, so it is understandable if the speaker asked the listener to open the door. 9. So, the speaker implicitly wants the listener to perform the action mentioned in the sentence 10. When there is not any else purpose, the speaker is sure to ask the speaker to open the door. Both the use of ‘can’ and ‘could’ is not for the asking about the ability. Similarly, ‘will’ and ‘would’ is also not for inquiring what might possibly happen in the future. In fact, it is a request for someone to do something. ‘Can’ is considered less formal than the others are although they have the same purpose to ask someone’s help or cooperation. Besides some of modal verbs, ‘would you mind’ is a common interrogative pattern as a polite request in English: Would you mind opening the door for me, please? Interrogative conveys special functions 10 One thing language learners should bear in mind is the form of the verb following these structures. There are a number of problems associated with this aspect of grammar because some verbs convey completely different meaning after different form. In English, it is very important to using the Ving form or the infinitive correctly after certain verbs. Following ‘can’, ‘could’ is the infinitive forms while ‘would you mind’ needs the Ving form syntactically. If you do not do so, your writing or speech becomes confusing to the readers or listeners. Besides yes/no question, the English often use tag question to ask for help, starting with a negative statement. This is quite a polite way of making a request. For example, if you do not know how to get to the police station, it is polite to ask the listener: You wouldn't know where the police station is, would you? It is not a question simply responding by yes or no. What the asker really expects is the way to get to the police station – the main purpose of the question. Another example is that you are trying your best to finish the assignment at school. However, it is beyond your knowledge to complete the task. Therefore, you would like to ask the cooperation of a friend of yours: You couldn't help me with my homework, could you? As mentioned above, using the interrogative as a request is also particularly prevalent in Vietnamese. Such interrogative is formed by adding “không” or “được không” at the end of an affirmative sentence. Interrogative conveys special functions 11 Ông có diêm không? (Do you have a match?) The listener can automatically realize that this is not a question to ask for information. It can be very silly if the serious reply is ‘I have lots of match’. The listener should be able to infer that the purpose of the asker is to require a match, instead. Let me take a more clearly example indicating the interrogative functions as a request. It can be very troublesome and embarrassed for the listener if they cannot understand the real purpose of the speaker. A mother talks to her son: Con muốn ăn đòn phải không? (Do you want to get the cane?) The boy can realize that his mother is angry because he has done something wrong. In addition, he is certainly to be sure that this is completely different with the interrogative below: Con muốn ăn bánh phải không? (Would you like some cake?) With the same structure, each sentence conveys different functions. The first one is the criticism of the mother of his naughty behavior while the second one is a kind invitation. Importantly, he can easily assume that his mother is not completely interested in which one he would like to have in the first interrogative. Indeed, his mother is giving him a warning that he should stop behaving in a stupid way or he can be severely punished for his stupid behaviors. To be more polite, Vietnamese use the word ‘ạ ‘ if the speaker is in the lower status in comparison with the listener: Interrogative conveys special functions 12 Anh lấy dùm em cuốn sách trên bàn được không ạ? (Could you pass me the book on the table, please?) Here the speaker realizes that he needs to be polite because of his lower status. It is considered important in Vietnam because of the hierarchical society. Language is a mirror reflecting the culture of a country. As a result, in Vietnam, the younger are supposed to respect the older because of their age and position. One is expected to be polite because of their lower age and position in Vietnamese society. d. Interrogative functions affirmation of information Interestingly, there are cases when language structures do not reflect exactly language functions. A sentence following strictly the form of interrogative needs no answer at all. In English, Y-N interrogative can function as an affirmation of information. It means that the speaker is sure about the information raised in the question. Therefore, what they expect is the agreement of the listener other than to obtain any information. For example Did John make a serious mistake? It is likely to be a statement regarding the fact that John did make a serious mistake rather than a genuine request to know whether it is true or not. Language learners should pay attention to a special function of tag question with falling voice, which is used as an affirmation of information. It sounds more like a statement that does not require any particular information: Mary couldn’t cook, could she? Interrogative conveys special functions 13 With the falling musical pitch of voice, the speaker implicitly suggests Mary’s inability cooking without needing an answer. Consequently, when using this question, askers often expect listeners to answer ‘yes’. In Vietnamese, questions to express affirmation can only realized by ending words “chứ gì”, “chứ còn gì nữa”, “chứ sao”, “chứ ai”… Chính anh làm hỏng việc này chứ ai? (Did you spoil the matter?) In this example, the speaker knows surely that the listener is the one who is to be blamed for the worse of the situation. Certainly, the speaker expects no real answer at all. One special thing in Vietnamese is that most of the questions expressing the affirmation employ the structure of negation, which resolves the meaning of negation into positive. It is widely used in written and spoken language. Therefore, we can have many examples in poetry as well as every aspect of daily life. Ở đâu mà chẳng có người tốt? (Is there nowhere having no good people?) The question marks serves no purpose in this occasion as the speaker is sure about the statement raised in the sentence: there are good people everywhere. Let me take another example from Vietnamese idiom: Ớt nào mà ớt chẳng cay (is any chili not spicy) Gái nào mà gái chẳng hay ghen chồng? (is any wife not jealous?) Here, using negation makes the negative meaning become positive. So, the idiom is understood that all of women are inborn with the character of jealousy. Another structure of interrogative functions as affirmation of information in Vietnamese is “không/ chẳng phải…sao/ là gì” Làm như vậy chẳng phải đê tiện sao? (Is that bad?) Interrogative conveys special functions 14 Há tôi chẳng phải là em của anh sao? (Aren’t I your sister?) Both two sentences are like the rhetorical question, which is usually for a purpose other than to obtain the information. It is a statement confirming the information mentioned rather than a genuine request to know. e. Interrogative functions as skepticism Interrogative is used in a variety of functions including dealing with the emotion of the speaker. In English, tag question functions as a way of expressing the skepticism. Language learners should pay attention to the structure of the tag question. The first part is in the negative form, and the second one is in positive: John doesn’t believe me, does he? By raising this question, the speaker wants to express an attitude of doubting rather than require an actual answer. In Vietnamese, interrogative expressing the suspicion begins with ‘phải chăng’, ‘hay là’, ‘không biết’… or ending by ‘chăng’, ‘không’ ‘biết’, ‘nhỉ’, ‘đây’, ‘bây giờ’... Phải chăng ông ta không tin mình? (He doesn’t not believe me, does he?) Không biết có về đến nhà trước khi trời tối không? (We won’t come back home until sunset, will we?) All of them express the skepticism to the fact mentioned in the sentence. The speaker is concerned about if they can come home before it is getting dark. The special thing about these questions in comparison with real question (asking for information) is that it can be used in monologue without needing answering or used in dialogue, and can be answered or not. Interrogative conveys special functions 15 f. Interrogative functions as expressing exclamation Human beings have so many ways to express themselves by language. In English, the structure ‘what’ and ‘how’ is for expressing the feeling of the speaker indicating emotion, as in surprise, pain, grief, joy or anger… What a beautiful day! How beautiful the weather is! Linguist Cao Xuan Hao (1991, p 224) suggests the relationship between exclamation and interrogative can be seen in many languages and Vietnamese is no exception to this case: Trời hôm nay đẹp biết bao! In Vietnamese, there are sentences expressing the exclamation through the interrogative form. The questions can only be realized by words indicating interrogative: ‘biết mấy’, ‘biết bao’, ‘bao nhiêu’, ‘chừng nào’, ‘nhường nào’, ‘nhường bao’…To express exclamation, in Vietnamese, questions are used for conveying emotion without enquiring an answer. Trời hôm nay sao mà đẹp thế! Ăn gì to lớn đẫy đà làm sao! These sentences are more likely to be expressions of feeling used in the monologue than a realistic request for information. g. Interrogative functions as asking permission Like requesting other people to do something, it is important to be polite when asking somebody for permission. Yes/ no question is used as a polite way to ask others’ opinion before doing something. It can save the face of both the speaker and the listener even if the permission is not given. Interrogative conveys special functions 16 Can I use your computer, please? Could I borrow some money from you, please? Do you mind if I turn up the heating? Would you mind if I turned up the heating? To asking for permission, what you have to do is to put the ending of the affirmative sentence by ‘nhé’, ‘nhỉ’, ‘nha’… Cho mình mượn máy tính của bạn nha? h. Interrogative functions as suggestion In English, it is very common to use interrogative to make a suggestion to the listener. Both yes/no question and Wh-question are used widely: Have you considered…? Do you think it's a good idea to…? Have you ever thought of…? Why don't you..? How/ What about …? There is a variety of questions you can use to get people to do things for their own good. In the book titled Functions of English, Leo Jones (2005, p 77) suggests that whatever expression you use, you should take into account the fact that how difficult or unpleasant the action you suggest is and the relationship between the speaker and the listener. On the contrary, in Vietnamese, we do not use interrogative as a suggestion to another people. To suggest what someone should or should not, imperative is more common: Tôi nghĩ bạn nên nghĩ ngơi vài ngày. Interrogative conveys special functions 17 Cháu nên đi Nha Trang cho biết. Both English and Vietnamese, together with other languages all over the world are all effective means of interaction and communication. However, in different languages, the act of making suggestions is presented differently. With the same purpose: making a suggestion, each language uses its own system. The English uses interrogative while the Vietnamese use imperative instead. i. Interrogative functions as making offer Learners using language as a foreign language may have difficulty of using modal verbs because their wide range of pragmatic uses including making an offer: Shall I open the window for you? Can I help you? Another structure is to offer the help is “would you like’. Supposed that you are a host, it is a norm to offer your guest something to drink by an interrogative sentence: "Would you like some coffee?" This can be a trouble for Vietnamese when learning English because in Vietnamese we do not have the similar structure. It means that imperative is used for making an offer, not interrogative form. Having come home and wanting to give her mother a hand, she is more likely to use imperative form: Để con phụ mẹ một tay. ( Let me give you a hand.) Certainly, each language has its own language system. As language learners, you should expect the differences on the same terms. While in Vietnamese imperative is used to make an offer, in English interrogative is used instead. Interrogative conveys special functions 18 Teaching implications Having explored interrogative conveying special functions in English and Vietnamese under the contrastive view, I would like to discuss some implications for English language teaching in our country. What causes difficulties for language learners is the difference between construction of interrogative in English and Vietnamese. In Vietnamese, there are no tenses, no inversion, so Vietnamese learners feel confused with interrogative and usually make mistakes when forming English questions. To make interrogative in English, learners have to pay attention tense because we need to use the correct auxiliary verbs depending on each tense. In this paper, I do not focus on the construction of interrogative in English and Vietnamese. However, I would prefer to help Vietnamese learners respond appropriately to interrogative conveying special functions. I will make some typical examples of interrogative conveying special functions, which can easily make learners misunderstand the real purpose of the questions and respond inappropriately. When a business associate says to you ‘How do you do?’ when first being introduced to each other, do not assume that it is a question requiring information, but a formal greeting. Surprisingly, the correct response is to repeat ‘How do you do?’. Although the English asks about the health very often as a way of greeting, you should do not give a very detailed about your health at the beginning of the conversation when communicating with native speakers. If you do so, the interlocutors will feel annoyed because they do not expect to hear such things. Instead, when native speakers raise question concerning health, they are more Interrogative conveys special functions 19 pleased to hear positive reply from the listener ‘very well, thank you’ or ‘Fine, thank you’. Moreover, to be polite, you should ask about their health in return ‘how about you?’ How do we answer a tag question? Be very careful about answering tag questions. In Vietnamese, an opposite system of answering is used, and non-native English speakers sometimes answer in the wrong way. This can lead to a lot of confusion. In English, they answer a tag question according to the truth of the situation. The answer reflects the real facts, not (necessarily) the question. Vietnamese students may be confused how to address these questions: Snow is white, isn't it? Snow isn't white, is it? Interestingly, the answer is the same in both cases: ‘yes, it is’ because The English just pay attention to the fact that snow is white whatever the question is. Another thing that students should take notice about tag question is that some English questions whose answers are different from our language. To a negative English question, differently from Vietnamese, people will answer the questions according to the fact they have, not according to the questions like Vietnamese: Aren’t you angry with me? In Vietnamese, if the listener does not feel angry with the asker, she will answer “yes”. On the contrary, in English if the listener does not, she will say “no”, and if she is angry with the speaker, she will say ‘yes’. This is an interestingly paradox in answering to negative questions. Consequently, it is worth drawing Interrogative conveys special functions 20 Vietnamese learners’ attention to this response so that they can avoid misunderstanding when using English to communicate. In addition, in order to communicate effectively, as an English language learner, you have to take into account some factors: the context, the social relationship between the speakers and the listeners (formal or informal), and the aims of the speakers. For example, if you want to invite your friend and your professor to come to your farewell party at the end of the course at university. You have the same purpose when communicating, but the way you talk to your friend is definitely different from what you interact with your professor. Having lower status, you are expected to use structure that is more formal. To invite your friend, you can use a question in contracted form, which indicates the close relationship between interlocutors: Won't you come to my party? However, when making an invitation to the professor, who is higher status, you are obliged to show respect through a more polite interrogative or your professor may feel insulted by an informal invitation. Would you care to join us for dinner at our house tonight? Another thing can cause misunderstanding to Vietnamese learners is to realize the real purpose of the question although they have the same structure in interrogative form: Can you cook? Can you pass me the salt? Interrogative conveys special functions 21 They have the same construction with the modal verb “can” plus verb infinitive. However, they serve very different purposes. The first sentence is a question about a skill you achieve in your life and you just simply answer ‘yes, I can’ or ‘No, I cannot’. However, the second is not asking about your ability, but a request for you to do something. Therefore, if your answer is yes, you need to pass the salt for the speaker. Vietnamese learners also need to interpret the underlying meaning of questions. Although two sentences are in the form of yes/no question, they perform different purposes: Do you like tea? Would you like some tea? The first one is a real question asking for information whether the listener likes tea or not. Therefore, the correct respond can be either ‘yes, I do’ or ‘No, I don’t’. However, the second one is the question functioning as an offer. Therefore, an appropriate respond is ‘yes, please’ if the listener accept the offer while ‘No, thanks’ is a polite refusal. Let me take another example in Wh question: Why don’t you go camping with me? Why doesn’t she go camping? Teachers should draw Vietnamese students’ attention to this negative question with ‘why’. Although both examples have the same structure in grammar, the purpose of each question is different. The first example is an invitation, Interrogative conveys special functions 22 therefore, the appropriate response is ‘Let’s go’, ‘that’s a good idea’ if the listener accepts the invitation or ‘I’m sorry, I have a date already’ as a refusal. On the contrary, the second one is a question which asking for information. The asker really needs an answer. Teacher should present them to the students so that they will not make misunderstanding about the purpose of this kind of question. The next thing I want to point out is that they should put their eyes on the form of following certain structures because if you do not use the correct form, your partner may be confused or not be sure about which point you are making: Would you like to have dinner with me tonight? Would you be interested in going camping this weekend? Although they have the same purpose as an invitation, the form of the verb after the structure is different. After ‘would you like’ is to infinitive while after ‘would you be interested in’ needs the Ving form syntactically. The last thing I would like to mention is that teachers should bear in mind students play active participation in the process of learning, not passive receivers of information or mere repeaters. Therefore, in classroom, teachers should create more chances so that students actively take part in the learning process, which helps them learn more effectively. For example, if teachers want to teach students to distinguish the different purpose of using the modal verb ‘can’: ‘Can you cook?’ is for asking the ability while ‘Can you open the door for me?’ functions as a request. First, teacher can help students learn more easily by explanation. However, later, they should let students have chances to create their own sentences so that they can take pleasure from this activity as well as remember the lesson better. Interrogative conveys special functions 23 Conclusion In sum, Interrogative is used with high frequency in spoken as well as written language. Communication is fruitful and there are several factors which can affect the communicative competence. If the receivers cannot interpret correctly the messages carried out by interrogative with special functions sent by the senders with same meaning, the communication breakdown is highly likely to occur. Therefore, it is very important that Vietnamese should know how to use them appropriately in terms of its special functions to communicate effectively....After doing research and making a contrastive analysis about the special functions carried out by interrogative form, I strongly hope I can help Vietnamese students overcome the difficulties when dealing with these kinds of questions. Interrogative conveys special functions 24 References: Ajaja, A. (2002). Engish Language. Retrieved December 3rd, 2010, from Scientific Sentence: http://scientificsentence.net/English/Basic/Grammar/_modals.html Bùi, Đ. T. (1996). Văn Phạm Việt Nam. Nhà Xuất Bản Văn Hóa. Cao, X. H. (1991). Tiếng Việt Sơ Thảo Ngữ Pháp Chức Năng. Nhà Xuất Bản Khoa Học Xã Hội. Club, E. (1997). Tag question. Retrieved December 4th, 2010, from English Club: http://www.englishclub.com/index.htm Diệp, Q. B. (2004). Ngữ Pháp Việt Nam Phần Câu. Nhà Xuất Bản Đại Học Sư Phạm. Hoàng, T. P. (2008). Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Việt Câu. 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