Grade 4 ELA pacing calendar with edits by 4guzW0

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									                            2012-2013 Pacing Guide
Content Area: English Language Arts
Grade Level: 4
Team Members: Micah Davis; Maggie Burnside Cooper; Jericho Hobson; Nancy
Rosen; Natalie Hutto

How to use this pacing guide:
This is intended to be a guide for pacing instruction and a tool to assist teachers in
combining standards in meaningful ways to help their students master them.
The length recommended for each unit is based on prioritization of standards leading to
college and career readiness. It is included to aid in planning and to provide more
consistency from class to class across the district to minimize the effects of students’
mobility within Tulsa Public Schools. Grade level teams within a school should meet at
the beginning of the year to assign each unit more specific dates.
Units take a total of 32 weeks. The remaining time in the school year can be divided and
devoted to buffer periods.
Buffer periods allow time between units for re-teaching, enriching, and extending
learning. That time may also be used for pre-assessing students’ understanding of the
next unit’s standards to better plan instruction. Grade level teams should allow for buffer
periods between units to accommodate students’ rate of learning, and to accommodate
changes to the school calendar.
Vocabulary includes only those words that are essential to the course, and should be
incorporated into units where appropriate. Vocabulary should also be added to by
school teams based on students’ needs.
In Reading/English Language Arts (ELA), Tulsa Public Schools teachers have identified
priority standards that are common across all grade levels. They are:
       Reading Literature (RL) 1, 2, 4, & 9
       Reading Informational Text (RI) 1, 2, 4, 8, & 9
       Speaking & Listening (SL) 1 & 4
       Language (L) 1
Additionally, in ELA pacing guides, overarching standards are identified. These are
standards that will be taught so frequently, they will be part of every unit, and therefore
are not repeated as part of each unit in the pacing guide.




Grade ELA Pacing Calendar                                                                     1
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Over-arching Standards:
RL.4.10 By the end of the year, red and comprehend literature, including stories,
dramas, and poetry, in the grades 4-5 text complexity band proficiently, with
scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

RI.4.10 By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including
history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4-5 text complexity
band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

W.4.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection,
and research.
   a. Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Describe in depth a
      character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in
      the text [e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions].”).
   b. Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an
      author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text”).

W.4.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and
revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of
discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

SL.4.3 Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular
points.

SL.4.6 Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting
ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group
discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation. See grade 4
Language standard 1 for specific expectations.

L.4.6 Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-
specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or
states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular
topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal
preservation).

Academic Vocabulary:
analyze              firsthand                orient                  quantitatively
audience             fragments                paraphrase              research
compare/contrast     genre                    persuasive              secondhand
differentiate        interpret                possessive nouns        sentence fragment
edit                 legend                   prewrite                simile
evaluate             metaphor                 preface
explicit             mythology                publish




Grade ELA Pacing Calendar                                                                   2
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                                                Unit 1
    Title of Unit: Examples of Greatness            Number of Weeks for this Unit: 2
    Common Core Priority Standard(s):
    RL.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says
    explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
   RL.4.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text,
    including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g.,
    Herculean).
    L.4.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and
    usage when writing or speaking.
         f. Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments
         and run-ons.
    SL.4.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in
    groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on
    others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
        a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material;
            explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to
            explore ideas under discussion.
        b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
        c. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and
            make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of
            others.
        d. Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding
            in light of the discussion.
    Common Core Priority Writing Standard(s):
    W.4.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective
    technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
        a. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or
            characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
        b. Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the
            responses of characters to situations.
        c. Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of
            events.
        d. Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and
            events precisely.
        e. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
    Common Core Supporting Standard(s):
    RL.4.6 Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated,
    including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.
    RI.4.5 Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect,
    problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
    RI.4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts,
    graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and
    explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it
    appears.
    RF.4.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

    Grade ELA Pacing Calendar                                                                  3
    7-27-12
    a. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication
        patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar
        multisyllabic words in context and out of context.
W.4.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization
are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing
types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
W.4.5 With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing
as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
SL.4.2 Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse
media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
L.4.3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading,
or listening.
    a. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.*
    b. Choose punctuation for effect.*
    c. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas)
        and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group
        discussion).

                                          Unit 2
Title of Unit: Summarizing Greatness          Number of Weeks for this Unit: 3
Common Core Priority Standard(s):
RL.4.2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text;
summarize the text.
L.4.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and
usage when writing or speaking.
      f. Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate
      fragments and run-ons.
SL.4.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in
groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on
others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material;
         explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to
         explore ideas under discussion.
    b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
    c. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and
         make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of
         others.
    d. Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding
         in light of the discussion.
SL.4.2 Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse
media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
Common Core Priority Writing Standard(s):
W.4.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective
technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. (Weeks 1 & 2)
      a. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or
      characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.

Grade ELA Pacing Calendar                                                                 4
7-27-12
      b. Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the
      responses of characters to situations.
      c. Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of
      events.
      d. Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences
      and events precisely.
      e. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
W.4.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and
information clearly. (Week 3)
        a. Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and
           sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia
           when useful to aiding comprehension.
        b. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other
           information and examples related to the topic.
        c. Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g.,
           another, for example, also, because).
        d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or
           explain the topic.
        e. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or
           explanation presented.
Common Core Supporting Standard(s):
RL.4.3 Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on
specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).
RL.4.6 Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated,
including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.
RI.4.5 Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect,
problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
RI.4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts,
graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and
explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it
appears.
RF.4.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    a. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication
        patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar
        multisyllabic words in context and out of context.
W.4.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization
are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing
types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
W.4.5 With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing
as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
W.4.8 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from
print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of
sources.
SL.4.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in
groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on
others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

Grade ELA Pacing Calendar                                                                  5
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   a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material;
      explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to
      explore ideas under discussion.
   b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
   c. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and
      make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of
      others.
   d. Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding
      in light of the discussion.

                                             Unit 3
Title of Unit: Compare and Contrast the          Number of Weeks for this Unit: 3
Way We Work
Common Core Priority Standard(s):
RL.4.9 Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g.,
opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths,
and traditional literature from different cultures.
L.4.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and
usage when writing or speaking.
     c. Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.
Common Core Priority Writing Standard(s):
W.4.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and
information clearly.
     a. Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and
     sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when
     useful to aiding comprehension.
     b. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other
     information and examples related to the topic.
     c. Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g.,
     another, for example, also, because).
     d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain
     the topic.
     e. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or
     explanation presented.
Common Core Supporting Standard(s):
RL.4.5 Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the
structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of
characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking
about a text.
RL.4.7 Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral
presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and
directions in the text.
RI.4.5 Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect,
problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
RI.4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts,
graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and

Grade ELA Pacing Calendar                                                                  6
7-27-12
explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it
appears.
RF.4.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
       a. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication
       patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar
       multisyllabic words in context and out of context.
W.4.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization
are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing
types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
W.4.5 With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing
as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
W.4.8 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from
print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of
sources.
SL.4.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in
groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on
others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
       a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material;
       explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to
       explore ideas under discussion.
       b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
       c. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information,
       and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of
       others.
       d. Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and
       understanding in light of the discussion.
SL.4.4 Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized
manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas
or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.
L.4.3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading,
or listening.
       a. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.
       b. Choose punctuation for effect.
       c. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting
       ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group
       discussion).
L.4.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and
phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of
strategies.
        c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both
        print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise
        meaning of key words and phrases.
L.4.5 Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and
nuances in word meanings.
a. Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in
context.

Grade ELA Pacing Calendar                                                                7
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b. Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
c. Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms)
and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).

                                            Unit 4
Title of Unit: Explaining the Work We Do Number of Weeks for this Unit: 2
Common Core Priority Standard(s):
RI.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says
explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
L.4.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and
usage when writing or speaking.
     c. Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.
Common Core Priority Writing Standard(s):
W.4.1 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons
and information.
    a. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational
        structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
    b. Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.
    c. Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to,
        in addition).
    d. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
Common Core Supporting Standard(s):
RL.4.5 Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the
structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of
characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking
about a text.
RL.4.7 Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral
presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and
directions in the text.
RI.4.5 Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect,
problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
RF.4.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    a. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication
        patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar
        multisyllabic words in context and out of context.
W.4.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization
are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing
types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
W.4.5 With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing
as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
W.4.6 With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the
Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with
others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one
page in a single sitting.
SL.4.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in
groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on

Grade ELA Pacing Calendar                                                                 8
7-27-12
others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
     a. Come to discussions prepared having read or studied required material; explicitly
     draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore
     ideas under discussion.
     b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
     c. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and
     make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others.
     d. Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding
     in light of the discussion.
L.4.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and
phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of
strategies.
     c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both
     print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise
     meaning of key words and phrases.

                                          Unit 5
Title of Unit: Nature in a Nutshell           Number of Weeks for this Unit: 3
Common Core Priority Standard(s):
RI.4.2 Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details;
summarize the text.
RI.4.8 Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in
a text.
L.4.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and
usage when writing or speaking.
       b. Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be
       walking) verb tenses.
Common Core Priority Writing Standard(s):
W.4.1 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons
and information. (Weeks 1& 2)
       a. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational
       structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
       b. Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.
       c. Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order
       to, in addition).
       d. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
W.4.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of
different aspects of a topic. (Week 3)
Common Core Supporting Standard(s):
RL.4.5 Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the
structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of
characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking
about a text.
RI.4.3 Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or
technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the
text.

Grade ELA Pacing Calendar                                                                     9
7-27-12
RI.4.5 Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect,
problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
RI.4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts,
graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and
explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it
appears.
RF.4.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    a. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication
        patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar
        multisyllabic words in context and out of context.
W.4.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization
are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing
types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
W.4.5 With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing
as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
W.4.8 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from
print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of
sources.
SL.4.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in
groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on
others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material;
        explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to
        explore ideas under discussion.
    b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
    c. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and
        make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of
        others.
    d. Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding
        in light of the discussion.
SL.4.2 Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse
media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
L.4.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and
phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of
strategies.
     c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both
     print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise
     meaning of key words and phrases.




                                                                    Grade ELA Pacing Calendar
                                                                                           10
7-27-12
                                           Unit 6
Title of Unit: Discovering Nature              Number of Weeks for this Unit: 2
Common Core Priority Standard(s):
RI.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says
explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
RI.4.4 Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or
phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.
RI.4.9 Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak
about the subject knowledgeably.
L.4.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and
usage when writing or speaking.
     b. Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be
      walking) verb tenses.
Common Core Priority Writing Standard(s):
W.4.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of
different aspects of a topic.
Common Core Supporting Standard(s):
RL.4.5 Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the
structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of
characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking
about a text.
RI.4.3 Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or
technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the
text.
RI.4.5 Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect,
problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
RI.4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts,
graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and
explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it
appears.
RF.4.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    a. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication
        patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar
        multisyllabic words in context and out of context.
W.4.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization
are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing
types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
W.4.5 With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing
as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
W.4.8 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from
print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of
sources.
SL.4.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in
groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on
others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material;
                                                                    Grade ELA Pacing Calendar
                                                                                           11
7-27-12
      explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to
      explore ideas under discussion.
   b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
   c. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and
      make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of
      others.
   d. Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding
      in light of the discussion.

                                          Unit 7
Title of Unit: The Mystery of Theme           Number of Weeks for this Unit: 3
Common Core Priority Standard(s):
RL.4.2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text;
summarize the text.
L.4.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and
usage when writing or speaking.
     a. Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs
     (where, when, why).
Common Core Priority Writing Standard(s):
W.4.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of
different aspects of a topic. (Week 1)
W.4.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective
technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. (Weeks 2 & 3)
      a. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or
      characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
      b. Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the
      responses of characters to situations.
      c. Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of
      events.
      d. Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences
      and events precisely.
      e. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
Common Core Supporting Standard(s):
RL.4.5 Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the
structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of
characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking
about a text.
RI.4.5 Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect,
problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
RI.4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts,
graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and
explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it
appears.
RF.4.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    a. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication
        patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar
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       multisyllabic words in context and out of context.
W.4.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization
are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing
types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
W.4.5 With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing
as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
SL.4.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in
groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on
others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material;
       explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to
       explore ideas under discussion.
    b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
    c. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and
       make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of
       others.
    d. Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding
       in light of the discussion.
SL.4.2 Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse
media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
SL.4.5 Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to
enhance the development of main ideas or themes.
L.4.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and
phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of
strategies.
      a. Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to
      the meaning of a word or phrase.

                                            Unit 8
Title of Unit: Solving Mysteries with Detail Number of Weeks for this Unit: 3
and Inferences
Common Core Priority Standard(s):
RL.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says
explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
L.4.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and
usage when writing or speaking.
     a. Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs
     (where, when, why).
Common Core Priority Writing Standard(s):
W.4.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective
technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. (Weeks 1 & 2)
      a. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or
      characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
      b. Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the
      responses of characters to situations.
      c. Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of
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      events.
      d. Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences
      and events precisely.
      e. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
W.4.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and
information clearly. (Week 3)
      a. Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and
      sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when
      useful to aiding comprehension.
      b. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other
      information and examples related to the topic.
      c. Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g.,
      another, for example, also, because).
      d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain
      the topic.
      e. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or
      explanation presented.
Common Core Supporting Standard(s):
RL.4.3 Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on
specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).
RL.4.5 Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the
structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of
characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking
about a text.
RI.4.5 Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect,
problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
RI.4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts,
graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and
explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it
appears.
RF.4.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    a. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication
        patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar
        multisyllabic words in context and out of context.
W.4.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization
are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing
types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
W.4.5 With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing
as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
W.4.6 With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the
Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with
others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one
page in a single sitting.
W.4.8 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from
print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of
sources.
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    SL.4.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in
    groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on
    others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
        a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material;
            explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to
            explore ideas under discussion.
        b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
        c. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and
            make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of
            others.
        d. Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding
            in light of the discussion.
    L.4.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and
    phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of
    strategies.
        a. Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the
        meaning of a word or phrase.

                                              Unit 9
    Title of Unit: Exploring Adventures           Number of Weeks for this Unit: 3
    Common Core Priority Standard(s):
    RL.4.9 Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g.,
    opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths,
    and traditional literature from different cultures.
   L.4.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and
    usage when writing or speaking.
         a. Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs
         (where, when, why).
         d. Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a
         small red bag rather than a red small bag).
         e. Form and use prepositional phrases.
    Common Core Priority Writing Standard(s):
    W.4.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and
    information clearly.
         a. Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and
         sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when
         useful to aiding comprehension.
         b. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other
         information and examples related to the topic.
         c. Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g.,
         another, for example, also, because).
         d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain
         the topic.
         e. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or
         explanation presented.
    Common Core Supporting Standard(s):
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RL.4.6 Compare and contrast the points of view from which different stories are
narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.
RI.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says
explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
RI.4.3 Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or
technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the
text.
RI.4.5 Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect,
problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
RI.4.6 Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or
topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.
RI.4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts,
graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and
explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it
appears.
RF.4.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    a. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication
        patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar
        multisyllabic words in context and out of context.
W.4.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization
are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing
types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
W.4.5 With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing
as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
W.4.8 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from
print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of
sources.
SL.4.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in
groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on
others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    a. Come to discussions prepared having read or studied required material; explicitly
        draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore
        ideas under discussion.
    b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
    c. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and
        make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of
        others.
    d. Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding
        in light of the discussion.
SL.4.4 Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized
manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas
or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.
L.4.3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading,
or listening.
    a. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.
    b. Choose punctuation for effect.
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       c. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas)
          and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group
          discussion).

                                                 Unit 10
    Title of Unit: Recounting Adventures              Number of Weeks for this Unit: 2
    Common Core Priority Standard(s):
   L.4.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and
    usage when writing or speaking.
          a. Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs
          (where, when, why).
          d. Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a
          small red bag rather than a red small bag).
          e. Form and use prepositional phrases.
    Common Core Priority Writing Standard(s):
    W.4.1 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons
    and information.
           a. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational
           structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
           b. Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.
           c. Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order
           to, in addition).
           d. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
    Common Core Supporting Standard(s):
    RL.4.6 Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated,
    including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.
    RI.4.3 Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or
    technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the
    text.
    RI.4.5 Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect,
    problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
    RI.4.6 Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or
    topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.
    RI.4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts,
    graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and
    explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it
    appears.
    L.4.2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization,
    punctuation, and spelling when writing.
         a. Use correct capitalization.
         b. Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a
         text.
         c. Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
    RF.4.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
        a. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication
            patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar
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                                                                                               17
    7-27-12
        multisyllabic words in context and out of context.
W.4.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization
are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing
types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
W.4.5 With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing
as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
SL.4.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in
groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on
others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material;
        explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to
        explore ideas under discussion.
    b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
    c. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and
        make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of
        others.
    d. Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding
        in light of the discussion.
L.4.2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization,
punctuation, and spelling when writing.
     a. Use correct capitalization.
     b. Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a
     text.
     c. Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
L.4.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and
phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of
strategies.
    a. Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the
    meaning of a word or phrase.
    b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the
    meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).
    c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print
    and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of
    key words and phrases.
L.4.5 Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and
nuances in word meanings.
    a. Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture)
    in context.
    b. Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
    c. Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites
    (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).




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                                             Unit 11
Title of Unit: Evidence of a Dream                Number of Weeks for this Unit: 3
Common Core Priority Standard(s):
RI.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says
explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
RI.4.2 Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details;
summarize the text.
RI.4.8 Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in
a text.
L.4.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and
usage when writing or speaking.
      g. Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).
Common Core Priority Writing Standard(s):
W.4.1 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons
and information. (Weeks 1& 2)
       a. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational
       structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
       b. Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.
       c. Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order
       to, in addition).
       d. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
W.4.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of
different aspects of a topic. (Week 3)
Common Core Supporting Standard(s):
RI.4.3 Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or
technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the
text.
RI.4.5 Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect,
problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
RI.4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts,
graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and
explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it
appears.
RL.4.6 Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated,
including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.
RF.4.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    a. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication
        patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar
        multisyllabic words in context and out of context.
W.4.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization
are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing
types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
W.4.5 With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing
as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
SL.4.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in
groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on
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7-27-12
others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    a. Come to discussions prepared having read or studied required material; explicitly
        draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore
        ideas under discussion.
    b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
    c. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and
        make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of
        others.
    d. Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding
        in light of the discussion.
SL.4.2 Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse
media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
L.4.2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization,
punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    a. Use correct capitalization.
    b. Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a
    text.
    c. Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
L.4.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and
phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of
strategies.
    a. Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the
    meaning of a word or phrase.
    b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the
    meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).
    c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print
    and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of
    key words and phrases.

                                           Unit 12
Title of Unit: Exploring Adventures             Number of Weeks for this Unit: 3
Common Core Priority Standard(s):
RI.4.4 Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or
phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.
RI.4.9 Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak
about the subject knowledgeably.
L.4.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and
usage when writing or speaking.
      g. Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).
Common Core Priority Writing Standard(s):
W.4.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of
different aspects of a topic.
Common Core Supporting Standard(s):
RI.4.5 Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect,
problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
RI.4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts,
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graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and
explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it
appears.
RL.4.6 Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated,
including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.
L.4.2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization,
punctuation, and spelling when writing.
     a. Use correct capitalization.
     b. Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a
     text.
     c. Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
RF.4.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    a. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication
        patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar
        multisyllabic words in context and out of context.
W.4.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization
are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing
types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
W.4.5 With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing
as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
W.4.6 With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the
Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with
others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one
page in a single sitting.
W.4.8 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from
print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of
sources.
SL.4.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in
groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on
others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    a. Come to discussions prepared having read or studied required material; explicitly
        draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore
        ideas under discussion.
    b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
    c. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and
        make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of
        others.
    d. Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding
        in light of the discussion.
L.4.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and
phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of
strategies.
    a. Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the
    meaning of a word or phrase.
    b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the
    meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).
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  c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print
  and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of
  key words and phrases.




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