"what is science"
Science I. Biology II. Chemistry III. Physics IV. Astronomy V. Engineering VI. Earth Science I. Biology • The study of life and living organisms. • It was studied in ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China • Modern biology comes from ancient Greece. • Contains many subdivisions, topics, and areas of study. I. Biology • The 5 most important topics are the fundamental blocks of life. 1. Cells are the basic unit of life. 2. New species and inherited traits are the product of time and change. 3. Genes are the basic unit of heredity. 4. An organism regulates its internal environment to maintain a stable and constant condition 5. Living organisms consume and transfer energy. Branches of Biology 1. Aerobiology 28. Evolutionary biology 2. Agriculture 29. Genetics 3. Anatomy 30. Herpetology 4. Arachnology 31. Histology 5. Astrobiology 32. Ichthyology 6. Biochemistry 33. Integrative biology 7. Bioengineering 34. Limnology 8. Biogeography 35. Mammalogy 9. Bioinformatics 36. Marine biology 10. Biomathematics 37. Microbiology 11. Biomechanics 38. Molecular biology 12. Biomedical research 39. Mycology 13. Biophysics 40. Neurobiology 14. Biotechnology 41. Oncology 15. Building biology 42. Ornithology 16. Botany 43. Population biology 17. Cell biology 44. Paleontology 18. Conservation biology 45. Pathobiology 19. Cryobiology 46. Parasitology 20. Developmental biology 47. Pharmacology 21. Ecology 48. Physiology 22. Embryology 49. Phytopathology 23. Entomology 50. Psychobiology 24. Environmental biology 51. Sociobiology 25. Epidemiology 52. Structural biology 26. Epigenetics 53. Synthetic Biology 27. Ethology 54. Virology 55. Zoology II. Chemistry • The science of matter: chemical reactions, composition, structure, and properties • The science of atoms: interactions with other atoms and chemical bonds II. Chemistry • Basic Concepts – Atom – Element – Compound – Substance – Molecule – Mole and amount of substance – Ions and salts – Acidity and basicity – Phase – Redox – Bonding – Reaction – Equilibrium – Energy II. Chemistry • Divided into several sub-divisions – Analytical chemistry – Biochemistry – Inorganic chemistry – Materials chemistry – Neurochemistry – Nuclear chemistry – Organic chemistry – Physical chemistry – Theoretical chemistry III. Physics • The study of matter and its motion through space and time, along with looking at energy and force. • It is the analysis of nature; trying to understand how the universe behaves and why it does what it does. III. Physics • Core Theories 1. Classical Physics includes the traditional branches and topics that were recognized and well-developed before the beginning of the 20th century. a) Classical mechanics b) Acoustics c) Optics d) Thermodynamics e) electromagnetism III. Physics • Modern Physics is concerned with the behavior of matter and energy under extreme conditions or on a very large or very small scale. • Research in physics a. Condensed matter physics b. Atomic, molecular, and optical physics c. Particle physics d. Astrophysics e. Geophysics f. biophysics IV. Astronomy • The study of celestial objects (stars, planets, comets, nebulae, star clusters, and galaxies); and any phenomena that is outside the Earth’s atmosphere. • It is concerned with the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects, as well as the formation and development of the universe. IV. Astronomy • It is the oldest science! • Prehistoric cultures left behind astronomical artifacts (Egyptian monuments). • Early civilizations performed methodical observations (Greeks, Maya, Babylonians). IV. Astronomy • Observational Astronomy 1. Radio astronomy 2. Infrared astronomy 3. Optical astronomy 4. Ultraviolet astronomy 5. X-ray astronomy 6. Gamma ray astronomy • Theoretical Astronomy • Stellar dynamics and evolution • Galaxy formations • Large-scale structure of mater in the Universe • Origin of cosmic rays • General relativity and physical cosmology IV. Astronomy • Subfields of Astronomy 1. Solar astronomy 2. Planetary science 3. Stellar astronomy 4. Galactic astronomy 5. Extragalactic astronomy 6. Cosmology V. Engineering • The science, skill, and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devises, systems, materials, and processes. V. Engineering 1. Chemical Engineering: converts raw material or chemicals into something more useful. a. Bimolecular engineering b. Materials engineering c. Molecular engineering d. Process engineering 2. Civil Engineering: design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and natural built environments. a. Environmental engineering b. Geotechnical engineering c. Structural engineering d. Transport engineering V. Engineering 3. Electrical Engineering: study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism. a. Computer engineering b. Electronic engineering c. Optical engineering d. Power engineering 4. Mechanical Engineering: design, analysis, and usage of heat and mechanical power for the operation of machines and mechanical systems a. Acoustical engineering b. Manufacturing engineering c. Thermal engineering d. Vehicle engineering VI. Earth Science • It is the science related to the planet Earth. • It includes the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, oceans and biosphere, as well as the solid earth. VI. Earth Science • Fields of Study 1.Geology: describes the rocky parts of the Earth's crust and its historic development. 2.Physical geography 3.Geophysics: investigate the shape of the Earth, its reaction to forces and its magnetic and gravity fields. Geophysicists explore the Earth's core and mantle as well as the tectonic and seismic activity of the lithosphere VI. Earth Science 4.Soil science: covers the outermost layer of the Earth's crust that is subject to soil formation processes. 5.Oceanography: describes the marine and freshwater domains of the watery parts of the Earth. 6.Glaciology: covers the icy parts of the Earth 7.Atmospheric sciences: cover the atmosphere between the surface and the exosphere (about 1000 km).