what is science

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   I. Biology
  II. Chemistry
   III. Physics
 IV. Astronomy
 V. Engineering
VI. Earth Science
               I. Biology

• The study of life and living organisms.
• It was studied in ancient Mesopotamia,
  Egypt, and China
• Modern biology comes from ancient
• Contains many subdivisions, topics, and
  areas of study.
                  I. Biology

• The 5 most important topics are the
   fundamental blocks of life.
    1. Cells are the basic unit of life.
    2. New species and inherited traits are the product
       of time and change.
    3. Genes are the basic unit of heredity.
    4. An organism regulates its internal environment to
       maintain a stable and constant condition
    5. Living organisms consume and transfer energy.
                 Branches of Biology
1.    Aerobiology             28. Evolutionary biology
2.    Agriculture             29. Genetics
3.    Anatomy                 30. Herpetology
4.    Arachnology             31. Histology
5.    Astrobiology            32. Ichthyology
6.    Biochemistry            33. Integrative biology
7.    Bioengineering          34. Limnology
8.    Biogeography            35. Mammalogy
9.    Bioinformatics          36. Marine biology
10.   Biomathematics          37. Microbiology
11.   Biomechanics            38. Molecular biology
12.   Biomedical research     39. Mycology
13.   Biophysics              40. Neurobiology
14.   Biotechnology           41. Oncology
15.   Building biology        42. Ornithology
16.   Botany                  43. Population biology
17.   Cell biology            44. Paleontology
18.   Conservation biology    45. Pathobiology
19.   Cryobiology             46. Parasitology
20.   Developmental biology   47. Pharmacology
21.   Ecology                 48. Physiology
22.   Embryology              49. Phytopathology
23.   Entomology              50. Psychobiology
24.   Environmental biology   51. Sociobiology
25.   Epidemiology            52. Structural biology
26.   Epigenetics             53. Synthetic Biology
27.   Ethology                54. Virology
                              55. Zoology
             II. Chemistry

• The science of matter: chemical reactions,
  composition, structure, and properties
• The science of atoms: interactions with
  other atoms and chemical bonds
II. Chemistry
   • Basic Concepts
            – Atom
          – Element
         – Compound
         – Substance
          – Molecule
– Mole and amount of substance
       – Ions and salts
     – Acidity and basicity
           – Phase
           – Redox
          – Bonding
          – Reaction
         – Equilibrium
           – Energy
                  II. Chemistry
• Divided into several sub-divisions
  –   Analytical chemistry
  –   Biochemistry
  –   Inorganic chemistry
  –   Materials chemistry
  –   Neurochemistry
  –   Nuclear chemistry
  –   Organic chemistry
  –   Physical chemistry
  –   Theoretical chemistry
              III. Physics

• The study of matter and its motion
  through space and time, along with
  looking at energy and force.
• It is the analysis of nature; trying to
  understand how the universe behaves and
  why it does what it does.
                   III. Physics
• Core Theories
  1. Classical Physics includes the traditional
     branches and topics that were recognized
     and well-developed before the beginning of
     the 20th century.
       a)   Classical mechanics
       b)   Acoustics
       c)   Optics
       d)   Thermodynamics
       e)   electromagnetism
                     III. Physics
• Modern Physics is concerned with the behavior
    of matter and energy under extreme
    conditions or on a very large or very small
•   Research in physics
     a.   Condensed matter physics
     b.   Atomic, molecular, and optical physics
     c.   Particle physics
     d.   Astrophysics
     e.   Geophysics
     f.   biophysics
             IV. Astronomy

• The study of celestial objects (stars,
  planets, comets, nebulae, star clusters,
  and galaxies); and any phenomena that is
  outside the Earth’s atmosphere.
• It is concerned with the evolution, physics,
  chemistry, meteorology, and motion of
  celestial objects, as well as the formation
  and development of the universe.
             IV. Astronomy

• It is the oldest science!
• Prehistoric cultures left behind
  astronomical artifacts (Egyptian
• Early civilizations performed methodical
  observations (Greeks, Maya, Babylonians).
                  IV. Astronomy
• Observational Astronomy
     1.   Radio astronomy
     2.   Infrared astronomy
     3.   Optical astronomy
     4.   Ultraviolet astronomy
     5.   X-ray astronomy
     6.   Gamma ray astronomy
• Theoretical Astronomy
     •    Stellar dynamics and evolution
     •    Galaxy formations
     •    Large-scale structure of mater in the Universe
     •    Origin of cosmic rays
     •    General relativity and physical cosmology
              IV. Astronomy

• Subfields of Astronomy
  1.   Solar astronomy
  2.   Planetary science
  3.   Stellar astronomy
  4.   Galactic astronomy
  5.   Extragalactic astronomy
  6.   Cosmology
            V. Engineering

• The science, skill, and profession of
 acquiring and applying scientific,
 economic, social, and practical
 knowledge, in order to design and build
 structures, machines, devises, systems,
 materials, and processes.
                 V. Engineering
1. Chemical Engineering: converts raw material
   or chemicals into something more useful.
     a.   Bimolecular engineering
     b.   Materials engineering
     c.   Molecular engineering
     d.   Process engineering
2. Civil Engineering: design, construction, and
   maintenance of the physical and natural built
     a.   Environmental engineering
     b.   Geotechnical engineering
     c.   Structural engineering
     d.   Transport engineering
                  V. Engineering
3. Electrical Engineering: study and application of
   electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.
     a.   Computer engineering
     b.   Electronic engineering
     c.   Optical engineering
     d.   Power engineering
4. Mechanical Engineering: design, analysis, and
   usage of heat and mechanical power for the
   operation of machines and mechanical systems
     a.   Acoustical engineering
     b.   Manufacturing engineering
     c.   Thermal engineering
     d.   Vehicle engineering
           VI. Earth Science

• It is the science related to the planet
• It includes the study of the atmosphere,
  hydrosphere, oceans and biosphere, as
  well as the solid earth.
              VI. Earth Science
• Fields of Study
   1.Geology: describes the rocky parts
     of the Earth's crust and its historic
   2.Physical geography
   3.Geophysics: investigate the shape of
     the Earth, its reaction to forces and
     its magnetic and gravity fields.
     Geophysicists explore the Earth's
     core and mantle as well as the
     tectonic and seismic activity of the
          VI. Earth Science
4.Soil science: covers the outermost layer of the
  Earth's crust that is subject to soil formation
5.Oceanography: describes the marine and
  freshwater domains of the watery parts of the
6.Glaciology: covers the icy parts of the Earth
7.Atmospheric sciences: cover the atmosphere
  between the surface and the exosphere (about
  1000 km).

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