A Mari Usque Ad Mare
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This article is about Canada's national motto. For other uses of the phrase "From Sea to Sea", see Sea to Sea
A Mari Usque Ad Mare (English: From Sea to Sea; French: D'un ocean à l'autre) is the
Canadian national motto. The phrase comes from the Latin Psalm 72:8 in the Holy Bible, which
reads "Et dominabitur a mari usque ad mare, et a flumine usque ad terminos terrae" (King
James Bible: "He shall have dominion also from sea to sea, and from the river unto the ends of The motto within the 1921
the earth").  Canadian coat of arms
3 Possible amendment
The first recorded use of the phrase to represent Canada was by George Monro Grant, who was Sanford Fleming's secretary
and a Presbyterian minister who used the phrase in his sermons. His great-grandson Michael Ignatieff suggests that Grant
used the phrase in a nation-building effort during the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway.  The use of the word
"dominion" in the verse reflected the adoption of the name "Dominion of Canada" for the new country.
The motto was first officially used in 1906 on the head of the mace of the new Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan. This
phrase was suggested for a national motto by Joseph Pope, then-Under Secretary of State, when the Canadian coat of arms
was redesigned in 1921.  Pope was a member of the four-person committee appointed by the federal government to
redesign the coat of arms (the other members were Thomas Mulvey, A.G. Doughty and Major-General W.G. Gwatkin). No
motto had been included in the original design. Major-General W.G. Gwatkin proposed "In memoriam in spem" ("In memory,
in hope") as a motto, but Pope's proposal garnered more support. The draft design was approved by Order in Council on
April 21, 1921 and by the Royal Proclamation of King George V on November 21, 1921. 
As part of the Canadian coat of arms, the motto is used as a mark of authority by various government agencies and
representatives.  It is also present on all denominations of Canadian paper currency, and on the cover of Canadian
passports. On its own, it appears on all federal government proclamations. 
In March 2006, the premiers of Canada's three territories called for the amendment of the motto to reflect the vast geographic
nature of Canada's territory, as Canada has coastlines on the Arctic, Atlantic, and Pacific Oceans. Two suggestions for a
new motto are A mari ad mare ad mare (from sea to sea to sea) and A mari usque ad maria (from the sea to the other
seas).  The expanded informal version of the motto ("From Sea to Sea to Sea") is used in speeches and writings about
Canada, representing inclusiveness toward northern residents and the growing significance of the Arctic in Canada's political
and economic future. A Canwest Global-commissioned poll showed proponents of amending the motto outnumbering
opponents in the ratio of three to one, with one-third of those polled neutral. 
1. ^ a b c Lamb, W. Kaye. "A Mari usque ad Mare" . The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Foundation of Canada. Retrieved 2008-
2. ^ Ignatieff, Michael (2009). True Patriot Love. Toronto: Penguin Canada. ISBN 0-670-06972-8.
3. ^ "Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Promotion - The arms of Canada (page 2)" . Canadian Heritage. 2008-06-23. Retrieved
4. ^ "Canadian Heritage: The arms of Canada" . Canadian Heritage. Retrieved 2009-06-26.
5. ^ "Canadian Heritage: First "Canadian flags"" . Canadian Heritage. Retrieved 2009-06-26.
6. ^ "Library of Parliament - Canadian Symbols at Parliament" . Parliament of Canada. Retrieved 2008-10-01.
7. ^ "Check to Protect" . Bank of Canada / Banque du Canada. Retrieved 2008-10-01. [dead link]
8. ^ " Passport Canada: Features of the Passport". Passport Canada. Retrieved 2008-10-01.
9. ^ a b c Boswell, Randy (2009-05-10). "Ignatieff supports changing Canada's two-ocean motto" . National Post. Archived from
the original on 12 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-27. [dead link]
10. ^ Andrew Chung (2007-10-28). "TheStar.com | Ideas | Time to herald our northern coast?" . Thestar.com. Archived from the
original on 13 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
11. ^ Deveau, Scott (2006-09-03). "From sea to sea to sea" . Theglobeandmail.com. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
12. ^ CBC News (2006-03-10). "'To sea' or not 'to sea': that is the question" . Cbc.ca. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
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