World Energy Transitions by HC12091403837

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 22

									World Energy Transitions

James Hayes-Bohanan, Ph.D.
                           Considerations

•   Kinds of energy
•   Patterns of energy use
•   Sources of energy
•   The future of energy
•   No “magic bullets” for sale here!
                    Kinds of energy

•   Perpetual
•   Renewable
•   Non-renewable
•   Conservation
Historic energy use in U.S.




      Cutter and Renwick, 1999.
      Major commercial sources of
                          energy

• Fossil Fuels
  – Coal
  – Oil
  – Natural Gas
• Nuclear
• Hydroelectric
Major Coal Reserves
Major Oil Reserves
                       Gulf Petroleum Exports




Energy Policy Considerations in the Aftermath of September 11
Philip K. Verleger, Jr.
http://www.ase.org/stars/pdf/pverleger.pdf
                       Petroleum dependence

Analysis from Forbes
What is at stake in Saudi Arabia:
  http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2001/1112/064_print.html

Ten-dollar gasoline?:
  http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2001/10/2201022oilcosts_print.html

Patterns of trade:
  http://www.forbes.com/static_html/oil/oil.shtml
  Nuclear
   Cycles


Note dfferences
between current
and “future”
pathways.
          U.S. Vehicle Fuel Efficiency




Energy Policy Considerations in the Aftermath of September 11
Philip K. Verleger, Jr. http://www.ase.org/stars/pdf/pverleger.pdf
                                      U.S. Car/Truck Mix




Energy Policy Considerations in the Aftermath of September 11
Philip K. Verleger, Jr. http://www.ase.org/stars/pdf/pverleger.pdf
                    The future of energy

•   Global
•   National
•   State and regional
•   Institutional
•   Individual
                               Global scale

•   Resource limitations
•   Climate change
•   Other environmental harm
•   Geopolitics
             National scale - imported oil

•   Slow rate of overall economic growth
•   Increase taxes on imported oil
•   Encourage conservation
•   Promote domestic alternatives
•   Region-specific incentives
•   Strategic petroleum reserves

     Energy Policy Considerations in the Aftermath of September 11
     Philip K. Verleger, Jr. http://www.ase.org/stars/pdf/pverleger.pdf
       National scale - longer term
• The previous list simply “buys time” while
  alternatives are found.
• According to Verleger, “after 2015, the
  United States and other major consumers
  may have to admit that the resource base
  outside the Middle East is insufficient.”
• Therefore, the policies focused on “energy
  independence” are not useful long-term:
  Post-petroleum policies are needed.
         Post-petroleum technologies

•   Wind
•   Solar
•   Tides
•   Fuel Cells
             State and regional scale

• Electricity deregulation
  – Price
  – Air-quality
  – Promoting alternatives
• Government as consumer
• Mass-transit and highway decisions
                    Institutional scale

• Energy Bear!
• Information systems
• ROI: Return on Investment
                          Individual scale

•   Motivation
•   Consumption choices
•   Geographic choices
•   Technology choices: ROI
•   Reduce, reuse, recycle, repair
Utility facts

Under energy
deregulation,
consumers may
have greater
control over the
energy choices
made on their
behalf
                  Further information

• Environmental Geography web site at
  http://webhost.bridgew.edu/jhayesboh
• Energy education page (choose “Energy”
  from drop-down menu)
• Includes this presentation and citations

								
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