Jargon Buster Factsheet
Associate Professional and Technical Occupations
These are occupations whose main tasks require training and/or experience and
knowledge of principles and practices necessary to take on operational responsibility
and to give technical and skilled support to professionals. Most occupations in this
group will have an associated high-level vocational qualification, often involving full
time training or further study.
Science and Technology Associate Professionals include science and
engineering technicians, draughtspersons, building inspectors and IT service
Health Associate Professionals include nurses, paramedics, opticians, therapists
and medical and dental technicians
Social Welfare Associate Professionals include youth and community workers
and housing and welfare officers.
Protective Service Occupations Associate Professionals include police
officers, fire service officers and prison service officers.
Culture, Media and Sports Associate Professionals include artistic and literary
occupations, graphic designers, media occupations, such as journalism, and sport
and fitness occupations, such as players and coaches.
Business and Public Service Associate Professionals include transport
and associate professions (such as air traffic controllers and pilots), legal associate
professions, business and finance associate professionals, conservation and
environmental associate professionals and public service and other associate
professionals ,such as career advisers and environmental health officers.
The credit crunch began in 2008 and made dramatic headlines as it led to the
government taking over some banks.
Credit is essential to our modern economy and is based on the ability of banks, and
other credit providers, to lend money to businesses, individuals and each other. This
credit is used to fund businesses over difficult times, provide start-up money for new
businesses, and for individuals to buy high value goods such as homes and cars.
When credit became more difficult to get, and more businesses and individuals
couldn’t fund new purchases or loan money to get through difficult times, this
contributed to a downturn in the economy.
Downturn in the Economy
A downturn in the economy is also called a recession.
At the time of writing (February 2012) the UK economy (alongside that of many other
countries in the world) is still recovering – albeit very slowly - from the downturn in
A downturn in the economy means that some businesses have been finding it harder
to make profits and grow and there are still fewer job vacancies than when the
economy is growing at a faster rate than currently.
However, do remember that downturns in the economy:
Are usually temporary - predictions for the UK economy remain more
optimistic in the long term, over the next decade.
Affect some job areas more than others. To date the downturn has
particularly affected industries such as financial services, car manufacturing
and construction. Jobs in essential areas, such as low-cost food-retailing,
education and health, have been less affected.
Can be influenced by government action. For example, in the recent
recession the UK government stepped in to save banks from collapse. The
amount the government spends on public services can also affect the balance of
the economy as currently a large percentage of people in the UK are employed
by the public sector. As the downturn affects the revenue of the government with
lower tax returns and also government spending is lowered to cut its debt this is
already resulting in large numbers of job losses in the public sector and this is
predicted to increase so increasing unemployment in the short term.
A global economy is when the majority of countries in the world buy and sell each
other’s goods and products and make changes to their economies to allow this to
happen more easily, for example by lowering import duties. Technology has also
made it possible to operate a business and to trade internationally.
The global economy is also about all the different types of industry, businesses and
job prospects throughout the world. Some businesses operate across a number of
different countries and may produce goods in one country where manufacturing may
be cheaper because of low cost of labour - for example China - but do research and
development of their products in the UK. In this example the manufacturing job
opportunities would be in China, and the scientific research and development job
opportunities would be in the UK.
A job market may also be called the Labour Market
A market is about demand, what people want, and supply, how can it be provided?
A job market is where the demand comes from employers, and supply comes
from job seekers.
Demand from employers
The number of employers who are offering employment in an area.
The number of vacant jobs there are.
The skills, qualities and qualifications that employers want from their
Supply from job seekers
The number of people who are looking for work - these may be unemployed
or want to move from one job to another.
The skills, qualities and qualifications that job seekers have, or are willing to
develop by training at work.
Because it is a market - just like a market where people buy and sell goods -
conditions in the job market change for lots of reasons:
The economy - local, regional, national and global.
Politics - Government policy can make or break jobs.
Social situations - for example where people live and need services such as
schools and hospitals.
Technological developments - technology is changing fast and impacts on
how we work and the number of vacancies.
A Job Sector can also be called a Job Area and is a particular part of the whole job
market - usually describing a group of similar jobs. On this site we have listed jobs in
17 main jobs sectors:
Administration, Business and Finance
Armed Forces, Emergency and Security Services
Construction and the Built Environment
Creative and Media
Environmental and Land-based
Hair and Beauty Studies
Languages, Information and Culture
Legal and Political Services
Manufacturing and Product Design
Science, Maths and Statistics
Society, Health and Development
Sport and Active Leisure
Travel and Tourism
A trend means that things are moving or changing in a certain direction. A job trend
tells you how the world of work is changing. For example, a job trend may be that
more people are working part-time. A trend is worked out using figures from the job
Job trends can change over time - for many years we have had a growing economy
in the UK but this has not been the case over the past year as the economy has
suffered a downturn and now has slower growth.
Job Predictions or Projections
Some economists look at the job market figures in detail and use these figures to
forecast how they expect the job market to be in the future. Predictions and
forecasts can be helpful. For example, you may check out the weather forecast to
find out if you need a coat when you are going out, but, as we all know, there is
always a degree of error in predictions and forecasts so it is important to bear in
mind that these are mainly a guide.
Shorter term projections may be more reliable than longer term projections, as more
information may be available to make them more accurate.
Labour Market Information
Labour market information is information about the Job Market and includes:
Jobs and careers information
Education course and training information
This information could be in the form of statistics, charts and graphs using hard
figures, or it could be information that you discover yourself. For example, you may
read in a newspaper that a company is recruiting, or hear a friend talking about the
low cost supermarket where she works that has plans to expand.
Labour Market Intelligence
Labour market intelligence uses all the information out there about the Job Market,
and interprets it to make it more understandable.
This can result in Job Trends and Job Predictions information. Information about
trends and predictions is useful as they can enable you to see which jobs may
disappear or grow and about any new jobs on the horizon. They also outline the
employability skills you need to develop, but you do also need to remember that they
are predictions and you need to treat them with care (just like the weather forecast!)
The local economy is about what is happening is a specific area. The local area
covered in this website is the Barnsley area. The local economy is all about the types
of industry, businesses and job prospects in that area. This is important information -
as you may be interested in a particular type of job that may or may not be on offer
The regional economy is about what is happening in a wide regional area. The
regional area covered on this website is Yorkshire and Humberside as a whole. The
regional economy is all about the types of industry, businesses and job prospects in
the Yorkshire and Humber area. This is particularly important as with good transport
links job seekers can move around the area. You may live in Barnsley, but be willing
to travel into Leeds to do a job that is only available there.
The national economy is about what is happening in the whole of the UK. The
national economy is all about the types of industry, businesses and job prospects
throughout the whole country - for example the total number of people employed in a
particular job sector, and where the job vacancies are. This is particularly important
for people who have a ‘dream job’ - which may not be available locally or even in the
Yorkshire area - it may perhaps only be available in the London area. You would
therefore have to think whether you would be willing to move away to take up this
An occupational group is a number of jobs that have been grouped together because
of their similarities. An occupational group may be a job sector, for example
Construction and the Built Environment where all the jobs are in this industry, or it
may be a group of jobs that are at the same level for example management jobs, or
These occupational groupings are used by economists so that statistics can be
collected about what is happening in general within a group, and also to make
predictions about what may happen to that group in the future.
The professional occupations group covers occupations whose main tasks require a
high level of knowledge and experience and most occupations in this group require a
degree or equivalent qualification.
Science Professionals include scientists such as physicists and chemists.
Engineering Professionals include civil engineers, mechanical engineers,
electronics and electrical engineers.
Information and Communication Technology Professionals include IT strategy
and planning professionals and software professionals.
Health professionals include medical practitioners, psychologists and dental
Teaching and Research Professionals include teachers, lecturers, and
Business and Public Service Professionals include legal professionals, such as
solicitors and lawyers, business and statistical professionals, such as accountants,
Architects, town planners and surveyors, public service professionals such as social
workers and probation officers and librarians.
Sector Skills Councils
The UK Sector Skills Councils (SSCs) are state-sponsored employer-led
organisations representing specific job sectors. As part of their role they work
towards reducing skills gaps and shortages by identifying areas that need work-
based learning and Apprenticeship programmes.
You can find out more by going to the SSC site that covers the industry you are
Asset Skills covers the Property, Facilities Management, Housing and
Cogent covers the Chemical and Pharmaceutical, Oil, Gas, Nuclear,
Petroleum and Polymers sectors
Construction Skills covers the Construction sector
Creative and Cultural Skills covers the Advertising, Crafts, Music, Performing,
Heritage, Design and Arts sectors
E-skills covers the IT and Telecoms sectors
Energy and Utility Skills covers the Energy, Waste and Utilities sectors
The Financial Services Skills Council covers the Financial Services,
Accountancy and Finance sectors
Go Skills covers the Passenger Transport sector
The Institute of the Motor Industry covers the Retail Motor Industries
Improve covers the Food and Drinks Manufacturing and Processing sectors
Lantra covers the Environment and Land-based sectors
People 1st covers the Hospitality, Leisure, Travel and Tourism sectors
Proskills covers the Building Products, Coatings, Extractive and Mineral
Processing, Furniture, Furnishings and Interiors, Glass and Glazing, Glazed
Ceramics, Paper and Pulp and Printing sectors
SEMTA covers the Science, Engineering and Manufacturing Technologies
Skills Active covers the Sport and Recreation, Health and Fitness, Outdoors,
Playwork and Caravanning Industry sectors
Skills for Care and Development covers the Social Care, Children, Early
Years and Young People's Workforces sectors in the UK
Skillset covers the TV, Film, Radio, Interactive Media, Animation, Computer
Games, Facilities, Photo Imaging and Publishing sectors
Skills for Health covers the whole of the UK Health sector
Skills for Justice covers the Policing and Law Enforcement, Youth Justice,
Custodial Care, Community Justice, Courts Service, Prosecution Services
and Forensic Science sectors
Skills for Logistics covers the Freight Logistics and Wholesaling Industry
Skillsmart Retail covers the Retail sector
Summit Skills covers the Building Services Engineering sector
A skill is the learned ability or talent to be able to do something well. For example, a
skill could be the ability to score a goal in football, to operate a computer or to drive a
car. Skills usually require you to be given training, and also to practice on a regular
basis to improve.
Skilled work describes work areas where a set of skills is needed to do a job well.
Some of these skills may be those you bring to a job - general employability skills
such as communication, numeracy and team work, for example, that you will have
developed during your education. Other skills will be job-specific, and many work-
related skills will be taught whilst you are working, for example on an Apprenticeship
Multi-skilled work describes work areas where you need a wide range of different
job-related skills - although you may not need all the skills to a high level. For
example a general construction worker may need to be multi-skilled in a range of
tasks, related to jobs such as carpentry and bricklaying to help assemble pre-
fabricated buildings but would not be expected to be working at the same level of
skill as a fully trained specialist carpenter or bricklayer.
Factsheet produced by Prospects Revised February 2012