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Session 2 Crash Dynamics by RP5EU6

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 16

									         INDIANA
Traffic Occupant Protection
         Strategies

       Crash Dynamics
 Newton’s Law of Motion
• A body at rest or in motion at a
  constant speed in a straight line will
  continue to do so unless acted on by
  an outside force
• The outside force…
  – Can be harmful (e.g., the steering
    wheel, windshield, pavement, etc.)
  – Can be designed to protect (e.g., seat
    belt or child restraint system)
              Collisions in a Crash



                          1       The vehicle collision



2   The human collision

                              3    The internal collision
                  Crash Forces


  Weight x Speed =
  Restraining Force
10 lb x 30 mph = 300 lb
  of restraining force
     Types of Crashes

• Frontal
• Lateral (Side Impact)
• Rear-end
• Rollover
                      Frontal Crashes

• Most frequent type, but
  not always the most severe
• Common injuries to
  unrestrained occupants:
  – Cuts and bruises to the head
    and face
  – Injuries to larynx, liver, and
    spleen
  – Fractures of the skull, spine,
    and ribs
        Kinematics


         Frontal impact
Vehicle Direction

                    Impact
                     Force
            Lateral (Side Impact) Crashes

• Typically the most deadly type of crash due to
  less crush space
• Minor differences in number of fatalities between
  left and right side
• Common injuries include:
   – Chest/pelvic injuries
   – Facial/skull fractures
     Kinematics



Impact
 Force
         Side Impact

          Vehicle Direction
                     Rear-end Crashes

• Common form of collision –
  typically involves frontal
  collision
• Resulting injuries include:
   – Cervical fractures
   – Stretching/tearing of neck
     ligaments and tendons
     (whiplash)
   – Properly set head restraint can
     decrease risk of injury
         Kinematics



         Rear Impact
         Vehicle Direction


Impact
 Force
                    Rollover Crashes

• Rollovers = side to side
  and vaults
• Severity of injury depends
  upon number of
  rotations, etc.
• Often cause ejection
• Ejected occupants are
  four times more likely to
  be killed
        Survivability
• Many factors determine injury
  outcome (crash type, size, weight,
  and speed)
• Restraint systems are designed to
  protect from crash forces most
  likely to occur
• Seat belts and air bags are your
  Best Chance of Survival
      Module Wrap-Up
• An object in motion remains in motion at
  the original speed until acted on by an
  outside force
• Three collisions – vehicle, human,
  internal
• Four types of crashes – frontal, lateral,
  rear-end, rollover
• Weight x Speed = Restraining Force
End of Module Two




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