VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 16 POSTED ON: 9/14/2012
INDIANA Traffic Occupant Protection Strategies Crash Dynamics Newton’s Law of Motion • A body at rest or in motion at a constant speed in a straight line will continue to do so unless acted on by an outside force • The outside force… – Can be harmful (e.g., the steering wheel, windshield, pavement, etc.) – Can be designed to protect (e.g., seat belt or child restraint system) Collisions in a Crash 1 The vehicle collision 2 The human collision 3 The internal collision Crash Forces Weight x Speed = Restraining Force 10 lb x 30 mph = 300 lb of restraining force Types of Crashes • Frontal • Lateral (Side Impact) • Rear-end • Rollover Frontal Crashes • Most frequent type, but not always the most severe • Common injuries to unrestrained occupants: – Cuts and bruises to the head and face – Injuries to larynx, liver, and spleen – Fractures of the skull, spine, and ribs Kinematics Frontal impact Vehicle Direction Impact Force Lateral (Side Impact) Crashes • Typically the most deadly type of crash due to less crush space • Minor differences in number of fatalities between left and right side • Common injuries include: – Chest/pelvic injuries – Facial/skull fractures Kinematics Impact Force Side Impact Vehicle Direction Rear-end Crashes • Common form of collision – typically involves frontal collision • Resulting injuries include: – Cervical fractures – Stretching/tearing of neck ligaments and tendons (whiplash) – Properly set head restraint can decrease risk of injury Kinematics Rear Impact Vehicle Direction Impact Force Rollover Crashes • Rollovers = side to side and vaults • Severity of injury depends upon number of rotations, etc. • Often cause ejection • Ejected occupants are four times more likely to be killed Survivability • Many factors determine injury outcome (crash type, size, weight, and speed) • Restraint systems are designed to protect from crash forces most likely to occur • Seat belts and air bags are your Best Chance of Survival Module Wrap-Up • An object in motion remains in motion at the original speed until acted on by an outside force • Three collisions – vehicle, human, internal • Four types of crashes – frontal, lateral, rear-end, rollover • Weight x Speed = Restraining Force End of Module Two Questions?
Pages to are hidden for
"Session 2 Crash Dynamics"Please download to view full document