Napoleon Empire Collapses by alicejenny


									     Chapter 7, Section 4

Napoleon’s Empire Collapses
    I. Napoleon’s 3 Costly Mistakes
A. The Continental System
  -Napoleon put a blockade (forcible closing of all
      ports) on Western Europe to cut off all trade and
      communication with Great Britain
  -Called this the Continental System because his goal
      was to make Europe self-sufficient and destroy
      G.B. economy
  -Not tight enough, so British ships could still get in
      & out
  -Britain puts their own blockade around Europe, tax
      ships out of Europe, is more successful
B. The Peninsular War
   -Wanted to force Portugal to follow Continental
   System, sent troops through Spain
   -Catholic Spain worried Napoleon would attack the
   -Spanish guerrillas attack French soldiers (with the
   aid of the English)-ambushed the French
   -Called the Peninsular War because Spain lies on the
   Iberian Peninsula
   -Encouraged the Italians and Germans to rise up
   against the French
C. Invasion of Russia
  -Napoleon & Czar Alexander I were allies, but did
  not trust each other
  -Russia refuses to stop selling grain to G.B.
  -Napoleon leads his Grand Army into Russia, Alex
  pulls back his troops
  -While pulling back, the Russians use scorched
  earth policy (burn everything they leave behind so
  the enemy cannot use any of it)
-Finally clash in the Battle of Borodino,
Russians fell back, allowing Napoleon to move
into Moscow
-Rather than surrender Moscow, they had
destroyed it (by burning)
-Grand Army starts to retreat, harsh winter
-Russians attack the army. By the time the
French leave, only 10,000 out of 420,000 left
         II. Napoleon’s Downfall
A. Napoleon’s enemies join together (Britain,
   Russia, Austria, Prussia & Sweden) to fight
B. Battle of Leipzig-French quickly defeated,
   push towards Paris
C. April 1814, Napoleon accepted the terms of
   surrender and gave up his throne, is given a
   small pension and banished to Elba (a small
   island off Italy)
D. Louis XVI’s brother, Louis XVIII takes the throne
   and quickly becomes unpopular (accused of undoing
   land reforms)
E. Napoleon escapes from Elba, crowds welcomed him
   back to France & joined his army
F. Enemies come together, meet Napoleon’s troops in
   Waterloo, Belgium
   -French quickly defeated
   -Ended Napoleon’s last bid for power, known as the
   100 Days
   -Napoleon shipped off to the South Pacific, where he
   died lonely of a stomach ailment (possibly cancer)

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