Adverb Adjective Verb Noun Preposition eat wish Amy Benjamin by alicejenny


									Grammar in the Heart of the
 Writing Process

 Amy Benjamin

    America’s Choice 2011 National Conference: Success By Design
    Atlanta, Georgia
    February 5, 2011

    Please feel free to access any of today’s visuals:
Students struggle with going from speech

to writing, and then from informal

to formal style.
       Grammar in the Heart of the
           Writing Process
Today’s Agenda:

        1. Where grammatical information can fit into the writing process

        2. Learning nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs and what to do
           with our knowledge of them

        3. Using grammatical knowledge to expand vocabulary

        4. Trouble-shooting:
                  Creating complete sentences

        5. How and why to teach prepositions

        6. Code-switching from informal to formal language tone
Cesar Chavez helped the farm workers.
                                          Cesar Chavez helped the farm workers,
He advocated for them. He did not
                                          and he advocated for them. He did not
encourage violence. He led a boycott
                                          encourage violence. He led a boycott
instead of violence. The boycott was an
                                          instead of violence, and the boycott
effective method of resistance. (30)
                                          was an effective method of resistance.

                                          Cesar Chavez, advocate for farm
                                          workers, helped them not by
Cesar Chavez, advocate for farm           encouraging violence, but by leading
workers, helped them not by               a boycott, an effective
encouraging violence, but by leading      method of resistance. (22)
a boycott. The boycott was an effective
method of resistance. (25)

                                          Grammar is the most significant
                                          determiner of sophisticated style.
                              Sharpen your nouns
                              Minimize your modifiers
                              Replace BE verbs and weak verbs with strong
                                action verbs
                              Achieve parallel structure
                              Combine sentences: create complex sentences
                                                    use appositives
                                                    use absolutes
                              Expand and shrink noun phrases. Turn clauses
                              into modifying phrases. Decide where
                               to place modifiers for desired effect.
Pre-writing     Drafting         Revising                           Publication
form)              Point of
                   intervention for
                                            Point of
                   substantial              intervention
                   language                 for surface
                   improvement              error correction
                           Parts of Speech: Fast and Furious

Part of Sp.:       Examples:            Quick Definition:    Hint:

                monkey, river,
   Noun                                  Person, place,
                America. prize                              The______

                eat, wish, is,                              He______ or
  Verb                                  Action or state
                find, cry                                   He is______ing.
                dangerous, big,                             The _______truck
   Adjective                            Describes a noun
                green, curly
                  usually, slowly,                           He joined the
                                        Describes a verb
   Adverb         clearly, eventually                        team______.
                  sometimes, now.

                                                            Somewhere _____
Preposition    in, on, at, for, with     Shows position
                                                            the rainbow
My Noun Palette
                      Proper Nouns:

    Concrete Nouns:

                           Abstract Nouns:

                           -tion,-sion,-ism,-ence, -ance,
                           -ness, -ment, -itude
                                 Morphology Chart
NOUNS:                           VERBS:                           ADJECTIVES:                      ADVERBS:
They will fit into this frame:   They will fit into this frame:   They will fit into this frame:   They will fit into this frame:
The_____.                        To____ or
                                 Can____or                        The ________truck                Do it ___________.

             Nouns answer the question: What? or Who?
             Verbs answer the question: What is it doing, having, feeling, or being?
             Adjectives answer the question: What kind?       (They may also answer the questions Which one? and
                                                                How many? but those kinds of adjectives do not fit into
                                                                the frame of The______truck.

             Adverbs answer any of these questions: Where? When? Why? To what extent? How?
This “Morphology Kit”
is a great way to
expand vocabulary
                                  Morphology Kit
because most
of the words        Noun-Making     Verb-Making Suffixes Adjective-making
created by          Suffixes                             suffixes
these suffixes
express abstract
               -ment                -ate                 -acious,icious
               -ness                -ify                 -y
               -ation, sion         -ize                 -ous, ious
               -ity                                      -ant
               -ism                                      -able, ible
               -hood                                     -er; est
               -itude                                     Adverb-making suffix:
               -ence                                      -ly
               -ide                                                               5
                                                           The Language Tree
                             Adjective Branches:

Noun Branches:                          very___________
                                                                Verb Branches:
    the______________      very___________                            can___________
                                   very___________      can___________

the______________                                         can___________
        the______________                               Prepositional Phrase Branches:

                    Topic: ______________________________
             Six Reasons for Teaching
1. Prepositions add time and place detail to sentences

2. Students can vary their sentence structure and set the stage for
a sentence by beginning some sentences with prepositions.

 3. Students can add power to their writing by ending paragraphs with a
 prepositional phrase. (Conversely: Students can avoid ending sentences
 with prepositions so that their sentences are not weak or too informal.)

  4. Students can avoid subject-verb agreement errors by recognizing
  prepositional phrases that intervene between the subject and the verb, as in
  “A box of matches (is, are) on the kitchen table.”

  5. Students can create parallel structure by repeating prepositional phrases

  6. Students can select the appropriate pronoun case as the object of
  a preposition. (between you and me; for Joe and me)
     Now Entering the Complete Sentence Zone:

     The “Guess What!” test

     How it works: Say “Guess What!” in front of
      a group of words. If the group of words
      tells you “guess what!” then
      you have a complete sentence!

Other tests:
         They believed that….

        Can you turn it into a yes/no question?
Phrase, Clause, Sentence
               A phrase is two or more words that go
               together (without being a sentence). There
               are noun phrases and verb phrases. Once
               we have both a noun and a verb, then
               we have a clause.

                 A clause is a group of words that
                 may or may not be a complete
                 sentence. If a clause can stand alone as
                 a sentence, then we call it
                 an independent clause. (If a clause
                 cannot stand alone as a sentence,
                 then we call it a subordinate clause.
                   Use worthwhile literature to practice finding phrases and clauses:

from The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain

        Monday morning found Tom Sawyer miserable. Monday morning always

   found him so, because it began another week’s slow suffering in school. He

   generally began that day with wishing he had no intervening holiday; it made

   the going into captivity and fetters again so much more odious.

        Tom lay thinking. Presently it occurred to him that he wished he was sick;

   then he could stay home from school. Here was a vague possibility. He

   canvassed his system. No ailment was found, and he investigated again. This

   time he thought he could detect colicky symptoms, and he began to encourage

   them with considerable hope. But they soon grew feeble and presently died

   wholly away. He reflected further. Suddenly he discovered something. One of

   his upper front teeth was loose. This was lucky.
Informal   Formal
Handout: Page 11

            Informal and Formal

         backpack         briefcase

         flip-flops       dress shoes

         McDonald’s       sit-down restaurant

         frisbee on the   football on the team

         snack            lunch
         zapping/nuking   cooking, baking, roasting
            The Sentence-Making Kit
Fold a 5 x 8 index card in half, width-wise:

           Guess                  believed     Yes/no
           What!                  that…        question

    1.                               2.          3.
              The Sentence-Making Kit
On the inside of the card:

 AAAWWUBBIS:           If a sentence begins            These words, plus the comma, may join
 although, as, after   with any of these words,
 while, when                                      ,and two sentences. Writers sometimes begin
                       it must have two parts.
 until                                            ,but sentences with these words if they are
                       Place a comma between
 because, before                                  ,so  doing so for emphasis.
                       the two parts if one of
 if, since             these words begins
                       the sentence.

 These words will help you          Use as many                      Flip the switch into formal English:
 give detail in your sentences:     ACTION VERBS as possible.
 Try beginning some of your                                          a lot = a great many or a great deal
                                Use words and groups of words that   gonna= going to
 sentences with these words:
       IN      FOR              answer the ADVERB QUESTIONS:         wanna= want to
       ON WITH                                                       hafta= have to
       AT                       When? Where? Why? How?               get,got = become, became, receive
                                To what extent? How often?               received, obtain, obtained
                                                                     gotta: must
           The Sentence-Making Kit
On the back of the card:

           Substitutions for homophones and spelling problems:

           their = his            its = his
           there = here           it’s = it is; it has
           they’re = they are
                                I before E except after C
                                                                 woman = man
           your = his           Or when sounded as A             women = men
           you’re = you are     As in neighbor or sleigh
                                Common Hitching Devices

Coordinating            Subordinating
                                                Conjunctive Adverbs      Relative Pronouns
Conjunctiions           Conjunctions
                        As, although, after      However                  That
And                     While, when              Moreover                 Which
                        Until                    Therefore                Who, whom
So                      Because, before          Furthermore
Or/nor                  If                                                Why
                        AAAWWUBBI                                         Whichever
                                                                          Whatever, etc.
Can join two           Can hitch up to an        Can move within         Can join clauses
independent            independent clause,       own clause;
clauses to make        creating a subordinate    Requires commas         Warning: Many
a compound             (dependent) clause,       on both sides           sentence fragments
sentence.              forming                                           begin with these
                                                                         words. Usually, you
Warning: You           complex sentence.         Warning: If you
                                                                         must hitch these
must use a comma       Can appear after          wish to use these       words and the clauses
with these when        main clause (no comma)    to join clauses, you    that they introduce to
they join              or before main clause     must use a semicolon.   your previous sentence.
independent clauses.   (needs a comma)

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