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ERGONOMICS Powered By Docstoc
					               Define and Measure

               Overview of the Basic Approaches to the
               Recognition, Measurement, and Control of
               Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders

Revised 3/06
Organization of the Rule
   Subpart A - Purpose
   Subpart B - Scope
   Subpart C - Forms and recording criteria
   Subpart D - Other requirements
   Subpart E - Reporting to the government
   Subpart F - Transition
   Subpart G - Definitions

Recording Criteria

   Subpart C - Recordkeeping Forms and
    Recording Criteria
     1904.4  Recording criteria
     1904.5 Work-relatedness
     1904.6 New case
     1904.7 General recording criteria
     1904.8 Needlesticks and sharps
     1904.9 Medical removal
     1904.10 Hearing loss
     1904.11 Tuberculosis
     1904.29 Forms
1904.4 – Recording Criteria
    Covered employers must record each
     fatality, injury or illness that:
      is work-related, and
      is a new case, and
      meets one or more of the criteria contained
       in sections 1904.7 through 1904.11.

1904.29 - Forms
   OSHA Form 300, Log of Work-Related
    Injuries and Illnesses
   OSHA Form 300A, Summary of Work-
    Related Injuries and Illnesses
   OSHA Form 301, Injury and Illness
    Incident Report

     Incidence Rates

   Formula for calculation

    Rate per 100
    full time workers   =   Hours worked
                                           x 200,000

Injury Analysis
 Frequency (Total Recordable Case Rate)
 Severity (DART Rate)
    Upper Extremity WMSDs
   Tendon Disorders
     Tendonitis
     Tenosynovitis
     LateralEpicondylitis
     Medial Epicondylitis
     Ganglion Cysts
   Nerve Disorders
     Nerve entrapments
     Carpel Tunnel Syndrome
   Neurovascular Disorder
     Hand Arm Vibration Syndrome
     Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
Location of Upper Extremity Disorders
    Overview of Symptoms
   Ganglion Cyst
        Synovial sheath swells and holds fluid
        Often seen in the wrist as a bump

   Epicondylitis (lateral and medial)
        Unsheathed tendons become irritated
        Pain that extends from elbow through forearm
    Overview of Symptoms
   Tenosynovitis
        Swelling of the synovial sheath
        Pain and swelling

   Tendonitis
        Tendon becomes inflamed
        Pain, swelling, weakness, tenderness
    Overview of Symptoms
   Nerve entrapments
     Carpel   tunnel syndrome
       Swelling of the tendons in the wrist area that place
        pressure on the median nerve
       Symptoms include pain, numbness, and tingling of
        the hand (thumb and first 3 digits)
Overview of Symptoms
   Neurovascular disorders
     Thoracic   Outlet Syndrome
       Compression of the nerves and blood vessels of
        the neck and shoulder
       Symptoms like CTS extending up the arm

     Hand   Arm Vibration Syndrome
       Disorder of the small vessels and nerves of the
        fingers and hand
       Results from vibrating hand tools

       Localized blanching at the fingertips with
        numbness on exposure to cold or vibration
    Back Pain
 2nd leading ailment that affects the 25–50
  age group
 Back injuries account for ~ 20% of all
  workplace injuries and illnesses
 Costs $20-50 billion a year
The Spinal Column
         •7 cervical vertebrae
         •12 thoracic vertebrae
         •5 lumbar vertebrae
         •5 sacral vertebrae
         •4 coccygeal vertebrae
The Basics
             Two Basic Structures

             1.   Vertebrae

             2.   Discs
    Injuries of the Back
   Pinched nerves
     Staticpostures, improper posture
     Acute trauma

   Pulled Muscles
     Heavy lifting
     Improper lifting technique
    Symptoms of Back Pain
 Pain (dull, consistent and sharp)
 Numbness
 Tingling
 Aching
    What if I do not have MSDs
A Proactive Problem-Solving Approach

       1. Look for Clues

       2. Prioritize Job Improvements

       3. Make Improvements

       4. Follow-Up
Body Part Discomfort Map
Body Part Discomfort Map
Body Part Discomfort Map
Look for Clues – Observe Work Activities

     o   Physical Work Risk Factors
             o   Lifting/forceful movements, awkward postures, whole body vibration
             o   Unnecessary handling of materials

     o   Symptomatic Worker Behaviors
             o   Fatigue, discomfort, ‘pain behaviors’, etc.
             o   Increased absenteeism, turnover rates or complaints and reduced

     o   Workplace Design Issues
             o   Are workers modifying tools, equipment, or workstations on their
             o   Malfunctioning equipment

     o   Productivity Issues
             o   Production bottlenecks, reduced level of quality, missed deadlines,
                 increase in waste/scrap, etc.
Look for Clues – Use Assessment

     o   Checklists
           o   General Ergonomics Evaluations
           o   Risk Factor / Activity Specific

     o   Task Analyses
Early Detection Program

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