Ezgi KARABİLECEN – 20212081
Gonca HAZIR – 20212057
Neşe ÖZKAN – 20212459
Ömer Faruk AYDIN – 20112663
• A planned action for accomplishing an end.
• In terms of negotiation; an activity designed
to achieve a desired result.
• 3 things to know about tactics in a
– Which tactic we want to use
– Which tactic would be appropriate
– Which tactic is used by the other party
• Negotiation requires a preparartion first
• If a negotiation hold inattentive, the
effectiveness of negotiator would be low.
• Preparation step:
– What is important for the other party in decision
– Where do they want to meet for negotiation?
– What kind of factors would be important? (cost,
price, amount, delivery...etc)
• Good negotiators has ideal objectives
depending on Win-Win situation. Also, they
consider the lower limits or the worst
• Preparation step of an effective negotiation
contains those determinations:
– Other party’s position and opening
– How the negotiator acts to achieve the objectives
– Other party’s problems, opportunities,
preferences and needs
– The lower limits
– Other party’s compensations
• The facts and principles obtained as a
result of learning, searching and
• Allows us to adapt new situations
• Provides competetive advantages
• Information should be recordable, observable,
• A valuabel information is specific, tested, confirmed
• It allows the negotiator;
– To define his/her position
– To select his/her arguments
– To have data for desired result
• Information as a powerful tool
• Formal and informal sources
• We can reach information by
– Newspapers, magazines and other publications
– Public institution’s publicaions
– Company Profile from Rating Corporations
•Related market information
•Both sides’ interest
•Depth line of other side
•Influence and pressure of
current economic,social and
Person who gives a technology licence
must gather information about;
• Is there any potential buyer effort about
improve or get hold of same or
equivalance technology by itself.
• Economic benefits that arise from
buying this technology decision of
• Cost of technology application to
Analyzing the Other Party
Several key peaces of backround
information will be of great importance
in aiding in our own preparation.
Analyzing the Other Party
• The other party’s current resources, interest,
• The other party’s objectives.
• The other party’s reputation and negotiation
• The other party’s BATNA.
• The other party’s authority to make an
• The other party’s likely strategy and tactics.
The best negotiators
persons who can
immediately that will
aid them when they
require those facts.
The ability to quote facts at the most
proper time in the negotiations can
assist negotiator in achieving the
Arrange the office and files appropriately
so that required information can be
“ I’ll get back to you “ isn’t enough satisfying.
To answer quickly;
-rearrange the office
-access all the required files by moving
only the chair
The danger of using the telephone is the
inference that speed is essential.
Counterparty expects immediate answer
and makes pressure on the other side.
FACE TO FACE
• It is possible to use files and computer
loaded information during discussion.
• With laptops the required information can
• Say “ excuse me for a moment, I have
some information here about that”
• Aide-memory are also useful
• all required information exist in
available form for both parties.
• Nothing can be happen without the
knowledge of the other side
• None of the sides can plan to hurt
the counterparty; and collaborative
goals can be achieved.
REFERRAL TO HIGHER
“ I’m not sure how my boss will take it”.
Force the other side to decide
Use once per negotiation
Sometimes, people are forced to negotiate
without any real scope for them to
exercise any real authority
This places them in an invidious position
particularly where this is known the other
This is a situation waiting to be exploited.
For negotiator; not to be exploited by the
For counterparty; seek to detect a weak
point of the negotiator to hurt him
Spotting other side’s bluff wolud be a great
Become the “win” side of the win-lose
• Martin is a valued employee of Printco.
• His employment contract has six
months left to run.
• There is a substantial accrued bonus to
Martin within eleven month but only if
he is still employed by Printco.
1. Company will be sold to a big
conglomerate in the near future.
2. Printco’s competitor is trying to lure
Martin away from the company.
What Information Are You
Assume you are boss;
• Does Martin enjoy working at Printco?
• Has Martin actually been approached by
competitors to jump ship?
• Does Martin control his customers personally or
are they actually loyal to Printco?
• What attitude does Martin have toward his
Assume you are Martin;
• There are still six months for the contract
to end, why Printco starts negotiations?
• Is Printco about to be acquired?
• What is the Printco’s assumption about the
loyalty of your customers?
How will you reach the
• Low key style
• The more you talk, the less information
comes to your way.
Two ways to seek information:
• Direct style
– Disadvantage: Highlights the subject.
• Indirect style
– Disadvantage: One can not reach any useful
information unless putting the other side on
Mr. Cellar (seller)
• asks 200.000$, but ready to get at least
Mrs. Byre (buyer)
• wants to pay 175.000$, but ready to pay