Prehistoric Andean States - PowerPoint

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					              Prehistoric Andean   Wilson Ch.-9
                    States           (Part 2)
                                    The Inca




Machu Pichu
                       The Inca
                (A.D. 1200 and 1532)
• Ethnohistorical Background & Chronology
• 332 years
   – Early Inca (A.D. 1200-1438) founding the capital city of
     Cuzco by Manco Capac
      • Viracocha Inca- Supreme title “Sapa Inca”
   – Late Inca (A.D. 1438-1532)
      • Reign of Pachacuti in 1438 A.D.
      • Topa Inca- set out to conquer (from Chile to Colombia)
      • Died without naming successor- Civil War
          – Huascar (Cuzco)     -Atahuallpa (Quito)
• Largest empire in the Americas lasted only 87 years.
   – Military and political control over 1,835,000 square
     kilometers
               The Imperial Inca System
• Physical Environment
• Mode of Production
   –   Agriculture & Pastoralism
   –   Irrigation and terracing systems
   –   Citizens must provide mit’a labor
   –   aqllacuna
• Settlement Pattern
   –   Cuzco population- 100,000 people by 1532
   –   Public heart of the city was the Huacaypata
   –   Aqllahuasi & the “chosen women”
   –   Tahuantinsuy- “land of the Four Quarters”
   –   Road system & the quipus (decimally knotted strings)
• Mode of Reproduction
   – Total population: between 6 to 10 million people in 1,833,000 km2
           The Imperial Inca
                System
• Domestic Economy and Social Organization
   – Children naming ceremony: Rutuchico
   – Yachahuasi
   – Rites of passage of both genders
        • Quicochico
        • Huarochico
   –   Age of marriage
   –   Tribute in labor
   –   Marriage tax
   –   Endogamous marriages in groups called ayllu
   –   Local leaders were called sinchi
   –   Inca was a name for the original inhabitants of Cuzco
   –   Inca married his own sister to keep the blood line 100% (or 50%)
       pure
        • Inca royalty as direct descendants of Inti
           The Imperial Inca System
• Political Economy
  – Origins of Inca state (A.D. 1438)
  – “split inheritance system” by Conrad
  – Inca would see conquered people as
    barbarians
  – Military campaigns
     • divination ritual called calpa
     • Administrator would follow the
       conquestincluding Quipucamayocs
     • Religious imposition and standardized
       dress code
       The Imperial Inca System
• Ritual and Leadership
  – Theocracy: Sapa Inca = Inti
  – Apu (governors)
  – Coya (Queen) duality
  – Capac Hucha rituals
• Ideology
  – Inca cosmology (fig.9.26)
  – Gender equality

				
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