Working with quotes: The topic sentence will explain the first supporting detail. Next, give an example of this detail. For instance, “you could use a quote from one of the research articles” (Name 11). To illustrate this example, you should unpack the idea behind the use of the supporting detail in a sentence or two, using your own words, as it relates to your research claim and thesis. As your paragraph comes to a close, take a moment to decide if the paragraph needs a concluding idea before transitioning to the next paragraph. But keep in mind this is not the only way to structure a paragraph. As you become more confident in your writing, you’ll have the option of using more complex methods of expressing yourselves. However, the goal of your paragraphs will remain the same. Namely, presenting an idea, offering support for that idea, and most important, presenting your information in a clear and logical order. A few sample terms to use with supporting material: “For instance” “Specifically” “In particular” “Namely” “Another” “Other” “In addition” “To illustrate” Terms to indicate a concluding ideas: “Therefore,” “Thus,” “Consequently,” “As a result,” Transitions to set-up the next paragraph: Another... __________ is not the only... Paola Brown, Maricopa Community College, <http://www.mesacc.edu/~paolabrown/Refutationpgphs.html> Pulling apart a paragraph: One way colleges should use tuition money to benefit students is by redesigning their financial aid systems. Although colleges have reportedly increased their need-based financial aid, most of these precious funds go to boost tuition aid for middle-class students. Tamar Lewin from the New York Times wrote, “student borrowing has more than doubled in the last decade, and students from lower income families, on average, get smaller grants from the colleges they attend than students from more affluent families.” Basing more award decisions on financial need instead of merit would allow more students from lower-income families to attend college. As hard economic times continue to affect family finances, some colleges are even offering emergency aid and loans, particularly in cases where parents have lost jobs (Young). More colleges must take similar steps to ensure that students from all economic backgrounds have a fighting chance at affording an education. Exercise 1: 1. They are cutting down on how much money they spend in restaurants, bars, retail stores, and entertainment. 2. As a result, usually robust holiday sales were down an alarming 2.8%, the lowest since 1995 (CNNMoney.com). 3. If we don’t loosen our grip on our wallets and inject some much needed cash into the system, we will face far more dire economic consequences in the years to come. 4. The new frugal spending habits of American consumers between the ages of 18 and 34 are endangering the very people who are trying to save money. 5. Plagued with rising unemployment, widespread hiring freezes, and difficulty securing credit, young Americans are naturally turning to their spending habits as one area they can control. 6. Although the desire to hold onto their money is logical, all this coupon clipping, budgeting, and thrift-store shopping threatens the key to economic recovery, what economists call “consumer confidence.” 7. Even once stable retail giants like Circuit City and Sharper Image have gone out of business (Wall Street Journal).
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