Rise & Fall of the Ottoman Empire

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					Fall of the Ottoman Empire
 and Conflict in SW Asia
       United States Constitution
1.   How many branches are there
     in the U.S. government?
2.   How long is the president’s
     term?
3.   Name two houses of Congress.
4.   Term for dividing power
     between national and state
     governments.
5.   First word in the Constitution.
6.   What is our national court
     called?
7.   The Constitution is a set of __?
8.   What group elects the
     president?
        Standard SS7G8

The student will analyze continuity and
  change in Southwest Asia leading
         into the 21st Century.
    Elements

a. Explain how European partitioning in the
   Middle East after the breakup of the
   Ottoman Empire led to regional conflict.
b. Explain the historical reasons for the
   establishment of the modern state of
   Israel in 1948; include the Jewish
   religious connection to the land, the
   Holocaust, anti-Semitism and Zionism in
   Europe.
c. Describe how land
   and religion are        Elements
   reasons for
   continuing conflicts
   in the Middle East.
d. Explain U.S.
   presence and
   interest in Southwest
   Asia; include the
   Persian Gulf conflict
   and invasions of
   Afghanistan and
   Iraq.
        Warm Up & Review
1. What is a theocracy?
2. Explain the idea of toleration?
3. Why is owing money bad?
4. List two things that happened in World
   War I.
5. What is the difference between an ethnic
   group and a religious group?
6. What are the two divisions of Islam?
 Muslim Empires
• Leader – Caliph
  – Duty to spread Allah’s rule
  – United Middle East under one government
  – Created extensive trading system
• Theocracy
  – Government by a religious leader
  – Iran is a theocracy today.
Ottoman Empire’s Lands
          Ottoman Empire

• Turkey, North Africa, Southwest Asia and
  Southeast Europe.
• Capital City – Constantinople
• Leaders – Sultans
• Tolerant of other religions
• Legal system – justice
• Powerful, stable, wealthy empire
      Reasons for the Decline of
          Ottoman Empire
• Weakened by too many wars
  – Land lost to national groups and Europeans

• Ottomans’ technology begin to fall behind
  Europe

• Financial issues – tax collections – high debt

• On losing side in World War I
Ottoman Empire & WWI
    • What’s left of the Ottoman Empire
      enters WWI (1914-1918) on
      Austrian-Hungarian Empire &
      Germany’s side (Central Powers)
       – motive was to regain some of the land
         they lost.
    • In 1916, France and England
      agreed on how to divide up the
      Ottoman Empire if their side (Allied
      Powers) won the war: known as
      Sykes-Picot Agreement.
Sykes-Picot Agreement, 1916
Map of Lost Ottoman Land
  Results of WWI & Partitioning
• When the Ottomans and the rest of the Central
  Powers lost…
  – The Sultanate (1922) and the Caliphate (1924) ended
  – Republic of Turkey was created out of the Ottoman
    Empire 1923
  – All other land that was under the control of the
    Ottoman’s was given to France and UK as a mandate
  – British and French partitioned (divided) the Middle
    East into countries;
     • THIS CREATES ARTIFICIAL POLITICAL BORDERS
     • DID NOT NECESSARILY REFLECT THE NATURAL DIVISIONS IN
       THE REGION – BLENDED GROUPS
   Collapse of Ottoman Empire
               1924
• Created lack of central
  authority
• European nations step in
  to establish order
  – Set boundaries which exist
    today.
  – Boundaries did not reflect
    ethic or natural divisions
  – Blended different groups
  – Source of future conflict in
    region and in Europe
Middle East - 1924
                 Assessment
1. Capital of Ottoman         A. European
   Empire
2. War which ended the        B. World War I
   Ottoman Empire             C. Islam
3. Religion of most people
   in Ottoman Empire          D. Theocracy
4. Rule by religious people   E. Constaninople
5. Name for Ottoman
   rulers
                              F. Sultan
6. Nations which
   established order after
   Ottoman Empire
  Israel Becomes a State -1948
• After winning World      • European leaders
  War II, Allied leaders     decide to give Jews
  desire state for Jews.     their traditional
                             homeland in Palestine.
• Zionists – support
  state for European
  Jews
• Holocaust – Six
  million Jewish folks
  killed in Europe
  because of Anti-
  Semitism.
       Israel
• United States gives
  immediate support &
  recognition to the new
  Jewish state.

• Palestinian Arabs
  who lived in the area
  were opposed to the
  new state.
           Suez Crisis - 1956
• Egypt takes over the
  Suez Canal to raise
  money for a dam on
  the Nile River.
• Israel invades Egypt
  with British and U.S.
  support.
• Egypt sinks 40 ships
  in Suez Canal.
• United Nations
  resolves conflict.
  Six Day War -
      1967
• Arab nations move
  troops to the border of
  Israel.
• Israel strikes quickly
  with U.S. weapons.
• Israel captures…
• Sinai from Egypt
• West Bank from Jordan
• Golan Heights from
  Syria
       Arab Israeli War 1973
• Cause: Revenge for
  loss of land in 1967.
• Arab nations mass
  forces on borders of
  Israel.
• Israel defeats all
  attacks
• Result: Arabs (OPEC)
  embargo oil to U.S
  and Europe.
    Camp David Accords 1978

• President Carter
  brings leaders of
  Israel and Egypt to
  Washington D.C.
  where peace accord
  is signed.

• President Sadat is
  assassinated soon
  after in Egypt.
  Iran Hostage
   Crisis 1979
• Cause – Shah of Iran
  is helped by U.S.
  (which is ally).

• Effect – Iran militants
  seize U.S. Embassy
  and take 52 American
  hostages

• Released after U.S.
  election of Reagan
   Iran–Iraq War 1980 to 1988
• Iraq attacks Iran
• Iraq desires to be #1
  power in Persian Gulf
• Religious differences
• World War I tactics
• 500,000 dead
• No change in borders
      Persian Gulf War - 1990
• Cause – Iraq invades
  Kuwait to gain control
  of oil fields
• Saddam Hussein –
  dictator in Iraq
• Coalition invades but
  does not remove
  Hussein from office.
• Oil fields set on fire.
• U.S. victory in 100
  hours.
                              Iraq 2003 -
                                 2011

• President Bush
  – Weapons of mass
    destruction
  – Terrorism
  – Saddam Hussein -
    harsh dictator is
    captured.              • 50,000 U.S. soldiers
  – 4,476 American           remain to train Iraq
    soldiers lost lives.     security people
                        • 100,000 U.S. soldiers
  Afghanistan
• U.S. and Europeans
  are at war with
  terrorism, not the
  Afghan people.
• Operation Enduring
  Freedom
• 1787 Americans lost
• Captured and killed
  bin Laden
                      A.   Lost 1967 and 1973 Wars
Assessment            B.   Defended Kuwait in Gulf War
                      C.   Created in 1948
1.   Egypt            D.   Nation led by Saddam
                           Hussein, invaded by U.S.
2.   Iraq
                      E.   Where 100,000 U.S. soldiers
3.   Iran                  are defending freedom
4.   Palestine        F.   Theocracy; fought with Iraq in
5.   Israel                1980’s.
                      G.   U.S. ally in Iraq and
6.   United States
                           Afghanistan
7.   Afghanistan      H.   Area in and around Israel
8.    Great Britain

				
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posted:9/13/2012
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