History of American Prisons by 1tjy8J

VIEWS: 25 PAGES: 35

									History of American
      Prisons




     Mrs. Auvil
   Social Studies 9
          Vocabulary
Penitentiary- from the Latin word
 for remorse
Quakers- religious group William
 Penn was a part of (nonviolent
 group)
Prison- a public building used for
 the confinement of people
 convicted of serious crimes
400 - 1000 A.D. Punishments

 Peasants (poor people)
  couldn't pay fines
  Led to corporal punishment
      Whipping
      Branding
      Torture
          1400’s England
King Henry VIII
 started executions,
 banishment,
 mutilation,
 branding, and
 flogging for
 criminals
  Anywhere from
   murderers to
   robbers
        First Prisons
In Europe, prisons were only
 used to hold people before they
 went to court
Meant for a short
   time only
  The State of Georgia




Debtors, people who owed
 money to the king of England
 (King George), were sent to live
 in Georgia… our first “prison”
          Georgia cont.
Between 1717 and 1775, at least
 10,000 convicts were sent to the
 Georgian colony

This was not a punishment though
 because they made friends with the
 Native Americans and had a good life
    James City, Virginia
First American jail house in
 colonies
1600’s
      James City Prison




Criminal paid for his crimes by
 giving up his land and belongings
  No property?
    Go to prison and work there until victim
     is paid off.
        Original Prisons
1820- Walled institutions
 “penitentiaries” replaced physical
 punishment
They were:
  Overcrowded
  Dirty
  Inmates attacked each other regularly
     Original Prisons, cont
All people together (old, young,
 black, white, men, and women)
Sheriff had a bar with very expensive
 liquor for them to buy

There were fees to have cells locked,
 unlocked, get food, have heat, and
 clothes
                1776
Prisons who were
 waiting for their
 trial might have
 traded their clothes
 for liquor.
  When the trial
   wasn’t until after
   winter they froze to
   death!
Prostitution

    “Certain” women
     purposely got
     arrested so they
     could have access
     to drunk male
     prisoners with
     money!
     Death Penalty for…




Murder
Denying “the true God” (going
 against religion of state)
Homosexual acts
Kidnapping
   Prison and Fines for…
Cheating on a spouse
Rape
Debtors
      Quaker Prisons
Quakers of
 Philadelphia came
 up with concept of
 penitentiary
  Purpose was to have
   criminals reflect on
   their crime and
   become truly sorry
    Quaker Prisons cont.
Their idea was solitary
 confinement
  Hoped criminals would reflect and
   pray
    Called Pennsylvania System
This was the FIRST long-term
 prison in the world!
   Philadelphia Society for
  Alleviating the Miseries of
         Public Prisons
1783- Benjamin Franklin (and
 some others) started to change
 the cruel punishments of criminals
Created the Society in 1787
  Now called Pennsylvania
   Prison Society
Walnut Street Prison
(First Prison in USA!)
           Started in 1790
           Pennsylvania
            System of prison
            design (solitary
            confinement)
           Become
            overcrowded
            because of
            increased industry
            and cities
      Walnut Street Jail
Reduced crime rate
  131 in 1789 to 45 in 1793
Reduced escapes to ZERO in first 4
 years
Walnut Street Prison cont.


Had workshop teaching trades
Large rooms (18 feet square) for
 30-40 occupants
Samuel Wood (first warden)
Closed in 1835
Problem with this system:
Solitary confinement caused
 Nervous breakdowns
 Suicides

They thought silence would cause
 the prisons to not pick up each
 others bad attitudes
Auburn Prison (in NY)
           1821- New system
            of prisons:
            “Auburn System”
             Inmates work 10
              hours a day, 6 days
              a week
             Gives sense of
              purpose, discipline,
              and order
            Auburn System
Three classes of
 prisons:
  1. Always in solitary
   confinement
  2. Allowed to work
   and have occasional
   free time
  3. Largest group-
   worked and ate
   together during the
   day, separate cells at
   night
    Auburn System SCARY!
Punishment with whip
 to back
Inmates helped build
 Sing Sing Prison, NY in
 1825 and NO ONE
 tried to escape
  They slept outside with
   no supervision!
Eastern Penitentiary
      System
          Took down a cherry
           orchard to build it, so
           located in Cherry Hill,
           PA.
          Opened in 1829 (not
           finished until 1835)
          Promoted EXTREME
           isolation
            Caused suicides
        Modern Prison?
Each cell had its own small exercise
 yard attached
Central heating (even before the US
 Capitol)
Flushing toilet in each cell (before
 the White House)
Shower baths
  (first in the USA!)
      Which is better?




Auburn System proves better than
 Pennsylvania System
          Civil War Era
           1861-1865
Harsh and brutal
Started two other systems:
  Contract System- sold inmates work
   to local businesses
  Convict-Lease System- sold inmates
   as slaves to businesses (state gave
   up supervision and control)
  Elmira Reformatory, NY
1888-1920
Z.R. Brockway (warden) created
 “new penology”
  Elementary education for illiterates
  Library hours
  Elmira College faculty teach inmates
  Vocational training shops
Mid-1930’s Freedoms

         No more red and
          white striped
          uniforms (wore all
          grey instead)
         Mingle around yard
          for 1-2 hours a day
         Got movies and
          radio
         Visitors and mail
        Prisoner Rights
In 1971, the Supreme Court gave
 prisoners some rights:
  Freedom of Speech
  Freedom of Religion
  Freedom from Restraints and Solitary
   Confinement due to beliefs, religion, or
   race
  Opportunity to wash, have clean
   bedding, clothes, heat, cooling, light, and
   nutrition
        Habeas Corpus
Law that protects people from
 being put into prison (or locked
 up) for wrong reasons
   Security First, Rights
          Second
Mail may be searched
Reading material may be denied
Newspapers may be edited
 (meaning cut out so only certain
 things can be read)
Ankles and wrists may be shackled
 when they are moved
          “Good Time”
This is credit for time served on
 good behavior
  Used to reduce sentence length
    One day of “good time credit” for every
     three days that he/she behaves well

								
To top