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					  DIMMA: a completely unmanned
  Differential Image Motion Monitor

       A.M. Varela(1), L.F. Rodríguez-Ramos (1),
          C. Muñoz-Tuñón (1) & M. Sosa (2)
                 (1) Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain
                              (2) Inerza, S.A., Spain




ARENA Workshop                Tenerife, March 26-29, 2007
                          Site Selection for the European
                            Extremely Large Telescope
                                http://www.eso.org/project/e-elt/
                                       Backaskög, Suecia
                       ELT Design Study, WP12000, Site Characterization
                            J. Vernin, C. Muñoz-Tuñon, M. Sarazin


                     Scope of WP12000

           This WP covers the characterization of few
           sites for what concerns the seeing, ground
           climatology, atmospheric properties, [soil
           and seismicity].
           Emphasis is put on already existing
           astronomical sites and on new physics
           corresponding to such a large telescope. The
           final report will help to select the best
           reasonable place to settle the ELT.
ARENA Workshop           Tenerife, March 26-29, 2007
                      Parameters and Tools

• Structure of the Atmospheric Turbulence (+/- 500 m up to ca. 20km).
                  SCIDAR (Fuensalida et al..Avila et al..)//
                    SLODAR (Wilson, Sarazin… // MASS
• Humidity and precipitable water vapour
                 Satellites (Varela et al…)// Climate diagnostic archives
• Wind speed and direction, vertical profile in the BL
                 Climate diagnostic archives // SCIDAR // SODAR//AWS
• Sodium layer density and height
• Ground deformations and seismicity
• Seeing or atmospheric coherence length.
                  DIMM, MASS,MASS-DIMM, SCIDAR, GSM, DIMMA
• Airborne aerosols and properties…
                  Airborne particles counter//MFRSR//LIDAR //Satellites
• Cloudiness, fog, and dust
• Atmospheric extinction                         Satellites vs in situ tecnhiques
• Long-term meteorological parameters
  ARENA Workshop              Tenerife, March 26-29, 2007
                SEEING or atmospheric coherence length
Differential Image Motion Monitor –DIMM-
full atmospheric seeing (but the SL) with accurate < 0.1”
1data/minute
accurate, absolute and reproducible data; control tests are
however important, see e.g. Tokovinin, 2003, Varela etal, 2003)
 Sarazin & Roddier, 1990, A&A, 227, 294. (ESO DIMM)
 Vernin & Muñoz-Tuñón, 1995, PASP, 107, 265 (DA/IAC DIMM)
 http://www.iac.es/project/sitesting/site.html
 http://www.eso.org.com
 MASS
 Free atmosphere seeing (“) , resolution?
 5 atmospheric slabs from 1-16km.The 2 smallest MASS
 apertures can be conjugated to a negative altitude of –0.5 or –1km.
 Monitoring campaigns
 http://www.ctio.noao.edu/atokovinin/profiler/principle.html

MASS-DIMM
Full atmospheric seeing seeing. Resolution <0.1”
Monitoring campaigns
Tokovinin, NOAO-NSO Newsletter, Issue 77, 32-34, 2004
http://mass.ctio.noao.edu
  ARENA Workshop                Tenerife, March 26-29, 2007
                                                             Maidanak
              Happy Jack (4)      Sierra Nevada
                                         Calar
San Pedro Mártir Arecibo (9.2) (La Palma) Alto
                            ORM
   Sierra la Negra
                            OT (Tenerife) Oukaimeden

Mauna Kea


             Paranal    Las Campanas (2x6.5, 25.3)
                La Silla Cerro Tololo
                          Cerro Pachon (4.2)




                              Antarctica (25.3, 50...)
    ARENA Workshop             Tenerife, March 26-29, 2007
                LONG-TERM METEOROLOGY
   Ground (in situ)                             Automatic Weather Stations
Air temperature         0.30-0.55ºC
Soil and Subsoil Temp.      “
Barometric Pressure    0.3mB
Vapour pressure
Relative Humidity      2%
Wind Speed          0.3m/s for ws>3m/s
Gusts                  3% for ws>3m/s
Wind direction         2%
Rainfall               1%             GTC site-testing campaign: meteorology
                                             T. Mahoney, C. Muñoz-Tuñón, and A.M. Varela.
                                             New Astronomy Reviews 42 (1998) 417-424

                                                Climatic Diagnostic Archives
    Remote Sensing                              (NCEP/NCAR), Balloons.
                                                http://www.cdc.noaa.gov
Climate diagnostic archives: an approach to ELT site selection
B.García-Lorenzo, Fuensalida, J.J., Mendizabal, E.G., Muñoz-Tuñón, C.,
& Varela, A. SPIE, 5572, 68(2005)
ARENA Workshop                     Tenerife, March 26-29, 2007
                    OBSERVING STRATEGY

          DIMM & 1 observer: (till full automatization :DIMMA)
• Seeing measurements 10-12 nights/month (in alternative weeks)
  from the last 15 years.
• Sample rate 1 data / 30 s. Precision better than 0.1 arcsec.

   Automatic Weather Station
• Meteorological parameters continously.
• Sample rate 1 data / minute.




   ARENA Workshop          Tenerife, March 26-29, 2007
     OT (Tenerife)
                                                   ORM (La Palma)




ARENA Workshop       Tenerife, March 26-29, 2007
                 http://www.iac.es/project/sitesting/site.html




ARENA Workshop              Tenerife, March 26-29, 2007
                                               ORM:
                                               Several DIMMS,
                                               MASS-DIMM
                                               DIMM(A)

                                               OT:
                                               DIMM, MASS-DIMM




ARENA Workshop   Tenerife, March 26-29, 2007
            DIMMA: the IAC automated DIMM
•DIMMA: Conceptual Design.
 Rodríguez, Varela & Muñoz-Tuñón, 2004
•The DIMMA.
 Muñoz-Tuñón, Varela & Rodríguez, 2004
 1er Encuentro Astronomía Robótica, Madrid.

 Completely automatic. No operator needed.
 Using ideas and previous developments of earlier
  DIMMs.
 Completely outsourced, if possible.
 Use as many commercial off the shelf products as
  possible
 Designed to be copied about a dozen times
 To be placed in remote sites, with no
  infrastructure at all.
 Powered using only photovoltaic solar energy
 Capable of storing all relevant data, including
  housekeeping, seeing and weather
 Featuring a built in software data quality
  checking module.
   ARENA Workshop
 Self-protection incorporated.  Tenerife, March 26-29, 2007
                 DIMM VERSIONS
 NOMENCLATURE??

   RoboDIMM (ING, CTIO, ....)
   HDIMM (CARA)
   ADIMM (Automated DIMM-Oukaïmeden)
   ADIMM (Antarctica DIMM-JACARA)
   MASS-DIMM (automatic...Chile, SPM, ...)
   Etc.

  BUT:
   Weather checking (if yes, not yet able cloud and/or rain detection)
   Dome closing and opening
   Power supply
   Risks evaluation
   Quality control of the data
   Etc.
ARENA Workshop            Tenerife, March 26-29, 2007
                 DIMMA OBJETIVES
• Automatic Operation (pointing, tracking, selection and
  search of stars,...seeing calculation)

• Operation in isolated sites.

• Self-protection system. Evaluation of risks:
                  » Extreme weather conditions (winds, clouds, rain, gust, humidity,
                    dust...)
                             every 1 minute
                  » Break-down of sensors
                  » Unloading of the batteries
                  » Space on hard disk
                  » Intruders presence, ...


ARENA Workshop                Tenerife, March 26-29, 2007
                                              BLOCK DIAGRAM
                                                                                                                                                       ARQUIT

                                                                              C8”
            Panels
                                                                                                                                                        DOME
                                                              MONITOR
                                                                                                                               CONTROL
           Batteries +                                                                                                          SYSTEM
                                                                                                                                                   ARQUIT DOME
           Regulator
                                                                                                                                                     SENSORS

                                                                 PC 1                                                                       DOME
           Datalogger                RS-232                  Main Software
                                                                                                           RS-232
                                                               GPS CLOCK
                                                                                                                    RS232
                                                                                                                                                         Dust
                                                               IO BOARD          Air Thermometer
                                                              RS-232 BOARD
                                                                                     Higrometer

                                                                                                                                                        Alarm

         Power system                                                                             RS-232
                                                                                                                                                         Air
                                                                                                                                                     Thermometer

           WEBCAMS                            HUB

                                                                                                                                                        Earth
                                                                                                                                                     Thermometer



                                                                                                                                                        Rain
                                                                             ROUTER                                                                    Detector
                                                                                                                              DATA
                                                                                                                             LOGGER
                                                                                                                                                     Weathervane
        SURVEILLANCE                                              CONTROL

                                                                                                                                                      Barometer
                                                                              WIFI                GPRS
                                                                                                                       Mechanical support
                            RS-232     USB          RS-232
                                                                                                                                                      Higrometer

                                                                             COMMUNICATIONS
                         FOCUS       CCD      MOUNT
                                                                                                                                                     Anemometer


                                                                                                                            Foundations
                                                                                                                             Anchorage               Sun Measure

                                                                              IAC
                            INSTRUMENTS                                                                               AUTONOMUS WEATHER STATION



    ARENA Sta. Barbara Instruments: 657x49526-29, 2007 7.4x7.4 μm.
ST-237 de Workshop             Tenerife, March pixels de
                 MAIN CHARACTERISTICS
 Automatic point with less than 1 arc minute accuracy.
 Automatic focusing with two independent systems.
 Automatic dome opening and closing.
 Automatic weather station integrated within the control system.
 Web cameras for remote monitoring
 Multisensor integration for robotic control
 Database storage of both scientific and housekeeping data
 Data quality checking (fwhml/fwhmt, focus, saturation, ….)
 Wireless linked to the Ethernet
 Powered by solar panels (7.7 m2) plus batteries (2x450 Ah).




ARENA Workshop           Tenerife, March 26-29, 2007
                     STATUS OF THE DIMMA
DIMMA was developed by INERZA, S.A. (Gran Canaria, Spain) under contract by IAC.




                                                              Astro-Haven Dome

      12m-Mast           Residence
                                            DAU
                                                                 5m-tower




                            Solar Pannels




In June 2006 has started the DIMMA installation at the ORM at Las Lajitas.

    ARENA Workshop            Tenerife, March 26-29, 2007
ARENA Workshop   Tenerife, March 26-29, 2007
                 DIMMA INTERFACE




ARENA Workshop      Tenerife, March 26-29, 2007
         1,3
                        DIMMA
         1,2           20061010

         1,1

          1

         0,9

         0,8

         0,7

         0,6

         0,5

         0,4

         0,3

         0,2

         0,1

          0
               18:51




                              19:51




                                      20:51




                                              21:51




                                                      22:51




                                                              23:51




                                                                      00:51
The DIMMA is now under calibration and validation process and will be fully
   ARENA Workshop          Tenerife, March 26-29, 2007
 operative in spring 2007.
                      Future Works
• Comparison DIMMA vs DIMM, RoboDIMM, SCIDAR y
  MASS-DIMM.
• DIMMA will be a reference for the MASS-DIMM (E-ELT
  FP6 site testing campaign)
• Second DIMMA will be installed in the next april 2007 at
  the Teide Observatory (site seeing on Thursday...?)




             More information: www.iac.es/project/sitesting/site.html
                               www.inerza.com

ARENA Workshop              Tenerife, March 26-29, 2007

				
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