PowerPoint Presentation by 0fKplDoV

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									Cannabis sativa and C. indica
Cannabis sativa and C. indica
Cannabis sativa x indica hybrid
High tech Cannabis growing
     in the Netherlands
Effects of Indigenous People on the
           Natural World




      Yanomami farm clearing Amazonia
  North America – extinction of the
       Pleistocene Megafauna
• 12,000 years ago, the central grasslands of North
  America harbored an extremely diverse group of
  large mammals - antelopes, horses, cheetahs, giant
  ground sloths, mammoths, mastodons
• Within 1,000 years 33 genera of large mammals
  had gone extinct in North America
• This is compared with 20 genera of large
  mammals going extinct in North America in the
  previous 3 million years
Woolly Mammoth
Giant Elk and Mammoth
Giant Ground Sloth – 4 m tall
Dire wolf – Canis dirus
     Extinction in Madagascar
• People arrived in Madagascar 1500 to 2000
  years ago and wiped out two giant tortoise
  species, a bear-sized giant lemur, a small
  species of hippotamus, several other
  mammals, and several species of large
  flightless elephant birds
Elephant Bird
    Extinctions in New Zealand
• Maori’s arrived in New Zealand about
  1,000 years ago - hunting together with
  changes in the landscape due to human use
  of fire, lead to the extinction of 11 species
  of moas (large flightless birds ranging in
  size from turkey to much larger than an
  ostrich) by 1700; also driven extinct were 5
  species of rail and 6 species of waterfowl
Small Moa
Giant Moa Skeleton –
with Kiwi and Ostrich
 Extinctions in the Hawaiian Islands

• 44 species of endemic land birds out of 82
  went extinct between the arrival of the
  Polynesians and the Europeans
• Habitat change was probably important, but
  so was hunting of flightless geese, ibises
  and rails
Nene – Hawaiian flightless goose
  Extinctions Following European
     Arrival in North America
• The passenger pigeon, heath hen, Carolina
  parakeet, Labrador duck, and Great Auk
  were hunted to extinction; bison, beaver,
  turkey, and white-tailed deer were greatly
  reduced in population; whales were pursued
  around the world by New England whalers
  and many were almost reduced to extinction
Carolina
Parakeet
Labrador Duck
Great Auk
Loss of Prairie and Forests in
          Midwest
Slash and burn or Swidden Agriculture
Slash and burn – early in clearing
       stage – aerial view
Slash and burn – burning cleared site
Cultivation of slash and burn site –
     mainly manioc growing
Manioc or Cassava – Manihot esculenta
Fallow period of end of cultivation –
          Slash and Burn
Swidden Agriculture in Germany
         and Finland
Ethnobotany and Conservation




     Rattan harvest Southeast Asia
Reserves and the Padaung People
Extractive Reserves – First
  Established in Brazil
Rubber Tappers and Chico Mendes
 Establishment of Extractive
Reserves in Peru and Ecuador
 Use of Plants for Food Medicine in
             Amazonia
• The Chacabo use 78.7% of the tree species
• The Ka’apor in Brazil use 76.8% of the tree
  species
• The Tembe in Brazil use 61.3% of the tree
  species
• The Panare in Venezuela use 48.6% of the
  tree species
 Use of Plants for Food Medicine in
             Amazonia
• The Chacabo were first contacted by the
  Summer Institute of Linguistics in 1955.
• The Ka’apor were “pacified” in 1928.
• The Tembe were “pacified” in the 1850’s.
• The Panare have been in contact with non-
  Indians since the Spanish explored the
  middle Orinoco region in the 1600’s.
  Families of Special Conservation
              Concern
• Palm family Areaceae (food, fiber, shelter)
• Brazil nut family Lecythidaceae (food)
• Chrysobalanaceae (related to roses - food,
  medicine),
• The hallucinogenic caapi vine family
  Malpighiaceae (medicines)
   Economic Valuation
Alwyn Gentry and Colleagues
                Calculations
• $6330 – value of fruit and latex harvested per
  hectare per year in Peru
• $490 – sustainable harvest of timber – so total
  value of $6820 per year
• $3184 – tree farming in Brazil per hectare per year
• $2690 – price per hectare of cattle ranching land
  in Brazil
• $148 per year profit from cattle ranching per
  hectare in Brazil
• $564 worth of medicine per hectare from 30 year
  old forest in Belize
• $3054 worth of medicine per hectare from 50 year
  old forest in Belize

								
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