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									    WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION                                      CAeM/PROMET/Doc. 7(1)
           ______________________
                                                                           (13.III.2001)
 COMMISSION FOR AERONAUTICAL METEOROLOGY

    WORKING GROUP ON THE PROVISION OF                                      ITEM 7
METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION REQUIRED BY CIVIL
            AVIATION (PROMET)

          GENEVA, 22-26 OCTOBER 2001                                       ENGLISH only




                                            TRAINING

                             Training in Aeronautical Meteorology

                                  (Submitted by the Secretariat)




                                   Summary and purpose of document

         This document provides information on training in aeronautical meteorology
         conducted since the last PROMET meeting in June1997 and discusses innovative
         training aspects in aeronautical meteorology.



                                      ACTION PROPOSED

   The Working Group is invited to note the information contained in the document.

                                      __________________

   References:      1. Commission for Aeronautical Meteorology, abridged final report of the
                       eleventh session, Geneva, 2-11 March 1999, WMO-No. 899

                    2. WMO Congress, abridged final report of the thirteenth session, Geneva,
                       4 -26 May1999, WMO-No.902

                    3. Executive Council abridged report of the fifty-second session, Geneva 16-26
                       May 2000

   Appendices:      A. List of seminars conducted since June 1997

                    B. New survey on cost recovery for aeronautical meteorological service
                    conducted in 2000.
                                   CAeM/PROMET/Doc. 7(1), p. 2


INTRODUCTION

1.      The eleventh session of the Commission for Aeronautical Meteorology (CAeM-XI)
held in March 1999 approved Resolution 4 (CAeM-XI) giving the TREND working group the
responsibility to foster training of meteorological personnel in aeronautical meteorology
aimed at upgrading aeronautical meteorological practices and to act as a focal point for the
Commission regarding training. The Commission endorsed the idea of developing a four-
year strategic plan for training in aeronautical meteorology and the PROMET suggestion that
training could best be met by developing syllabi and computerised learning packages and
that distant learning methods, using CD-ROM, the Co-operative Programme for Operational
Meteorology Education and Training (COMET), the Internet and other modern techniques. In
order to backup its training activities, the Commission expressed the desire to update again
the WMO Technical Note No 195 - Methods of Interpreting Numerical Weather Prediction
Output for Aeronautical Meteorology (WMO-No. 770). The fifty second session of the
Executive Council held in May 2000 recalled that thirteenth Congress requested the
Secretary General to give high priority to training requirements.

TRAINING ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT SINCE LAST PROMET MEETING

2.      During the last four years, in line with the directives of Congress, the Executive
Council and CAeM, twenty training events have been conducted in aeronautical meteorology
or with aeronautical meteorology components. In all, during the last four years more than
550 participants attended these twenty seminars. As mentioned by the Commission,
"training was high on the agenda for aeronautical meteorology but low on funding". As a
result, out of the twenty training events indicate above, nine were fully financed by WMO.
Out of the nine fully funded training events, only four events were financed from the regular
Aeronautical Meteorology budget. Overall training events were held either with full WMO
support, co-sponsored by WMO or with WMO providing major support at other organisations’
training events. Titles of various seminars, their objectives and the number of participants
who attended these training events are listed in the table appended to this document.

3.      Special mention should be made of the major contributions in aeronautical
meteorological training from Members, in particular, Botswana, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia,
Mexico, Niger, Senegal, the UK and the USA. Each year, the UK holds a training seminar on
the Applications of Numerical Weather Prediction Products in Aviation Forecasting including
the World Area Forecast System (WAFS) products. Five such seminars co-sponsored by
WMO were held since June 1997. The USA took the lead in a co-operative effort with WMO
in holding three seminars on WAFS data and Products Applications and hands-on training on
the use of the US software Personal Computer-based Gridded Interactive Display and
Diagnostic System (PCGRIDDS) in Nairobi (Kenya), in November 1998, Kuala-Lumpur
(Malaysia), in 1999, and Mexico-City (Mexico), in 2000, for participants from Regions I, II, III,
IV and V. A seminar on WWW data management and WAFS products applications for
French speaking African countries was held in Niamey (Niger), respectively in November
1998 and 2000.

4.      The excellent working relations WMO enjoys with parent organizaztion led to ICAO
active participation at all WMO Regional Training Seminars on Cost Recovery in, November
and December 1999 and in October 2000 for participants from Regions I, II, III, IV, and V.
The president and vice president of CAeM lectured respectively at the Bali and Dakar
seminars. WMO co-sponsored with ASECNA a seminar on Amendment 72 in Yaounde
(Cameroon), in September 2001.

       France, the UK and the US kindly provided lecturers respectively for the French and
English seminars on cost-recovery and WAFS Products. The US funded the WAFS and cost
recovery seminars held in Mexico-City.
                                  CAeM/PROMET/Doc. 7(1), p. 3


5.      In October 2000, the TREND meeting discussed the need for a strategic plan for
training and in particular provided guidance on innovative low-cost solutions to meet the
increasing needs for training. The following aspects of training were highlighted:

-      Training material available in electronic form as identified and considered useful and
       of good quality by members of TREND (soft copies, www-addresses or similar
       EUMET-SAT programme) should be collected and posted on the Aeronautical
       Meteorology Programme Web site to make them accessible through the Internet;

-      Support should be given to regional and specialised training exercises;

-      Analysis of new training requirements, such as Quality Assurance, Customer
       interfaces should be conducted; and,

-      User training, web-based methods of information delivery should be enhanced.

6.     As a back up to this intensive training effort, the following guidance material was
developed or updated to help the training process.

a)     The Guide on Aeronautical Meteorological Services Cost Recovery WMO-No 904,
       was published and distributed to Members in 1999;

b)     Copies of the booklet on "the Application of Numerical Weather Prediction Products in
       Aviation and Dissemination through Satellite and Terrestrial Means" developed by the
       UK Met Office from the proceedings of the annual seminars held in Reading from
       1997 to 2001, UK, were distributed to all participants at the seminars, and globally to
       all WMO Regional Meteorological Training Centres;

c)     WMO Technical Note No 195 - Methods of Interpreting Numerical Weather Prediction
       Output for Aeronautical Meteorology (WMO-No. 770), was updated in 1999; and,

d)     The Guide to Practices for Meteorological Offices Serving Aviation (WMO No 732) is
       being updated.

e)     The Publication – Aerodrome Reports and Forecasts, A User's Handbook to the
       Codes, has been updated as a result of the introduction of Amendment 72 to
       Technical Regulations [C.3.1]

7.      It will be recalled that at the last CAeM session in 1999, the Internet was singled out
as one medium that presented an opportunity to disseminate training material that could be
available to many people. The Aeronautical Meteorology Programme (AMP) Web page was
redesigned and updated by the Secretariat in consultation with the President of CAeM. As a
result of the redesign of the AMP Web page, a large volume of training material is now
available in the INTERNET through the AMP Web site. Material posted included converted
Power Point slides of PCGRIDDS training lectures to HTML, lectures presented at the Cost
Recovery Seminar in November 1999 as well as lectures presented at the annual UK/WMO
seminars.

8.     In February 1999, the Secretariat conducted a survey on the availability of
aeronautical meteorology information on Member's Web sites listed on the WMO home page.
The result showed that 68 Members representing 37% of total WMO membership have Web
sites. The result also showed that 9 out these 68 Members (13%) provide free some of their
aeronautical meteorology information on their web sites and only three Members, namely
Australia, Canada and the USA provide full aviation information from their web sites.
                                 CAeM/PROMET/Doc. 7(1), p. 4


9.      The Secretariat conducted a global survey in July 2000 on how the costs for
aeronautical meteorological service are recovered from the aviation industry. Out of 103
replies, 45 countries indicated that they had attended one of the WMO cost recovery
seminars. Nine over these 45 countries indicated that they had implemented cost recovery
following attendance at the WMO cost recovery seminars. Annex II to this document
presents the results of this global survey. A comparison with some of the results of a similar
survey conducted in 1994 is also presented

10.    The Group may wish to provide guidance on how best training in aeronautical
meteorology should be efficiently conducted taking into account the limited financial
resources available for training on the one hand, and the increasing need for training on the
other hand.

                                _______________________
                                                            CAeM/PROMET/Doc. 7(1), APPENDIX A



                           LIST OF SEMINARS CONDUCTED WITH FULL WMO SUPPORT, CO-SPONSORED BY WMO
                        OR WITH WMO PROVIDING MAJOR SUPPORT TO ANOTHER ORGANIZATION'S TRAINING EVENTS
                                                 (From June. 1997 to October 2001)

No.                   Title/Place/Date                                      Objectives                                           Participants
1
      UK/WMO Aeronautical Forecasting Seminar on        To show participants from countries under the           28 participants from 25 countries in Europe,
      the Application of NWP Products and               SADIS footprint how NWP products can be                 Africa, the Middle East and western Asia.
      Dissemination Through Satellite and Terrestrial   accessed from WAFC London and applied to
      Means                                             aviation forecasting
      (Reading, UK, 30 June-4 July 1997)



2     WMO Training Seminar on Aeronautical              Make participants aware of the capabilities of          23 Participants from RA III and RA IV
      Meteorology with Emphasis on the Processing,      PCGRIDDS for operational application of data
      Manipulation and Display of WAFS Data and         generated from the US ISCS broadcasts using the
      Products                                          STAR4 workstation
      (Asuncion, Paraguay, 21-25 July 1997)


3     Regional Seminar on the Use of GDPS and           Update and widen knowledge of forecasters to            40 participants from 21 countries from English-
      WAFS Products and Presentation of Forecasts to    ensure the optimum use and presentation of NWP          speaking countries in Africa
      the Public                                        products and hands-on training on PCGRIDDS
      (Pretoria, S. Africa, 20-25 October 1997)

4     WMO Workshop on Cost recovery of                  Make participants aware of the possibilities inherent   28 Participants from 17 countries in Central and
      Meteorological Services to Aviation               to the new edition of the ICAO Manual on Air            Eastern Europe.
                                                        Navigation Services Economics
      (Prague, Czech Republic, 19-21 November
      1997)

5     ATS/MET/Pilots Coordination Seminar               Examine all aspects related to the exchange of          16 French-speaking countries in Africa and 3
                                                        meteorological information among meteorologists         international organizations
      (Niamey, Niger, 23-26 March 1998)
                                                        ATS, Search and Rescue and Pilots
                                                          CAeM/PROMET/Doc. 7(1), APPENDIX A, p. 2



No.                  Title/Place/Date                                       Objectives                                        Participants
6     NWS/WMO STAR4/WAFS Conference                     Make participants aware of the capabilities of the   Attended by representatives of all English-
                                                        STAR4 and the potential for using PCGRIDDS All       speaking Islands of the Caribbean and from
      (Barbados, 20-24 April 1998)
                                                        English-speaking islands of the Caribbean,           Curacao, Suriname, Guyana, Cuba and the
                                                        Curacao, Suriname, Guyana                            Dominican Republic (about 15 participants)
7     Workshop on Volcanic Ask                          Provide a forum for interaction between providers    36 participants from 9 VAACs, 6 major airlines
                                                        and users of volcanic ash information to optimise    and 5 international organizations
      (Toulouse, France, 11-15 May 1998)
                                                        the activities of VAACs
8     WMO Regional Training seminar on Public           Update and broaden knowledge of operational          24 participants from 17 countries from the NIS
      Weather Forecasting and WAFS Products             forecasters to ensure the optimum use and NWP        and Central Europe
      Applications                                      products and hands-on training on the use of
                                                        PCGRIDDS
      (Prague, Czech Republic, 1-5 June 1998)
9     UK/WMO Training Seminar in Aviation               Show participants from countries under the SADIS     18 participants from 18 countries in Europe,
      Forecasting, (Reading, UK 20-24 July 1998)        footprint how WAFS products can be accessed from     Africa, the Middle-East and the western part of
                                                        WAFC London and applied to aviation forecasting      Asia
10    WMO/ASECNA Regional Training Seminar on           Update and broaden knowledge of operational          37 participants from, 23 French-speaking
      WWW Data Management and WAFS                      forecasters to ensure the optimum use of NWP         countries in Africa including the 15 African
      (Niamey, Niger, 16-20 November 1998)              products.                                            countries members of ASECNA

11    Regional Training Seminar on WWW Data             Update and broaden knowledge of operational          20 participants from 16 English-speaking
      Management and WAFS                               forecasters to ensure the optimum use of NWP         countries in Africa. Lecturers included
      (Nairobi, Kenya, 2-6 November 1998)               products and hand-on training on the use of          R. Petersen (USA), B. Sumnar (Australia), C.
                                                        PCGRIDDS.                                            Little (UK) and D. McGuirk (WMO).
12    UK Training Seminar on the Application and        Introduce forecasters from countries under the       27 participants from Europe, Africa and Asia.
      Interpretation of NWP Products in Aviation and    SADIS footprints to NWP products generated by        Lecturers included 12 members of the Met.
      Dissemination through Satellite and Terrestrial   the WAFC London.                                     Office staff.
      Systems
      (Reading, UK, 12-16 July 1999)
13    Regional Training Seminar on Cost Recovery        To provide members with the necessary tool that      30 participants including 6 PRs from 16
      for Aeronautical Meteorological Service for       would enable them to apply international agreed      French-speaking African countries. Lecturers
      RA I French-speaking countries                    on cost recovery guidance and principles to          included, B. Péguillan (ICAO),J. Goas and G.
      (Dakar, Senegal, 6-10 November 1999)              improve revenues from aviation.                      Le Bars (France) and N.T. Diallo (WMO).
                                                       CAeM/PROMET/Doc. 7(1), APPENDIX A, p. 3



No.                 Title/Place/Date                                     Objectives                                        Participants
14    Training Seminar on Aeronautical Meteorology   Show participants from RA II and V how NWP          34 participants from 25 countries from RA II
      with Emphasis on the Processing,               data/products can be assessed from WAFCs and        and RA V. Lecturers included R. Petersen
      Manipulation and Display of WAFS Data and      make them aware of the capabilities of              (USA), M. Davison (USA) and S. Murray (UK).
      Products(Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 15-Nov.99     operational applications to aviation forecasting.
15    Regional Training Seminar on Cost Recovery     To provide members with the necessary tool that     35 participants including 10 PRs/Deputy
      for Aeronautical Meteorological Service for    would enable them to apply international agreed     Directors of NMSs in 22 Asia and Pacific
      RA II and RA V countries                       on cost recovery guidance and principles to         countries. Lecturers included N. Gordon (NZ),
      (Bali, Indonesia, 22-26 November 1999)         improve revenues from aviation.                     S. Ali (ICAO), D. Underwood (UK) and N.T.
                                                                                                         Diallo (WMO).
16    Regional Training Seminar on Cost Recovery     To provide members with the necessary tool that     30 participants including 7 PRs from 22
      for Aeronautical Meteorological Service for    would enable them to apply international agreed     English-speaking countries in RA I,
      English-speaking African countries             on cost recovery guidance and principles to         representatives of the national airline and
      (Gaborone, Botswana, 6-11 December 1999)       improve revenues from aviation.                     DCA. Lecturers included B. Sekwati (ICAO),
                                                                                                         D. Underwood (UK) and N.T. Diallo (WMO).
17    UK Training Seminar on the Application and     Introduce forecasters from countries under the      18 participants from Africa, Asia, Europe and
      interpretation of NWP products in Aviation     SADIS footprints to NWP products generated by       the Middle-East. Lecturers included 10
      (Reading, UK, 10-14 July 2000)                 the WAFC London.                                    members of the UK Met. Office staff.
18    Training Seminar on Aeronautical Meteorology   Show participants from RA III and IV how NWP        29 participants from 21 Spanish-speaking
      with Emphasis on the Processing,               data/products can be assessed from WAFCs and        countries in the Americas. Lecturers included:
      Manipulation and Display of WAFS Data and      make them aware of the capabilities of              M. Davison and S. Bennet (USA), N. Arias
      Products                                       operational applications to aviation forecasting.   and A. Sarawa (ICAO Regional Office in the
      (Mexico-City, Mexico, 17-20 October 2000)                                                          Americas).
19    Regional Training Seminar on Cost Recovery     To provide members with the necessary tool that     41 participants from 26 countries in the
      for Aeronautical Meteorological Service for    would enable them to apply international agreed     Americas. Lecturers included: N.T. Diallo
      Spanish-speaking Central and South American    on cost recovery guidance and principles to         (WMO), D. Underwood (UK Met. Office) and
      countries                                      improve revenues from aviation.                     A. Fonseca, N, Arias and A. Sarawa (ICAO
      (Mexico City, Mexico, 24-27 October 2000)                                                          Regional Office in the Americas).
20    Training Seminar on Aeronautical Meteorology   Show participants from RA I French-speaking         24 participants from 14 French-speaking
      with Emphasis on the Processing,               countries how NWP data/products can be              countries. Lecturers included P. Husson and
      Manipulation and Display of WAFS Data and      assessed from WAFCs and make them aware of          C. Meltz (France), H. Cisse (ICAO) and J.
      Products                                       the capabilities of operational applications to     Martellet and S. Benarafa (WMO).
      (Niamey, Niger, 6-10 November 2000)            aviation forecasting.
                               CAeM/PROMET/Doc. 7(1), APPENDIX B



                         WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANISATION


               NEW SURVEY ON COST RECOVERY FOR AERONAUTICAL
                          METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE


       This document presents the results of a global survey conducted in July 2000 by the
WMO Secretariat on how the costs for aeronautical meteorological service are recovered from
the aviation industry. In addition, percentage of revenues from and expenditures for aviation
are also indicated. A comparison with some of the results of the1994 survey conducted on the
same topic is also presented.

       The number of replies received at the Secretariat until 6/12/2000 was 103 (id in 1994)

1      What entity is the ICAO designated Meteorological Authority in your country?

       Number of countries where the National Meteorological Service is:

(a)    The ICAO designated Meteorological Authority :        80 (70% in 1994)
(b)    The civil Aviation entity:                            19
(c)    The armed forces :                                    01
(d)    Other entities:                                       03

2      Is the Meteorological Authority the service provider in your country?

       Number of countries where the Meteorological Authority is:

       (a)     The service provider:                                85 (80% in 1994)
       (b)     Not the service provider.                            18

3      If the answer in 2 is NO what entity (es) provide(s) meteorological service?
       (a)     National Meteorological Service
       (b)     Civil Aviation entity
       (c)     Other entities              Please specify what entity


       Within these 18 countries where the Meteorological Authority is not the service
provider:

       (a)     The meteorological service provider is the National Meteorological Service in 10
               countries
       (b)     The civil aviation entity in 3 countries and
       (c)     Other entities in 5 countries.

       In total the service provider is the National Meteorological service in 90 countries
       (80+10).

4      Does the service provider recover costs for providing meteorological service to
       aviation?

       In 61 countries (59% of the total replies) the service provider recovers the costs (63%
in 1994), while in 42 countries (40%) no meteorological costs were recovered, (37% in1994).
                                CAeM/PROMET/Doc. 7(1), APPENDIX B, p. 2




5          If the answer to 4 is YES, how are these costs recovered?

           When costs are recovered it is done directly from:

           (a)    A designated entity for all Air Navigation services in 40 countries,
           (b)    Airlines in 10 countries,
           (c)    Government in 4 countries, and
           (d)    Others in 7 countries.

       It will be recalled that in 1994, the survey showed that the Civil Aviation Authority
represented 50% of entities collecting charges, followed by other government agencies (23%)
and only one country collected costs directly from the airlines.

6          If the answer to 4 is NO:

           (a) Is your country PLANNING to implement cost recovery?
           (b) Is your country CONSIDERING whether to implement cost recovery?
           (c) Has your country DECIDED NOT to implement cost recovery?


     Within the 42 countries where the service provider is not recovering the costs:

     (a)          19 countries indicated that they were planning to implement cost recovery.
     (b)          23 are considering whether to implement it, and,
     (c)          2 had decided not to recover costs from aviation.

7    Did your country attend any of the WMO cost recovery seminars?

     (a)          45 countries indicated that they had attended one of the WMO cost recovery
                  seminars. (Countries that had contributed to these seminars with lecturers are
                  not included within this figure).
     (b)          67 countries indicated that they had not attended any of these seminars.

8     If the answer to 7 is YES, then has cost recovery been implemented following
attendance at such a seminar?

        9 over these 45 countries that had attended WMO cost recovery seminars indicated
that they had implemented cost recovery following this attendance.

9          What % of Met Service annual budget revenues from aviation represent?

       53 countries compared to 40 in1994 provided the information on the percentage of
their meteorological services annual budget revenues from aviation, the mean percentage for
2000 is 28.7%


10         What % of Met Service annual budget expenditures for aviation represent?

       86 countries compared to 59 in 1994 provided information on the percentage of their
meteorological service annual budget expenditures for aviation, the mean percentage for 2000
is 36.2%
                          CAeM/PROMET/Doc. 7(1), APPENDIX B, p. 3



                 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF REPLIES

                                                  Percentage (%)
                Number of        Total            of replies with            TREND
                replies          mem-             respect to
WMO                              bership          number of              2000-1994
REGIONS                                           membership
                1994      2000                     1994       2000   In Nber     In %

Africa           26        27         56            46        48       +1            +2

Asia             24        14         34            70        41       -10        -29

South             9        5          13            69        39        -4        -30
America
North             8        13         25            32        52       +5         +20
America


                  6        9          21            29        43       +3         +14
SW Pacific
(RA V)
Europe           30        35         49            61        71       +5         +10


TOTAL            103      103        198            52        52        0             0




   PERCENTAGE (%) with respect to MET SERVICE ANNUAL BUDGET (2000)

WMO REGIONS                REVENUES FROM                    EXPENDITURES FOR
                       AVIATION (Nber of answers)          AVIATION (Nber answers)
Africa                    34.6           (13)                49.6           (22)
Asia                      16.5              (6)               33.1             (12)
South America              -                (0)               30.5              (3)
North America             12.4              (4)               28.8             (11)
SW Pacific (RA V)         33.3             (14)               66.5              (8)
Europe                    29.7             (24)               31.1             (30)

TOTAL                     28.7             (53)               36.2             (86)
                      CAeM/PROMET/Doc. 7(1), APPENDIX B, p. 4




   PERCENTAGE (%) with respect to MET SERVICE ANNUAL BUDGET (2000)


             Nber of countries with %    Nber of countries      % of countries
             of annual budget            with % of annual       not recovering
             revenues from aviation <    budget revenues        costs from
             50%                         from aviation          aviation
WMO                                      >75%
REGIONS         1994          2000         1994      2000        1994      2000
               (40rep)       (53rep)      (59rep)   (86rep)
Africa                         11                      1          46          48
Asia                            4                      0          54          57
S. America                      -                      -          33           -
N. America                      4                      0          63          69
SW Pacific                      5                        1        33          33
(RA V)
Europe                         22                        3        10          22

TOTAL            36            46             2          6        38        42
%               90%           86%            3%         7%       37%       41%


PERCENTAGE (%) with respect to MET SERVICE ANNUAL BUDGET (2000
             Nber of countries with %          Nber of countries with % of
                 of annual budget            annual budget expenditures for
  WMO        expenditures for aviation               aviation >75%
 REGIONS              < 50%
               1994          2000             1994               2000
               (rep)        (86rep)           (rep)             (86rep)
                                                        3 (Congo, Dem. Rep.
Africa                       11 (22)                    of the Congo and
                                                        Sudan)

Asia                         10 (12)                    1 (Maldives)

S. America                    3 (3)                     0

N. America                    9 (11)                    0

SW Pacific
RA V                          5 (8)                     0
RA VI                                                   4 (Austria, Jordan,
Europe                       23 (30)                    Romania and Syrian
                                                        Arab Republic)

TOTAL           43             61               2       8
%              73%            71%              3%       1%

								
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