Literary Elements - PowerPoint

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					           The Short Story
          Literary Elements


        What is a short story?
What elements make it a distinct genre?
             Story ‘Parts’
Setting
Characters
Plot
Conflict
Theme
Literary Techniques
Figurative Language
                           Setting
          Time and place are where the action occurs

Details that describe:
    Furniture
    Scenery
    Customs
    Transportation
    Clothing
    Dialects
    Weather
    Time of day
    Time of year
                   Elements of a Setting
       Location                                 Life                                                Era




                    Place                                          Time


Physical                             Setting                                                     History




                  Atmosphere                                                   Day




           Mood                      Feelings



                             Word
                            Choice
                                                       Use as activator to activate prior know ledge. Write
       Weather                                         the w eb on the board or overhead and students
                                                       cre ate one at their seats. Then as class share and fill
                                                       in.
         The Functions of a Setting
 To create a mood or            We left the home place behind, mile
                           by slow mile, heading for the mountains,
  atmosphere               across the prairie where the wind blew
 To show a reader a       forever.
                                 At first there were four of us with
  different way of life    one horse wagon and its skimpy load. Pa
 To make action seem      and I walked, because I was a big boy of
                           eleven. My two little sisters romped and
  more real                trotted until they got tired and had to be
 To be the source of      boosted up to the wagon bed.
                                 That was no covered Conestoga, like
  conflict or struggle     Pa’s folks came West in, but just an old
 To symbolize an idea     farm wagon, drawn by one weary horse,
                           creaking and rumbling westward to the
                           mountains, toward the little woods town
                           where Pa thought he had an old uncle who
                           owned a little two-bit sawmill.
                          Taken from “The Day the Sun Came Out” by D. Johnson
           Types of Characters

People or animals
Major characters
Minor characters
Round characters / 3 dimensional
Flat characters / 1 dimensional
               Characterization
A writer reveals what a character is like and
 how the character changes throughout the
 story.
Two primary methods of characterization:
  Direct- writer tells what the character is like
  Indirect- writer shows what a character is like
    by describing what the character looks like, by
    telling what the character says and does, and by
    what other characters say about and do in
    response to the character.
         Direct Characterization
     …And     I don’t play the dozens or believe
in standing around with somebody in my face
doing a lot of talking. I much rather just
knock you down and take my chances even if
I’m a little girl with skinny arms and a
squeaky voice, which is how I got the name
Squeaky.
                 From “Raymond’s Run” by T. Bambara
        Indirect Characterization

     The old man bowed to all of us
in the room. Then he removed his
hat and gloves, slowly and carefully.
Chaplin once did that in a picture, in
a bank--he was the janitor.

    From “Gentleman of Rio en Medio” by J. Sedillo
                       Elements of Character

          Fully
                                   Relatives                    Friends
        Developed



                       Main                    Minor


                                                              Not Fully
Protagonist                   Character                       Developed




                Flat              Co-Main              Antagonist




                                               Enemy
Factors in Analyzing Characters

 Physical appearance of character
 Personality
 Background/personal history
 Motivation
 Relationships
 Conflict
 Does character change?
                  Plot
   Plot is what happens and how it
happens in a narrative. A narrative is
 any work that tells a story, such as a
  short story, a novel, a drama, or a
  narrative poem. We analyze how a
   plot unfolds using the basic plot
           pyramid structure.
                   Parts of a Plot
Introduction / Exposition – contains the setting,
 creates the tone and presents characters
 Inciting incident – event that gives rise to conflict
Rising Action - events that occur as result of central
 conflict
Climax- highest point of interest or suspense of
 story
Falling Action – Events leading up to the resolution
Resolution- when conflict ends
Denouement- when characters go back to their life
 before the conflict
                     Diagram of Plot
                            Climax




Introduction                           Resolution / Denouement

Inciting incident/
Opening situation
          Special Techniques of Plot
Suspense- excitement or tension
Foreshadowing- hint or clue about what will
 happen in story
Flashback- interrupts the normal sequence of
 events to tell about something that happened
 in the past
Irony – the contrast between what is
 expected or what appears to be and what
 actually is.
                    Conflict

Conflict is a struggle between opposing forces
Every plot must contain some kind of conflict
Stories can have more than one conflict
Conflicts can be external or internal
  External conflict- outside force may be person,
   group, animal, nature, or a nonhuman obstacle
  Internal conflict- takes place in a character’s mind
                  Theme
A central message, concern, or insight into
   life expressed through a literary work

Can be expressed by the way the story makes
 us feel
May be stated directly through the thoughts
 and conversations of characters
May be suggested through characters ( What
 does the character learn?)
May be suggested through actions or events.
                    Examples of Theme
Loss of Innocence                     Love Conquers All

      The Noble Sacrifice                 Revenge Ruins

                 Compromise saves Relationships

                                     Fall From Grace
  Good vs Evil

 Crime Doesn’t Pay           Absolute power corrupts absolutely
          Figurative Language
Any language that goes beyond the literal meaning
 of words in order to furnish new effects or fresh
         insights into an idea or subject.

                  IMAGERY
                   SIMILE
                 METAPHOR
                ALLITERATION
              PERSONIFICATION
               ONOMATOPOEIA
                 HYPERBOLE
        Seven Crucial Questions
                . . . to get you started
1. What is the setting/locale?
2. Who is the protagonist? antagonist? Describe
character relationships.
3. What is the central conflict/problem the protagonist
is facing? What type of conflict is it and how is this
evident?
4. What are the seven stages of the plot pyramid?
5. What is the mood of the story and how is this evident?
6. What figurative language and/or literary techniques
are used?
7. What is the theme/message of the story?

				
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posted:9/13/2012
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