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Quantum Numbers Ryan Morrison & Ally Gray What are Quantum Numbers? • Specify the properties of an atomic orbital. • An orbital is where an atom keeps its electrons. orbitals Each element on the periodic table has a different set of Quantum Numbers, like their own address. The primary rule of quantum numbers is that no two elements can have the same set of numbers, this principle is also known as the Pauli Exclusion Principle. For example: Nitrogen Oxygen n=2 l=1 m=1 s=+½ n=2 l=1 m=(-1) s=(- ½) These two elements may have a very similar address but it is not the same. n n represents the number of the orbital. •Whatever row the element is in, is the number you place for ‘n’. •This number tells us the energy level and shell that the electron is found in. The higher a value for n, means a higher amount •The principal quantum number (n) of energy and the further cannot be zero. The allowed values of away it is from the n are therefore 1, 2, 3, 4, and so on. nucleus. l l represents the subshell There are 4 different sub shells, they are 0, 1, 2 or 3 & are all represented by letters. s is the purple (considered as 0) p is the green (considered as 1) d is the yellow (considered as 2) f is the blue (considered as 3) This quantum number characterizes the electrons angular momentum and determines the shape of the orbit. Its possible values for an electron depend on the value of that electron's principal If n = 1, the only If n = 2, the only quantum numbers, ranging from 0 to n-1. Because of these different possibilities, possible value for possible values for shells (other than the first shell) include quantum number l quantum number l subshells. These are designated as is 0 (s). are 0 & 1 (s & p) s(where l=0), p (where l=1), d (where l=2), and f (where l=3) If n = 3+, the possible values for quantum number l are 0,1,2,3, (s,p,d,f) m m represents magnetism. The m orbital corresponds with the l orbital (subshells). If the subshell was d, it would be equal to saying that m is: -2 ≤ m ≤ 2 or if the shell was p it would be -1 < m > 1. The value of m indicates the orientation of the electron's orbit within the subshell. m can range from 0 to a positive or negative number depending on the subshell. For each column periodic table, the magnetism that would be your number for m is constant . If you find that your number is bigger than 3 or smaller than -3, you are incorrect because L only ranges from -3<m<-3. Example: if l = 2 then your m values will be: -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, repeated twice to fill the column. s s represents spin. • Moves in a circular/spherical shape • Contains either a positive or negative charge. • A positive spin means the electrons spin clockwise. (+½) • A negative spin means the electron spins counter-clockwise. (- ½) • The first half of each orbital is + ½ and the other half is – ½ . Examples. n=4 l=2 m = -2 s = +1/2 n=3 l=1 m=0 s = +1/2 n=4 m=0 l=0 s = +1/2

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posted: | 9/13/2012 |

language: | English |

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