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									Elements of Art    Line
   Line is at once the simplest
    and most complex of the

   Line is one dimensional. It
    is measured mainly by
    length. If a line becomes
    wide enough to measure                 “Composition with Red, Blue
    width, it becomes a shape.             And Yellow”, Piet Mondrian,
                                           Oil on canvas, 1930
       Expressive Qualities of Line
    The expressive characteristics of a line
     may be perceived as delicate, tentative,
     assertive, elegant, forceful and even

“Lavender Mist
 Number 1”, 1950
Jackson Pollock,
Oil On Canvas

                      Types of line
                                     Contour Line-
                                      these lines describe the
                                      outline shape of an
                                      object. It is the edge
                                      between the positive and
                                      negative space
                                     Actual line- This is a
                                      non-interrupted line. The
                                      points that make up this
                                      line are connected
                                     Implied Line- This could
                                      be a dotted or dashed
                                      line that your eye
                                      completes. - - - - - -
            Functions of Line
   To outline a shape (this helps simplify
    shape for the viewer)
   To create depth and texture. Vincent Van
    Gogh uses line to describe.
                                “Starry Night”, 1889, Vincent van Gogh
                                Oil on Canvas

                  Functions of Line
   To suggest
    direction and
    horizontal lines
    tend to
    stability and calm,
    vertical lines
    suggest strength
    and authority
    and diagonal lines          “Harriet Tubman Series, No. 4”, 1939-40
    tend to represent           Jacob Lawrence, Casein tempera on gessoed hard

   Two types of shapes- organic (biomorphic) and
   Biomorphic shapes are natural- leaves, rivers,
    stones, mountains, sponges, animals
   Geometric shapes are manmade, they are
    regular and predictable. Squares, trapezoid
   Some shapes are amorphous- not easily defined
    as organic or geometric
   Shapes are two-dimensional. They are measured
    by length and width
   Forms refer to
   Forms are measured
    by length, width and
    depth. This
    sculpture by David
    Smith is a good
    example of
    geometric forms.
   The Guggenheim
    Museum in Bilbao,
    Spain, 1997 is an “Cubi XVIII”, David Smith, polished stainless steel,
    organic form.      http://faculty.evansville.edu/rl29/art105/img/smith_
             Shape, Form, Space
   Volume is the related amount of space a form uses.
   Positive and negative space refer to the areas where
    objects are and where there is only air.
   Positive indicated filled space, Negative indicates empty
    space. Together these two form Figure-ground
   Figure-ground reversals create optical illusions that
    contradict our perceptions of positive and negative.
   Mass- the mass of an object refers to its bulk. A solid
    work made out of steel the same dimensions as a
    sculpture made out of cotton would have more mass.
“Paysage” , 1961, Jean Arp
http://surrealists.classifieds4u.co.uk/   Squares with Two Circles (Monolith),
viewPicture/13/                           Barbara Hepworth, 1963 (cast 1964).
                                          Brown with green patina. 124 x 65 x 30 in.

                  Light and Value

   Value- is the relative lightness or darkness of an art
   The value of a color is the lightness or darkness of that
    color’s surface.
   Value is determined by the amount of light reflected by
    the surface.
   Chiaroscuro- the gradual shifting from light to dark
    through a successive gradation of tones across a curved
   By using many gradations, objects portrayed on a flat
    surface can be given a rounded, three-dimensional

                               “The Sleeping Gypsy”, 1897, Henri Rousseau
                               Oil onCanvas

Old Woman with a Candle
1661, Gerrit Dou Oil on oak, 31 x 23 cm
89 Seconds at Alcazar, Eve Sussman, 2004, Single channel video, video still
Eve Sussman's 89 Seconds at Alcázar, 2004, is a High-Definition video tableau inspired
 by Diego Velázquez’ famous painting Las Meninas, 1656, at the Museo del Prado.
The video is an artistic revisioning of the moments leading up to and directly following
 the approximately eighty-nine seconds in time when the royal family and their courtiers
 would have come together in the exact configuration in Velázquez’ painting.
                 Light broken down into wavelengths.
Color         

                  The wavelength of light determines its hue.
                 The value of color is its degree of darkness or
                  light. Yellow is the lightest color and violet is
                  the darkest.
                 Color saturation is the pureness of a color.
                  Pure hues have the greatest intensity, or
                  brightness. The saturation, or intensity,
                  decrease when another hue, black , gray or
                  white are added to it.
                 Artists produce shades of a hue by adding
                  black and tints of a hue by adding white.
                 Complementary colors are opposite each other
                  on the color wheel. Analogous colors are three
                  (or more) colors in a row on the color wheel.

  “Folklore”, Victor Vasarely, print edition
“The Night Café”, 1888, Vincent Van Gogh, oil on canvas

   Primary colors are red, yellow, and blue. They
    can not be produced by mixing two other colors
   Secondary colors are violet, orange and green.
    They are created by mixing two primary colors
   Local vs. Optical- Local color is the color that an
    object has in normal light
   Optical color is the color produced by our visual
    perception. “Haystack at Sunset Near Giverny”,
    Claude Monet is a great example of optical color.
Mme Matisse: Madras
Rouge (The Red Madras
Summer 1907 (120 Kb);
Oil on canvas,

   Actual texture- is tactile, it is more than just visual
    information. Texture can be rough, smooth, or
    something in between.
   Think of the texture of glass versus a Triscuit cracker.
    Visual texture- is the illusion of texture in artwork.
   Trompe l’oeil (“fool the eye”) is a method of art that is
    intended to create a realistic illusion of texture and
    depth in a work of art.
   Subversive texture- contradicts our past visual
    experience by using texture in a way that is unexpected.
   “Object” by Meret Oppenheim is a good example of this.
`”Object” by Meret Oppenheim, fur covered cup, saucer, and spoon, 1936
   No subject exists in and of itself.
   When nearby objects are placed in front of more
    distant objects they obscure part or all of the
    distant objects. When objects overlap this gives
    us a sense of perspective.
   Perspective is a sense of depth (created as an
    illusion in art to give a sense of a three
    dimensional object on a two-dimensional picture
   Linear perspective is a mathematical system for
    organizing space in a convincing way.

                Time and Motion
   Actual motion is live movement. A work of kinetic art like
    Alexander Calder’s mobiles actually moves when we see
    it in person.
   Implied Motion and Time- is a non-moving image that
    shows movement through the attributes present in the
    image. Good examples of this are found in Bernini’s
    “Apollo and Daphne”
   The Illusion of Motion is what we experience when we
    see a movie or series of shapes that note a passage of
    time. A movie is a series of still frames that do not
    contain actual motion, but when shown in a time
    sequence, create an illusion of motion.
Giacomo Balla, Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash, 1912. Oil on Canvas
          Calder’s Mobiles


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