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									RESTRICTED VISIBILITY
    NAVIGATION




                                                 2008
     CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY PACIFIC
    CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - - PACIFIC
CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
Collision Avoidance In
 Restricted Visibility




    CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
     Collision Avoidance In
      Restricted Visibility
Visibility may be restricted by heavy rain,
snow, blown spray, low cloud, mist and fog,
and in some parts of the world blown sand,
and smoke.
Fog is defined as excess water vapour in
the air, reducing visibility to 1 nautical mile
or less.



            CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
       Rule 19
Conduct of Vessels in
 Restricted Visibility



     CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY PACIFIC
    CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - - PACIFIC
CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
(a) This Rule applies to vessels not in
sight of one another when navigating
in or near an area of restricted
visibility.




            CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY PACIFIC
           CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - - PACIFIC
CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
(b) Every vessel shall proceed at a safe
speed adapted to the prevailing
circumstances and conditions of
restricted visibility. A power-driven
vessel shall have her engines ready for
immediate manoeuvre.



           CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY PACIFIC
          CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - - PACIFIC
(c) Every vessel shall have due regard
to the prevailing circumstances and
conditions of restricted visibility when
complying with the Rules of Section I
of this Part.




            CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY PACIFIC
           CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - - PACIFIC
The rules of Section 1 apply in any condition of
visibility. The particular rules are those
appertaining to:
5. Lookout,
6. Safe Speed
7. Risk of Collision
8. Action to Avoid Collision
9. Narrow Channels
10. Traffic Separation Schemes.


              CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY PACIFIC
             CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - - PACIFIC
(d) A vessel which detects by radar
alone the presence of another vessel
shall determine if a close-quarters
situation is developing and/or risk of
collision exists.




           CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY PACIFIC
          CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - - PACIFIC
If so, she shall take avoiding action in
ample time, provided that when such
action consists of an alteration of
course, so far as possible the
following shall be avoided:




            CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY PACIFIC
           CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - - PACIFIC
(i) an alteration of course to port for a
vessel forward of the beam, other than
for a vessel being overtaken,




            CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY PACIFIC
           CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - - PACIFIC
CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
(ii) an alteration of course towards a
vessel abeam or abaft the beam.




            CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY PACIFIC
           CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - - PACIFIC
CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
(e) Except where it has been
determined that a risk of collision does
not exist, every vessel which hears
apparently forward of her beam the fog
signal of another vessel, or which
cannot avoid a close-quarters situation
with another vessel forward of her
beam, shall reduce her speed to the
minimum at which she can be kept on
her course.

           CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY PACIFIC
          CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - - PACIFIC
She shall if necessary take all her way
off and in any event navigate with
extreme caution until danger of
collision is over.




            CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY PACIFIC
           CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - - PACIFIC
Navigation In Restricted
       Visibility




    CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
                  Navigation
• It is important that during restricted visibility,
  that the position of the vessel is known at all
  times
• This is especially because of the lack of any
  visual references, unless the vessel is within
  sight of a navigational aid.




              CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
                Navigation
• This is also due to the lack of situational
  awareness that could come about about
  using the head up display on the radar, and
  manoeuvring as required by the Collision
  Regulations to avoid risk of collision.




            CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
            Parallel Indexing
• The principal
  method of
  monitoring
  navigation in
  restricted visibility
  is the use of
  parallel indexing



               CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
                   185
                   T
                                  0.3 nm

                                    0.3 nm




                           150
                           T
                                             0.2 nm




CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
               Parallel Indexing
• The Variable Range
  Marker is first set up on
  the same distance as is
  required to safely pass off
  the radar conspicuous
  object being used.
• In the example it is set up
  0.3nm
• This is known as the
  cross index range
                  CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
               Parallel Indexing
• The Electronic Bearing
  Line is set up on the same
  bearing as the course that
  is required to be made
  good




                 CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
           Parallel Indexing
• It is important that the radar conspicuous
  objects used in parallel indexing are positively
  identified from the chart or chart plotter and
  checked on the radar.
• If parallel indexing is attempted on a moving
  object, it will lead you off course and possibly
  into danger.



             CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
                   185
                   T
                                  0.3 nm

                                    0.3 nm




                           150
                           T
                                             0.2 nm




CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
               Parallel Indexing
• 1. The vessel is steered,
  so as to bring the radar
  conspicuous target
  against the Electronic
  Bearing Line.




                 CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
               Parallel Indexing
• If the target crosses and
  comes inside the
  Electronic Bearing Line
  alter to starboard to
  increase the distance off.
• If the target moves further
  away from the Electronic
  Bearing Line, alter to port
  to put it back on.

                  CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
               Parallel Indexing
• 2. The course is steered
  to keep the radar target
  on the line.




                 CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
                   185
                   T
                                  0.3 nm

                                    0.3 nm




                           150
                           T
                                             0.2 nm




CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
                Parallel Indexing
• 3. The vessel is now
  approaching the
  alteration of course point.
• The next course is 150 T,
  and cross index range
  0.3’ .




                  CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
                Parallel Indexing
• 4. At this stage short of a
  catastrophic failure, the
  vessel will be safe, and
  the parallel indexing for
  the new course can be
  set up




                  CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
               Parallel Indexing
• 5. Set up the new cross
  index range (0.3 nm) on
  the Variable Range
  Marker, and then change
  the bearing of the
  Electronic bearing line to
  the new course (150 T)
  and rest it against the
  Variable Range Marker
  ring
                 CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
               Parallel Indexing
• 6. When the Electronic
  Bearing Line on its new
  bearing of 150 T is about
  to come clear of the
  conspicuous object, alter
  course of the vessel to
  150 T



                 CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
               Parallel Indexing
• 7. As before, steer the
  course to keep the
  conspicuous radar object
  on the Electronic Bearing
  Line




                 CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
                   185
                   T
                                  0.3 nm

                                    0.3 nm




                           150
                           T
                                             0.2 nm




CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
              Parallel Indexing
• 8. Before the radar
  conspicuous object No.1
  disappears astern, have
  available the new cross
  index range of Radar
  Conspicuous Object 2
  available (0.2 nm)



                CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
              Parallel Indexing
• 9. Set new cross index
  range on Variable Range
  Marker, and move
  Electronic Bearing Marker
  on bearing against
  Variable Range Marker
  ring.
• Steer to line as before


                CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
           Parallel Indexing
• The use of parallel indexing need not be
  confined to restricted visibility, but may be
  used in clear visibility as well.




             CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
         Monitoring Course
• An additional method available for
  monitoring course is to preset routes into the
  chart plotter.
• These waypoints and routes should be
  preset into the chart plotter.
• The routes should then be verified during the
  periodic training so that there is complete
  confidence in these routes.


            CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
        Monitoring Course
• The routes can then be used and relied upon
  in case of unexpected restricted visibility,
  night time navigation, and in transit on
  training or during an incident.




            CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
Sound Signals in Restricted
        Visibility




      CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
  Sound Signals in Restricted
          Visibility
                       • Rule 35
• In or near an area of restricted visibility,
  whether by day or night, the signals
  prescribed in this Rule shall be used as
  follows:




              CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
  Sound Signals in Restricted
          Visibility
• (a) A power-driven vessel making way
  through the water shall sound at intervals of
  not more than 2 minutes one prolonged blast.




            CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
  Sound Signals in Restricted
          Visibility
• (b) A power-driven vessel underway but
  stopped and making no way through the
  water shall sound at intervals of not more
  than 2 minutes two prolonged blasts in
  succession with an interval of about 2
  seconds between them.




             CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
  Sound Signals in Restricted
          Visibility
• (c) A vessel not under command, a vessel
  restricted in her ability to manoeuvre, a
  vessel constrained by her draught, a sailing
  vessel, a vessel engaged in fishing and a
  vessel engaged in towing or pushing another
  vessel shall, instead of the signals prescribed
  in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this Rule,



             CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
  Sound Signals in Restricted
          Visibility
sound at intervals of not more than 2 minutes
  three blasts in succession, namely one
  prolonged followed by two short blasts.




             CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
  Sound Signals in Restricted
          Visibility
• (d) A vessel engaged in fishing, when at
  anchor, and a vessel restricted in her ability
  to manoeuvre when carrying out her work at
  anchor, shall instead of the signals prescribed
  in paragraph (g) of this Rule sound the signal
  prescribed in paragraph (c) of this Rule.




             CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
  Sound Signals in Restricted
          Visibility
• (e) A vessel towed or if more than one vessel
  is towed the last vessel of the tow, if manned,
  shall at intervals of not more than 2 minutes
  sound four blasts in succession, namely one
  prolonged followed by three short blasts.
  When practicable, this signal shall be made
  immediately after the signal made by the
  towing vessel.


             CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
  Sound Signals in Restricted
          Visibility
• (f) When a pushing vessel and a vessel being
  pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a
  composite unit they shall be regarded as a
  power-driven vessel and shall give the
  signals prescribed in paragraphs (a) or (b) of
  this Rule.




             CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
  Sound Signals in Restricted
          Visibility
• (g) A vessel at anchor shall at intervals of not
  more than one minute ring the bell rapidly for
  about 5 seconds. In a vessel of 100 metres or
  more in length the bell shall be sounded in
  the forepart of the vessel and immediately
  after the ringing of the bell the gong shall be
  sounded rapidly for about 5 seconds in the
  after part of the vessel.


             CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
  Sound Signals in Restricted
          Visibility
• A vessel at anchor may in addition sound
  three blasts in succession, namely one short,
  one prolonged and one short blast, to give
  warning of her position and of the possibility
  of collision to an approaching vessel.




             CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
  Sound Signals in Restricted
          Visibility
• (h) A vessel aground shall give the bell signal
  and if required the gong signal prescribed in
  paragraph (g) of this Rule and shall, in
  addition, give three separate and distinct
  strokes on the bell immediately before and
  after the rapid ringing of the bell. A vessel
  aground may in addition sound an
  appropriate whistle signal.


             CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
  Sound Signals in Restricted
          Visibility
• (i) A vessel of 12 metres or more but less
  than 20 metres in length shall not be obliged
  to give the bell signals prescribed in
  paragraphs (g) and (h) of this Rule. However,
  if she does not, she shall make some other
  efficient sound signal at intervals of not more
  than 2 minutes.



             CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
  Sound Signals in Restricted
          Visibility
• (j) A vessel of less than 12 metres in length
  shall not be obliged to give the above
  mentioned signals but, if she does not, shall
  make some other efficient sound signal at
  intervals of not more than 2 minutes.




             CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
  Sound Signals in Restricted
          Visibility
• (k) A pilot vessel when engaged on pilotage
  duty may in addition to the signals prescribed
  in paragraphs (a), (b) or (g) of this Rule
  sound an identity signal consisting of four
  short blasts.




             CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC
        Canadian Modifications
• (l) Notwithstanding paragraph (j), in the Canadian
  waters of a roadstead, harbour, river, lake or
  inland waterway, a vessel that is
     • (i) less than 12 metres in length,
       (ii) built or converted for the purpose of
       pushing or pulling any floating object, and
       (iii) not located within a recognized mooring,
       storage or booming area
shall sound the signals prescribed for a vessel of 12
  metres or more in length.
               CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC

								
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