eCollaboration and Enterprise
Master Course in Information Systems – IS 904
Tero Päivärinta, University of Agder
• Implementation management issues of
eCollaboration / ECM / Social computing
– eCollaboration issues listed (Munkvold)
– …but how does the change happen, anyway?
• four motors of change together with IT
– visions vs. ”reality” of managing
implementation in social computing
• Mid-term evaluation
Implementation mgmt = change
People / Culture
Taxonomy of ”implementation
factors” of eCollaboration
Let us discuss and comment management challenges related to these
in the following by help of questions touching each part of this ”taxonomy”.
Organization context issues to
• Discuss about situation within our
course/UiA/target organization of your choice
(and – if need to change, how to do it?):
– Are current work practices collaborative
• ...in the way we want the typical course situations to be?
– Do users feel need for additional technological
– Do we have individualistic or collaborative culture
• ...does this vary?
– What is the official policy to collaborate in our course
communication? Do we reward people when they
follow that – or sanction the ”non-followers”?
Org. Context issues (cont:ed)
• (Discuss still)
– Does ”top management” support better
eCollaboration / ECM at UiA course communication?
(How?) – or… do you even know about it?
– Does the management style fit to eCollaboration (or
certain kind of content mgmt?)
– How does our existing / becoming ”standard” IT
infrastructure (Fronter) fit to eCollaboration?
– Do we have (enough) internal IT competence to
implement the systems we need?
– What are the economic conditions, do they affect
Implementation project -issues
• Do we have an implementation strategy,
or do we improvise?
• What kind of ”blend” of people do we need
to implement eCollaboration / ECM?
• Do we inform users based on their mental
models about the technology (or e.g. just
based on the functionality)?
• How do we manage to deal with user
expectations about ECM / eCollaboration?
Implementation project issues
• Do we have motivated user pilot groups for the new
• How do we deal with user training?
• Do we have a supportive (administration) infrastructure
for the users?
• How are our project champions?
• Do we have clear incentives to stimulate user adoption?
• Are we clear whether user should/would utilize new
solutions for pre-defined routines vs. how can they
• How do we ensure the critical mass of users to adopt the
– (IMHO this is a project issue...)
• How do we deal with the ”disparity” of work and benefit?
(If we identify it in the project at hand?)
• Are we clear whether the technology threatens some
existing social processes?
• How do we deal with exception handling (especially in
• Do we provide seamless accessibility?
• Is our IT mature enough to introduce integrated ECM /
• Do the new solutions fit in to the existing technologies?
• Do the new routines in the new solutions fit with the
existing ones (are we clear about the desired change?)
• Does the suggested technology have competitors which
can be adopted by the users more familiar with them?
• Do we provide routines for electronic
• Do we share social protocols for
communication frequency and contents
• Does our bandwidth and image quality
conform to the requirements?
Data conferencing / Application
• Do we have enough ”facilitators”
distributed in the organization, so that the
meetings can be run smoothly?
• How well is technical support available?
• Do we have routines and practices for
structured use of application sharing (e.g.
• Is our audio quality satisfactory?
Electronic meeting systems issues
• Are we clear when and how to use fixed
electronic meeting rooms?
• Do we have enough facilitators for those?
• Do our meeting rooms and systems fit to
the meeting needs in the corporation?
• Can the facilitators or participants balance
thier electronic / verbal interaction?
Document management &
Knowledge repository issues
• Can we deal with increasing visibility of
document production processes?
• Are we clear enough about ownership and
responsibility issues for particular content?
• Can we support mobile users well enough?
• How are our search mechanisms?
• Are we ready for new roles and responsibilities
which come along enterprise content
• Discussion: Would we have any use for workflow in the
UiA course context?
– or… can you mention any real need for workflow from other
target organizations of your knowledge?
• Any challenges to transfer a business process into a
• Do workflows correspond to users’ ideas of their work?
• Do we actually have any tools for workflow? Do the tools
provide enough flexibility?
• How would the workflow tool be selected?
• How do they need to integrate with the legacy systems
• What is our policy towards management surveillance?
• (Notes was researched most in the end of
• Do the users share ideas of the best
practices to use ...
• Are the management directives in line with
Issues of implementation process
• Any experiences from top-down or bottom-up
– ...teleological, evolutionary, life-cyclists, or dialectical?
– Or a hybrid?
• Do we have ”social influence mechanisms” to
spread the adoption evangelium?
• How do we deal with observed implementation
• What is the realistic time frame to expect the
users to change their existing practices and
technology use habits?
– (E.g. Recent reluctance on ”the wiki way”... )
…But what is the nature of change
in enterprise-wide eCollaboration /
• Four ”motors” of change (Van de Ven & Poole
1995, cf. Nordheim & Päivärinta)
• goals – cooperative project (-> success / failure)
• competition -> winning solution(s)
– life cycle
• management from cradle to death
• thesis vs. antithesis -> synthesis (or continuing conflicts)
• How would you describe the adoption / diffusion
process of communications within this course in
light of the four ”motors”?
• How would you see that e-collaboration as an
enterprise-wide phenomenon changes
– compare to the ECM case interpretation in Statoil.
• What does any particular ”motor” of change
imply for the tasks of management?
IT manager ”issues” of social
computing (Smith & McKeen)
• Vision • IT mgmt challenge
– blurred boundaries – firewalls
– collab. & sharing – intellectual property &
– situational applications – transactional apps
– mass participation, – authorization,
– transient information – records / doc. mgmt
– social behaviour – business behaviour
– innovation & creativity – efficiency in resource
IT manager ”issues” of social
computing (Smith & McKeen)
• vision (2) • IT mgmt issues (2)
– viral – secure
– dynamic – backup
– situational roles – regul. accountability
– social governance, – org. governance, org.
– bottom up innovation, – top down strategy
– emergent value – business value / case
– anywhere/-time – controlled communication
– ad hoc apps – scalable applications
How can such contradictions between visions & IT mgmt be managed, ultimately?
• …managing change in enterprise-wide
implementations is a non-trivial issue
– …great number of subissues
• Four motors of change – and some
implications for mgmt
– teleological, evolutionary, life-cycle, dialectical
• How to manage visions vs. ”reality” of
social computing in the enterprise context?
Summary 2: Why it is so
challenging to develop wide
ECM/eCollaboration over time?
T1 T2 Tn…..
Environment: BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT OF THE ENTERPRISE Environment: BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT OF THE ENTERPRISE
PEOPLE ROLES PEOPLE PROCESSES
(STRUCTURE) (TASK) (STRUCTURE) (TASK)
GENRE GENRE GENRE GENRE
REPERTOIREGENRE SYSTEM REPERTOIREGENRE SYSTEM
INFORMATION CONTENT INFORMATION CONTENT
(IN CONTEXT) (IN CONTEXT)
Environment: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (OPPORTUNITIES) Environment: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (OPPORTUNITIES)
Checklist for mid-term evaluation
• 1. The teaching:
• Methods, pedagogical approach (quality/frequency of lectures, group work supervision etc.)
• 2. Course contents:
• Level (a special focus should be given to this in classes where different groups of students
• Overlap with other courses
• Curriculum (level of difficulty, quantity, relevance)
• 3. Workload and Feedback
• Do the students get sufficient feedback during the course (formal or informal)?
• Is the workload reasonable compared to the size (number of credits) of the course?
• 4. Student participation
Presence in lectures and group work, submission of assignments, independent study, as well as
consideration of the total workload, expected to meet the calculation of 250-300 hours per 10
• 5. Information and Infrastructure
• Information about the course (lectures, curriculum, class hours etc.)
• Access to computer facilities
• Availability of books on the reading list (including external readings)
• Administrative support
• Teaching premises