Chapter 7 Review - DOC by r5uhfBp

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									            CHAPTER 7: The Structure of Atoms and Periodic Trends

1. The Pauli exclusion principle states that
   a) no two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers.
   b) electrons can have either ±½ spins.
   c) electrons with opposing spins are attracted to each other.
   d) no two electrons in an atom can have the same spin.
   e) two electrons occupying the same orbital must have identical spins.

2. How many electrons can be described by the following quantum numbers: n = 3,  = 1, m =
   0, ms = -1/2?
   a) 0            b) 1               c) 2              d) 3             e) 6

3. How many electrons can be described by the quantum numbers n = 5,  = 2, ms = +1/2?
   a) 1            b) 3               c) 5             d) 7               e) 9

4. How many electrons can be described by the quantum numbers n = 5,  = 2?
   a) 0            b) 2               c) 6             d) 10              e) 14

5.    What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the n = 4 shell?
     a) 10             b) 16           c) 25              d) 32              e) 50

6. What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the n = 3 shell?
   a) 4             b) 8             c) 18              d) 32              e) 50

     7. Which one of the following sets of quantum numbers is NOT allowed?
     a) n = 7,  = 0, m = 0, ms = +1/2
     b) n = 5,  = 3, m = -2, ms = +1/2
     c) n = 4,  = 2, m = 0, ms = -1/2
     d) n = 3,  = 1, m = -1, ms = +1/2
     e) n = 2,  = 2, m = 0, ms = -1/2

8. Which of the following sets of quantum numbers is allowed?
   a) n = 2,  = 1, m = +1/2, ms = -1/2
   b) n = 3,  = 2, m = +1, ms = +1
   c) n = 4,  = 2, m = -2, ms = -1/2
   d) n = 4,  = 4, m = -1, ms = +1/2
   e) n = 5,  = 2, m = +2, ms = -1

9. The procedure by which electrons are assigned to (or built up into) orbitals is known as the
   _______ principle.
   a) aufbau         b) Bohr           c) Planck          d) Hund              e) Pauli

10. Which of the following statements regarding subshell filling order for a neutral atom is/are
    CORRECT?
      1. Electrons are assigned to the 4s subshell before they are assigned to the 3d subshell.
      2. Electrons are assigned to the 4f subshell before they are assigned to the 6s subshell.
76                                                                                  Chapter 7


         3. Electrons are assigned to the 4d subshell before they are assigned to the 5p subshell.
     a) 1 only         b) 2 only           c) 3 only          d) 1 and 3         e) 1, 2, and 3

11. Which of the following statements is/are CORRECT for a carbon atom?
        1. The effective nuclear charge felt by a 2s electron is greater than that felt by a 1s
            electron.
        2. The effective nuclear charge felt by a 2p electron is less than that felt by a 2s electron.
        3. The effective nuclear charges felt by 2s and 2p electrons are identical.
    a) 1 only         b) 2 only          c) 3 only           d) 1 and 3           e) 1, 2, and 3

12. Which of the following statements concerning ground state electron configurations is/are
    CORRECT?
        1. For a hydrogen atom with one electron, the 2s and 2p orbitals have identical energies.
        2. For a lithium atom with three electrons, the 2s and 2p orbitals have different energies.
        3. The effective nuclear charge felt by an electron in a 2p orbital is greater for a carbon
            atom than for a boron atom.
    a) 1 only          b) 2 only         c) 3 only           d) 2 and 3           e) 1, 2, and 3

13. Which of the following elements is a p-block element?
    a) C              b) Cd              c) Cs            d) Ca                   e) Cf

14. Which of the following elements is a d-block element?
    a) C              b) Cs              c) Cd            d) Cl                   e) Cf

15. Which of the following atoms is paramagnetic?
    a) Zn             b) Sr             c) Kr                 d) Te               e) Ca

16. Which of the following atoms is diamagnetic?
    a) Rb             b) N              c) Br                 d) Cu               e) Hg

17. Which element has the electron configuration 1s22s22p63s23p2?
    a) Mg            b) Si              c) Ge             d) Ti                   e) Ga

18. Which element has the electron configuration [Ar]3d104s2?
    a) Cu            b) Zn              c) Ge             d) Ag                   e) Cd

19. What is the electron configuration for a bismuth atom?
    a) [Xe]6s26p3
    b) [Kr]5d106s26p3
    c) [Xe]4f145d106s26p3
    d) [Xe]5d106s26p3
    e) [Kr]4d104f145d3

20. Which of the following statements concerning potassium is/are CORRECT?
      1. Potassium is paramagnetic.
      2. Potassium is a p-block element.
The Structure of Atoms and Periodic Trends                                               77


       3. Potassium has two valence shell electrons.
   a) 1 only        b) 2 only         c) 3 only               d) 1 and 2        e) 2 and 3

21. Hund’s rule states that the most stable arrangement of electrons (for a ground state electron
    configuration)
    a) has a filled valence shell of electrons.
    b) has three electrons per orbital, each with identical spins.
    c) has m values greater than or equal to +1.
    d) has the maximum number of unpaired electrons, all with the same spin.
    e) has two electrons per orbital, each with opposing spins.

22. Which element has the following ground state electron configuration?

                        1s          2s             2p
    a) P               b) S                   c) O            d) N              e) F

23. Which element has the following ground state electron configuration?
                       [Ar]
                                         3d             4s
   a) Fe               b) Co                  c) Ni           d) Cu             e) Zn

24. Which element has the following ground state electron configuration?
                       [Ar]
                                         3d             4s            4p
   a) Se               b) As                  c) S            d) Cl             e) Ge

25. What is the correct orbital box diagram for the ground state electron configuration of Cr?
    a) [Ar]
                  3d           4s
   b)   [Ar]
                  3d           4s
   c)   [Ar]
                  3d           4s
   d) [Ar]
                  3d           4s
   e)   [Ar]
                  3d           4s


26. What is a possible set of quantum numbers for the unpaired electron in the orbital box
    diagram below?
                       [Ar]
                                              3d         4s           4p
   a) n = 1,  = 1, m = -1, ms = +1/2
   b) n = 3,  = 2, m = -1, ms = -1/2
   c) n = 4,  = 2, m = -2, ms = +1/2
78                                                                                   Chapter 7


     d) n = 4,  = 0, m = 0, ms = +1/2
     e) n = 4,  = 1, m = -1, ms = +1/2

27. For which of the following atoms is the 2+ ion paramagnetic?
    a) Sn              b) Mg             c) Zn            d) Mn                     e) Ba

28. Which 1+ ion has the ground state electron configuration [Kr]4d10?
    a) Ru             b) Au              c) Ag             d) Tc                    e) Cd

29. If the ground state electron configuration of an element is [Ar]3d104s24p4, what is the typical
    charge on the monatomic anion of the element?
    a) 4+               b) 2+              c) 1-              d) 2-             e) 3-

30. What is the ground state electron configuration for Co3+?
    a) [Ar]           b) [Ar]3d104s2     c) [Ar]3d44s2      d) [Ar]3d10             e) [Ar]3d6

31. What is the ground state electron configuration for In+?
    a) [Kr]4d105s2
    b) [Kr]4d105p2
    c) [Kr]5s2
    d) [Kr]4d105s25p2
    e) [Kr]4f145d105s2

32. Which of the following ions have the same ground state electron configuration: Cl-, P3-, Ca2+,
    and Ga+?
    a) Cl- and P3-
    b) Cl-, P3-, and Ca2+
    c) Ca2+ and Ga+
    d) P3- and Ga+
    e) Cl-, P3-, Ca2+, and Ga+

33. What 2- ion has the following ground state electron configuration?

                     1s           2s        2p
     a) oxide ion         b) nitride ion    c) fluoride ion        d) sulfide ion   e) magnesium ion

34. What 2+ ion has the following ground state electron configuration?
                          [Ar]
                                           3d                 4s             4p
          2+                      2+                2+                  2+
     a) Ge                b) Ni             c) Zn                  d) Cu            e) None
The Structure of Atoms and Periodic Trends                                                 79


35. What 2+ ion has the following ground state electron configuration?
                       [Kr]

                                        4d                5s             5p
   a) Cd2+             b) Sr2+            c) Zn2+              d) Sn2+           e) None

36. Which of the following cations has the same number of unpaired electrons as Cr3+?
    a) Ni2+           b) Fe2+            c) Zn2+          d) Mn2+            e) Co2+

37. In general, atomic radii
    a) decrease down a group and remain constant across a period.
    b) decrease down a group and increase across a period.
    c) increase down a group and increase across a period.
    d) increase down a group and remain constant across a period.
    e) increase down a group and decrease across a period.

38. Place the following atoms in order of increasing atomic radii: S, Se, Cl, and As.
    a) Cl < S < Se < As
    b) S < Cl < As < Se
    c) S < Cl < Se < As
    d) As < Se < S < Cl
    e) Se < As < S < Cl

39. Place the following atoms in order of increasing atomic radii: K, Mg, Ca, and Rb?
    a) K < Mg < Ca < Rb
    b) K < Mg < Rb < Ca
    c) Mg < Ca < K < Rb
    d) K < Rb < Mg < Ca
    e) Mg < K < Ca < Rb

40. Which one of the following statements is INCORRECT?
    a) Ionization energy is a positive value for all elements.
    b) Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom.
    c) For any element, the second ionization energy is larger than the first ionization energy.
    d) Ionization energy increases across a periodic of the periodic table.
    e) Ionization energy increases down a group of the periodic table.

41. Which of the following chemical equations refers to the second ionization of Ba?
    a) Ba(s) + 2e- → Ba2-(s)
    b) Ba+(g) → Ba2+(g) + e-
    c) Ba(g) → Ba2+(g) + 2e-
    d) Ba(s) → Ba+(s) + e-
    e) Ba2+(g) + e- → Ba+(g)

42. For which of the following elements is the second ionization energy greatest?
    a) Mg              b) Al             c) Na              d) Sc             e) Ti
80                                                                                  Chapter 7


43. Rank Ca, Mg, and Ba in order of increasing first ionization energy.
    a) Ca < Mg < Ba
    b) Ca < Ba < Mg
    c) Mg < Ca < Ba
    d) Ba < Mg < Ca
    e) Ba < Ca < Mg

46. Which elements have no affinity for electrons?
    a) transition metals
    b) s-block elements
    c) main group nonmetals
    d) noble gases
    e) semiconductors

47. Which group of the periodic table of elements forms only 1+ ions?
    a) group 1A      b) group 2A         c) group 1B       d) group 7A            e) group 8A

48. Place the following ions in order from smallest to largest ionic radii: Se2-, Sr2+, Y3+, and Br-.
    a) Se2- < Sr2+ < Y3+ < Br-
    b) Se2- < Br- < Sr2+ < Y3+
    c) Br- < Se2- < Y3+ < Sr2+
    d) Y3+ < Sr2+ < Br- < Se2-
    e) Sr2+ < Y3+ < Se2- < Br-

49. ________ rule states that the most stable arrangement of electrons is that which contains the
    maximum number of unpaired electrons, all with the same spin direction.

50. The element ________ has the following electron configuration: [Rn]5f46d17s2.

51. As one moves horizontally from left to right across a period, the effective ________ charge
    increases, resulting in decreasing atomic radii.

52. The f -block elements are also referred to as the lanthanides and ________.

53. Electron ________ is defined as the energy change for a process in which a gas phase atom
    acquires an electron.

54. Explain why the first ionization energy for oxygen is lower than that for nitrogen.

55. Explain the difference between paramagnetic and ferromagnetic.

								
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