Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) � Implications for Distribution by JR4C1E

VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 88

									Characteristics & Issues for
Compact Fluorescent Lamps

   (AS/NZS EL041 Meeting)
          Neville R. Watson,
         University of Canterbury
          12 March 2008
          Outline

1. Background

2. Types of CFLs

3. Direct Harmonic Penetration Study

4. Detailed Transient Simulations

5. Other Studies
6. Standards
7. Conclusions
      Missing Components


Fuse on Input




Filter Capacitors missing
Same brand September 2007



                      Does have PTC




                    No Fuse




                   No place for Filter Capacitors
PTC missing
3rd Pro. Project 2008




     Switching
       Box




         PC with Data Acquisition Card
       Power-factor

                   Active power
Power-Factor 
               Total Apparent Power
                              N

                   v.idt  Vn I n cos(n )
              1 T
             T 0        n 1
              VRMS I RMS        VRMS I RMS
              V1 I1 cos(1 )     I1
                                    cos(1 )
                 V1 I RMS      I RMS
             Distortion-Factor×DPF
Types of CFL Ballasts
       Types of CFL


 No Power-Factor Control
 Passive Power-Factor Control
 Valley-Filling (or equivalent)
 Active Power-Factor Control
Eclipse 20W CFL




                  Eclipse CFL Schematic
     OSRAM DuluxStar 20W (2007)




                                +ve
        OSRAM
     DULUXSTAR 20W
          2007                                                          C3
                                      R1

                                                     C   T1   R3
          D1    D3                                                                 C4
     L1                               D7                 B                              PTC
                           C1                    E                 L4

                                           R2

C2
                                                                         L3
                                                 C            R5
                                                         B
                                                                              L2
                                                T2
                                                                   L5
          D2    D4                               E
                                           R4
                     -ve
                     E-Lite CFL (July 2007)


                                            +ve
             Elite

                           D5     D6                                                     C4
                                                  R1

                                                                 C   T1        R3
            D1        D3                                                                            C5
       L1                                    D7                      B
Fuse                                   C1                                           L4
                            C6                               E            D8
                                                       R2

C2     C3
                                                                                          L3
                                                             C             R5
                                                                     B
                                                                                               L2
                                                            T2
                                                                                    L5
            D2        D4                                     E            D9
                                                       R4
                            -ve
                             Eco-Bulb (2007)




                       +ve
                                                                                                             Not fitted

                               D7                          C                                                 C8
                                                                     T1                      C6                        PTC
        D1            D3                   D8        R1
Red                                                                  B
                                                                          R3
                 J1                                        E
                                                                                                                  C9
                                                               RJ1
                                    10uF
                                                     A
       C2
  C1

                                                           C              RJ2
                       J2                  D6
                                                     R2              B
                                                          T2
                                      D5                   E
            D2        D4                                                                            C7

                                                C5             R4                                   Not fitted
                             -ve

                                                                                Ecobulb 20W Schematic
                                    P = 81.57                                                                                                                                                           Main : Graphs
                                                D   D                                                Is simple                                                                                    Is7                                                           Is7                         D           D
                                                                                       4.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       15 [ohm] 0.005 [H]
    0.0001 [ohm]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0.0001 [ohm]
                            Is_1                                                       3.0                                                                                                                                                      Is_7




                                                                                                                                                                              250 [ohm]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           250 [ohm]
                                       A                                               2.0
                   Vs_1                V                                               1.0                                                                                                                                                         Vs_7




                                                                                90.0 [uF]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 90.0 [uF]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1.0 [uF]
                                                                                       0.0




                                                                        y (A)
                                                                                      -1.0
                                                                                      -2.0
                      Is_1                                                            -3.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Is_7
                                                D   D                                 -4.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            D           D

                                                                                                     Is original VF                                                                                                              Is8
                                    P = 62.23                                      2.00




                                                                                                      180.0 [uF]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    180.0 [uF]
                                                                                   1.50




                                                                    2.0 [uF]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.0 [uF]
                                                D   D                              1.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            D           D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       15 [ohm] 0.005 [H]
    0.0001 [ohm]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0.0001 [ohm]
                                                                                   0.50
                           Is_oVF                                                                                                                                                                                                               Is_8




                                                                                                                                                                              250 [ohm]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           250 [ohm]
                                       A                                           0.00




                                                                        y (A)
                                                                                                                                        D                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    D
                   Vs_oVF              V                                          -0.50                            D                                                                                                                               Vs_8                                                                                                          D




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1.0 [uF]
                                                                                  -1.00




                                                                                                      180.0 [uF]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    180.0 [uF]
                                                                    2.0 [uF]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.0 [uF]
                                                                                  -1.50
                                                                                  -2.00
                     Is_oVF                                                                  D                                                                                                                                             Is_8                                                                                              D
                                                                                                     Is VF V_doubler                                                                                                             Is9
                                                D   D                              1.00                                                                                                                                                                                                     D           D
                                                                                   0.75
                                    P = 57.07                                      0.50
                                                                                   0.25




                                                                                                      180.0 [uF]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    180.0 [uF]
                                                                    2.0 [uF]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.0 [uF]
                                                D   D                              0.00                                                                                                                                                                                                     D           D

                                                                        y (A)
                                                                                  -0.25                                                                                                                                                                15 [ohm] 0.005 [H]
    0.0001 [ohm]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0.0001 [ohm]
                            Is_2                                                  -0.50                                                                                                                                                         Is_9




                                                                                                                                                                              250 [ohm]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           250 [ohm]
                                       A
                                                                                  -0.75
                   Vs_2                V                                                                           D                                                                                                                   Vs_9                                                                                                                      D




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1.0 [uF]
                                                                                  -1.00




                                                                                                      180.0 [uF]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    180.0 [uF]
                                                                    2.0 [uF]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.0 [uF]
                                                                                                     Is improved VF V_doubler                                                                                                    Is_10
                                                                                   0.80
                      Is_2                                                           D
                                                                                   0.60                                                                                                                                                    Is_9                                                                                              D
                                                D   D                              0.40                                                                                                                                                                                                     D           D
                                                                                   0.20
                                                                                   0.00
                                                                        y (A)




                                    P = 57.3                                      -0.20
                                                                                                      180.0 [uF]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    180.0 [uF]
                                                                                  -0.40
                                                                    2.0 [uF]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.0 [uF]
                                                D   D                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       D           D
                                                                                  -0.60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   15 [ohm] 0.005 [H]
    0.0001 [ohm]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0.0001 [ohm]
                            Is_3                                                  -0.80                                                                                                                                                        Is_10




                                                                                                                                                                              250 [ohm]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           250 [ohm]
                                       A
                                                                                                     Is4 VF V_doubler
                                                                                                          D                                                                                                                      Is_11                                                                                                                           D
                   Vs_3                V                                              1.00                                                                                                                                         Vs_10




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1.0 [uF]
                                                                                                      180.0 [uF]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    180.0 [uF]
                                                                    2.0 [uF]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.0 [uF]
                      Is_3                                                                   D                                                                                                                                           Is_10                                                                                               D
                                                                        y (A)




                                                D   D                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       D           D
                                                                                                                       220[ohm]                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      220[ohm]
                                    P = 60.8
                                                                                                      180.0 [uF]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    180.0 [uF]
                                                                                  -1.00
                                                                    2.0 [uF]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.0 [uF]
                                                D   D                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       D           D
                                                                                                     Is12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   15 [ohm] 0.005 [H]
    0.0001 [ohm]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0.0001 [ohm]
                                                                                   2.00
                            Is_4                                                                                                                                                                                                               Is_11
                                                                                                                                                                              250 [ohm]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           250 [ohm]
                                       A                                           1.50                                                 D                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    D
                   Vs_4                V                                           1.00                            D                                                                                                               Vs_11                                                                                                                         D




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1.0 [uF]
                                                                                   0.50




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 180.0 [uF]
                                                                                                                                            180.0 [uF]
                                                                    2.0 [uF]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.0 [uF]
                                                                                   0.00
                                                                        y (A)




                                                                                  -0.50                            220[ohm]                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      220[ohm]
                      Is_4                                                           D                                                                                                                                                   Is_11                                                                                               D
                                                                                  -1.00
                                                D   D                             -1.50                                                                                                                                                                                                     D           D
                                                                                  -2.00
                                    P = 64.02                                                        Is5
                                                                                             80
                                                                                                      180.0 [uF]
                                                                    2.0 [uF]




                                                D   D                                        60
                                                                                             40
    0.0001 [ohm]




                            Is_12                                                                                                                                                                                                                 A
                                                                                                                                                                              250 [ohm]




                                       A                                                     20
                                                                                              0                                         D                                                                                                                                                   Trig_IGBT
                                                                        y (A)




                   Vs_12               V                                                                           D                                                                                                                                                         1
                                                                                            -20                                                                                                                                                                              Trig1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  B Compar-
                                                                                                                       180.0 [uF]




                                                        330 [ohm]                           -40                                                                                                                                         0.4          ator
                                                                    2.0 [uF]




                                                                                            -60                                                                                                                                                                              Trig1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Level
                      Is_12                                                                  D
                                                                                            -80
                                                D   D                                     Is6
                                                                                  10.0       0.0001[ohm]
                                                                                   7.5
                                                                                   5.0 Idc_p                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Idc_p2
                                                                                                                                    D




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         D
                                    P = 2971                                       2.5
                                                                                   0.0
                                                                                0.001 [H]                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0.001 [H]
                                                                        y (A)
                                                                    2.0 [uF]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.0 [uF]
Idc_p                                           D   D                             -2.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            D           D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              15 [ohm] 0.005 [H]
    0.0001 [ohm]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0.0001 [ohm]




                                                                                  -5.0
                            Is_5                                                                                                                                                                                                       Is_6
                                                                                                                                                         360.0 [uF]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              360.0 [uF]
                                                                                                                                                                              250 [ohm]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           250 [ohm]
                                       A                                          -7.5
                   Vs_5                V                                         -10.0            D                                                                                                                                      Vs_6                                                                                                                        D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1.0 [uF]




                                                                                             0.910      2   0.920                                                     0.930               0.940         0.950                      0.960                0.970                0.980               0.990      1.000          ...                         2
                                                                    2.0 [uF]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.0 [uF]
                                                                                                  Trig_IGBT                                                                                                                                                                                                                ...                   Trig_IGBT
                      Is_5                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Is_6                                                                            ...
                                                D   D                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       D           D
                100                                       100
                                              Simple
                 90                           Orig VF     90
                                              Improved VF
                 80                           Active      80
                                              Table 3
                 70                                       70
% Fundamental




                 60                                       60

                 50                                       50

                 40                                       40

                 30                                       30

                 20                                       20

                 10                                       10

                  0                                      0
                   0   10   20           30   40        50
                                 Order
               800
                                          v
                                              t
               600                        iMeasured(Osram)
                                          iMeasured(Philips)
               400                        Bad Brand
                                          PSCAD/EMTDC Simple
               200
Current (mA)




                 0


               -200


               -400


               -600


               -800
                   0   0.005     0.01             0.015        0.02
                               Time (s)
               400
                                                  i
                                                  Measured
               300                                vt
                                                  Orig VF +RFI
               200


               100
Current (mA)




                 0


               -100


               -200


               -300


               -400
                   0   0.005     0.01     0.015              0.02
                               Time (s)
        100
                                          PSCAD/EMTDC Simple
         90                               Osram
                                          Philips
         80                               Bad Brand

         70

         60
I (%)




         50
   h




         40

         30

         20

         10

          0
           0   5   10      15        20         25      30
                        Harmonic Oder
               What is possible for a CFL
               400


               300
                               CFL for North American Market

               200


               100
Current (mA)




                 0


               -100


               -200


               -300


               -400
                   0   0.005     0.01             0.015        0.02
                               Time (s)
What is possible for a CFL
               250




               200




               150
Current (mA)




               100




                50




                 0
                  0   5   10    15       20     25   30   35
                               Harmonic order
                                                                                  400
               600
                              Basic, no filtering                                 300
                                                                                                            Active Power-Factor
               400                                                                                                 Control
                                                                                  200

               200
                                                                                  100
Current (mA)




                                                             Current (mA)
                 0                                                                         0


               -200                                                          -100


               -400                                                          -200


                                                                             -300
               -600

                  0   0.005         0.01     0.015    0.02                   -400
                                  Time (s)                                       0                  0.005         0.01      0.015   0.02
                                                                                                                Time (s)



               600
                              Basic, with filtering                                        600
                                                                                                   Valley-fill or Equivalent
               400                                                                         400


               200                                                                         200
Current (mA)




                                                                            Current (mA)

                 0                                                                             0


               -200                                                                        -200


               -400                                                                        -400


               -600                                                                        -600

                  0   0.005         0.01     0.015    0.02                                     0     0.005         0.01     0.015   0.02
                                  Time (s)                                                                       Time (s)
                   90                                                             250

                   80        Basic, no filtering                                                     Active Power-Factor
                   70
                                                                                  200                       Control
                   60
RMS Current (mA)




                                                                                  150




                                                              Current (mA)
                   50

                   40
                                                                                  100
                   30

                   20
                                                                                       50

                   10

                   0                                                                    0
                    0   5   10       15        20   25   30                              0   5       10         15       20       25        30        35
                                 Harmonic Oder                                                                 Harmonic order


                   90                                                                  90

                   80       Basic, with filtering                                      80        Valley-fill or Equivalent
                   70                                                                  70

                   60                                                                  60
RMS Current (mA)




                   50                                               RMS Current (mA)   50

                   40                                                                  40

                   30                                                                  30

                   20                                                                  20

                   10                                                                  10

                   0                                                                   0
                    0   5   10       15        20   25   30                             0    5            10       15        20        25        30
                                 Harmonic Oder                                                                 Harmonic Oder
                      180
                            Notice: form bands based on circuit type
                      160


                      140
THD (% fundamental)




                      120


                      100


                       80
            I




                       60


                       40


                       20
                        100      120      140      160      180        200   220   240
                                                  Voltage (Volts)
        1



      0.95



       0.9
DPF




      0.85



       0.8



      0.75



       0.7
         100   120   140    160      180     200   220   240
                           Voltage (Volts)
              Analysis Methods


   Frequency Domain                        Time Domain

Advantages                         Advantages
- Can handle large systems         - Can model accurately interactions
- Models frequency dependency       (i.e. non-linear load <-> ac system
  very well                          non-linear load <-> non-linear
                                     load)
Disadvantages
- Harmonic Currents specified        Disadvantages
  (No interaction between non-linear - Can only model a very small
   device and AC System, No            system in this detail
   interaction between non-linear    - Does not represent frequency
   devices).                           dependence of components well
 Frequency Domain Analysis




Direct Harmonic Penetration
           Study
CFL Characteristics
CFL Characteristics
                                                                                         AC System




Test System
                                                                              Islington 220kV                1

                                                                                                          100 MVA
                                                                                                           X=10%
                                                                               Islington 33kV
                                                                                                                             2

                                                                                                          …..
                                                                                                          x6
28,800 (15 4 10 8 6) customers modelled                                           33kV Feeder




                                                                              Sockburn 33kV                  3

                                                                                        10 MVA              Zone
                                                                                         X=8%             Substation

                                                                              Sockburn 11kV                  4

                                                                        11kV Feeder
                                                                                                    …..
                                                                                                    x8

                                                          5

                                                                          …..                                          …..
                                                 300 kVA
                                                    X=4%                  x10                                          x10
                                                   6

                                              LV Feeder
                                                              …..                                         …..
                                                              x4                                          x4
                                                               7

                                              …..             Service
                                                                           …..                      …..                …..
                                              x15              Mains       x15                      x15                x15
                                                  8
                                                 House
                                                 Load
Breakdown of Losses into Branches



                               Branch        Description
                                No.
                                 9      House Loads
                                 8      Service Mains
                                 7      LV Feeders
                                 6      300 kVA Transformers
                                 5      11 kV Feeders
                                 4      33/11 kV Transformers
                                 3      33 kV Feeders
                                 2      33/220 kV
                                        Transformers
                                 1      220kV System
Breakdown of Harmonic Losses into
          Frequencies
                                           4        P(incandescent)-P(CFL) for Underground System
                                        x 10



                                   2           This is like comparing apples and oranges
Difference in Active Power (kW)




                                                    Good
                                  1.5
                                                    Average
                                                    Poor
                                                    AS/NZS 61000-3-2

                                   1




                                  0.5




                                   0
                                                Loss_h         Loss_50       Loss_Total P_Load   P_Diff
                                                                              Quantity
            20




            15
P (Watts)




            10




            5
            100   120   140    160      180     200   220   240
                              Voltage (Volts)
                                     Power Loss in Underground System


                    2500



                    2000
Active Power (kW)




                    1500                      Good
                                              Average
                                              Poor
                    1000                      AS/NZS 61000-3-2




                    500



                       0
                           Loss_50              Loss_h              Loss_Total
                                     Power Loss in Overhead System


                    2500



                    2000
Active Power (kW)




                    1500                   Good
                                           Average
                                           Poor
                                           AS/NZS 61000-3-2
                    1000



                    500



                       0
                           Loss_50             Loss_h                Loss_Total
    Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion



         50

         V
         i 2
                i
                    2


THDV                   100 %
          V1
21st Harmonic (1050 Hz) Distortion Level
Detailed Transient Simulations
               500
                                                CFL 0 (domestic supply)
               400                              CFL 0 (sinewave)
                                                SineWave
               300

               200

               100
Current (mA)




                 0

               -100

               -200

               -300
                       Effect of voltage
               -400
                       distortion on current
               -500
                       waveform
                   0          0.005      0.01         0.015               0.02
                                        Time
                                                                              Harmonics


                 Very peaky current waveform rich in harmonics


                                                                                                                                80
                                                                                                                                                                          Philips B1
               500
                                                                                                                                                                          Philips B2
                                                                                          Philips B1
                                                                                                                                                                          Eco Bulb1 HPF
                                                                                          Philips B2                            70
               400                                                                        Eco Bulb1 HPF                                                                   Eco Bulb2 HPF
                                                                                          Eco Bulb2 HPF

               300                                                                                                              60


               200
                                                                                                                                50




                                                                                                                 Current (mA)
               100
Current (mA)




                                                                                                                                40
                 0


               -100                                                                                                             30


               -200
                                                                                                                                20

               -300

                                                                                                                                10
               -400


               -500                                                                                                             0
                      0   0.002   0.004   0.006   0.008      0.01     0.012   0.014   0.016   0.018       0.02                       0   5   10   15            20   25     30            35
                                                          Time (sec.)                                                                              Harmonic order
               100
                                      CFL 0 (domestic supply)
                90                    CFL 0 (sinewave)
                                      61000-3-2 limit
                80

                70

                60
Current (mA)




                50

                40

                30

                20

                10

                0
                 0   5   10   15      20       25        30
                              Order
                                                             Ecobulb




                                  5
           Magnitude of Current




                                  4

                                  3

                                  2

                                  1

                                                                                               330
                                  0
                                  0
                                      0.2                                       150
                                                                                        240
                                                                                                                             21 st      Harmonic
                                                   0.4                     60
                                                                0.6    0        Angle of V h
                                            Level of V
                                                         h
                                                                                                                                       Current          Elite

                                                             Osram



                                                                                                                            40

                            25




                                                                                                     Magnitude of Current
                                                                                                                            30
Magnitude of Current




                            20
                                                                                                                            20
                            15

                            10                                                                                              10


                                  5                                                                                                                                                      330
                                                                                                                             0
                                                                                                                             0                                                    240
                                                                                               330
                                  0                                                                                              0.2                                      150
                                  0                                                     240
                                                                                                                                              0.4                    60
                                      0.2                                       150
                                                                                                                                                           0.6   0        Angle of V h
                                                   0.4                     60                                                          Level of V
                                                                       0                                                                            h
                                                                 0.6            Angle of V h
                                            Level of V
                                                         h
                                                                              Ecobulb
                                                                            90                    60
                                                                                                                                             0
                         3                                                                                                                   0.2
                                               120                                                                           30              0.4
                                                                                 90              60                                          0.6
                         2                                            120
                                                                                                                    30
                         1                                                        90       60
                                        150                                                                                             0
        Imaginary Part




                                                        150             120                      30                      0
                         0                                             150                            0

                                                                       180                            330
                         -1                             180                                                              330
                                         180
                                                                         210                     300                                330
                                                                                  240 270
                         -2                                       210
                                                                                                            300

                         -3                             210
                                                                                   240
                                                                                                 270
                                                                                                                         300
                                                                                                                                                                     21 st       Harmonic
                         -4                                                     240                   270
                              -4   -3          -2            -1             0        1            2             3            4          5
                                                                                Real Part

                                                                                                                                                                                Current
                                                                                 Osram
                                                                                                          180
                                                                                                                                             0                                                               Elite
                                                                                                                                             0.2                                                             30                0
                                                                                            210                                                                                                                                                                0
                         0                                                        210             180                             150        0.4
                                              240                                                                                                                    0                           60                                                            0.2
                                                                                                                                             0.6                                                               30          0                  330              0.4
                                                                                                                    150
                                                              240                                                                                                    -5                               60                                                       0.6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     330
                         -5          270                                        210 180                                                                                               90                           30 0
                                                                      240                                                                                                                                     60
Imaginary Part




                                                                                                                                                   Imaginary Part
                                                                                           150                                                                      -10                      90                            330                      300
                                                        270                                                                                 120                                                                                          300
                                                              270                                                                                                                                       90                     300
                                                                                           120                       120                                            -15
                   -10                                       300                                                                                                                                        120                    270
                                                                                                                                                                                120        120                                           270
                                   300              300       330                          90                                                                                                              150       240
                                                                                                                                                                    -20                                                                         270
                                                                                                                                                                                                              180210
                                                                  0                   60
                                                                         30                                 90                                                                               150                                   240
                                                        330                                                                        90                               -25
                   -15                                                  0
                                    330                                                                                                                                           150                   180          210
                                                                                                60                                                                                                                                    240
                                                    0                                      30                                                                       -30

                                                                                                                                                                                                  180           210
                   -20                                                                                    60                                                              -30   -20               -10           0                        10               20
                                                                  30
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Real Part
                                   -10                  -5                      0         5                         10                  15
                                                                                Real Part
4. Detailed Transient Simulations



                    Load Point 1           Load Point 2




            CFL 0                  CFL 1                  CFL 2
Fixed Injection Model

                Load Point 1   Load Point 2




    CFL 0            CFL 1          CFL 2
                 PSCAD/EMTDC Study

           SCR                                        Loading

                          0.1500 + j0.0750 pu   0.3000 + j0.1500 pu   0.4500 + j0.2250
                                                                         pu
            R=0.0075      Run 1                 Run 5                 Run 9
            L=8.0214e-5   Load Point 1 =        Load Point 1 =        Load Point 1 =
                             5398.7378             2699.3689             1799.579

            R=0.075       Run 2                 Run 6                 Run 10
            L=8.0214e-4   Load Point 1 =        Load Point 1 =        Load Point 1 =
                             539.8738              269.9369              179.9579


System      R=0.75        Run 3                 Run 7                 Run 11
Strength    L=8.0214e-3   Load Point 1 =        Load Point 1 =        Load Point 1 =
                             53.9874               26.9937               17.9958

               R=7.5             Run 4          Run 8                 Run 12
            L=8.0214e-3      Load Point 1 =     Load Point 1 =        Load Point 1 =
                                  5.3987           2.6994                1.7996
                                          CFL Current (Run 1)
Psn 0 (A)       0.5


                    0


            -0.5
                0         0.005   0.01   0.015     0.02   0.025   0.03   0.035   0.04
                    1
        Psn 1 (A)




                    0


                    -1
                      0   0.005   0.01   0.015     0.02   0.025   0.03   0.035   0.04
                    1
        Psn 2 (A)




                    0


                    -1
                      0   0.005   0.01   0.015     0.02   0.025   0.03   0.035   0.04
                                                 Time (s)
                                          CFL Harmonic Currents (Run 1)
                         0.1
                                                                                Psn 0
                        0.08                                                    Psn 1
 Magnitude (A)



                        0.06                                                    Psn 2
                                Note magnification of injection for CFLs
                                             along feeder
                        0.04

                        0.02

                          0
                           0        20            40          60           80       100
                                                  Harmonic Order

                        200
Phase Angle (Degrees)




                        100

                          0

                        -100

                        -200
                            0       20            40          60           80       100
                                                  Harmonic Order
                                CFL Harmonic Currents (Run 1)
Magn. [Psn 0] (A)
                                                                Detailed Model
                    0.05                                        Fixed Injection


                      0
                       0   20         40          60            80           100
                                      Harmonic Order
Magn. [Psn 1] (A)




                    0.05


                      0
                       0   20         40          60            80           100
                                      Harmonic Order
Magn. [Psn 2] (A)




                    0.05


                      0
                       0   20         40          60            80           100
                                      Harmonic Order
                                           Harmonic Voltages (Run 1)
Magn. [Psn 0] (V)
                                                                       Detailed Model
                    0.05
                                                                       Fixed Injection


                      0
                       0          20            40          60         80           100
                                                Harmonic Order
Magn. [Psn 1] (V)




                    0.05



                      0
                       0          20            40          60         80           100
                                                Harmonic Order
Magn. [Psn 2] (V)




                     0.1   Magnification of Voltage along feeder

                    0.05

                      0
                       0          20            40          60         80           100
                                                Harmonic Order
                                           CFL Current (Run 2)
Psn 0 (A)       0.5


                    0


            -0.5
                0         0.005   0.01    0.015     0.02   0.025   0.03   0.035   0.04
                    1
        Psn 1 (A)




                    0


                    -1
                      0   0.005   0.01    0.015     0.02   0.025   0.03   0.035   0.04
                    1
                           Weaker system so oscillations
        Psn 2 (A)




                               at lower frequency
                    0


                    -1
                      0   0.005   0.01    0.015     0.02   0.025   0.03   0.035   0.04
                                                  Time (s)
                                     CFL Harmonic Currents (Run 2)
                         0.1
                                                                          Psn 0
                        0.08                                              Psn 1
 Magnitude (A)



                        0.06                                              Psn 2

                        0.04

                        0.02

                          0
                           0    20         40          60            80       100
                                           Harmonic Order

                        200
Phase Angle (Degrees)




                        100

                          0

                        -100

                        -200
                            0   20         40          60            80       100
                                           Harmonic Order
Measurements made on a Domestic Supply

                  500
                                           CFL 0 (domestic supply)
                                           CFL 0 (sinewave)
                  400
                                           SineWave
                                           CFL 1 (domestic supply)
                  300

                  200                     Oscillations
                  100

                    0
   Current (mA)




                  -100

                  -200

                  -300

                  -400

                  -500
                      0   0.005    0.01          0.015               0.02
                                  Time
                              CFL Harmonic Currents (Run 3)
CFL Current (A)   0.5
                                                              Detailed Model
                                                              Fixed Injection
                    0


                  -0.5
                    0.02   0.025          0.03            0.035             0.04
                  0.5
CFL Current (A)




                    0


                  -0.5
                    0.02   0.025          0.03            0.035             0.04
                  0.5
CFL Current (A)




                    0

                  -0.5

                   -1
                   0.02    0.025          0.03            0.035             0.04
                                        Time (S)
                              CFL Harmonic Currents (Run 4)
CFL Current (A)   0.5
                                                              Detailed Model
                                                              Fixed Injection
                    0


                  -0.5
                    0.02   0.025          0.03            0.035             0.04
                  0.5
CFL Current (A)




                    0


                  -0.5
                    0.02   0.025          0.03            0.035             0.04
                  0.5
CFL Current (A)




                    0


                  -0.5
                    0.02   0.025          0.03            0.035             0.04
                                        Time (S)
                                         CFL Harmonic Currents (Run 5)
CFL Current (A)           0.5
                                                                         Detailed Model
                                                                         Fixed Injection
                               0


                     -0.5
                       0.02           0.025          0.03            0.035             0.04
                               1
             CFL Current (A)




                               0


                               -1
                               0.02   0.025          0.03            0.035             0.04
                               1
             CFL Current (A)




                               0


                               -1
                               0.02   0.025          0.03            0.035             0.04
                                                   Time (S)
For each harmonic there is a systemCFL Current (h=5)
   strength and loading where a
          maxima occurs


                  0.06

                  0.05
  Magnitude (A)




                  0.04

                  0.03

                  0.02

                  0.01

                    0
                    4
                                                                             3
                               3
                                                                   2.5
                  Decreasing
                                      2                   2
                                                                    Increasing
                                                  1.5
                    System Strength       1   1
                                                        System Loading
                                          CFL Current (h=5)




                  200


                  100
Phase Angle (A)




                    0


                  -100


                  -200
                     4
                                                                                   3
                               3
                                                                         2.5
                  Decreasing
                                      2                         2
                                                                          Increasing
                                                        1.5
                    System Strength        1   1
                                                              System Loading
For each harmonic there is a systemCFL Current (h=7)
   strength and loading where a
          maxima occurs


                  0.04


                  0.03
  Magnitude (A)




                  0.02


                  0.01


                    0
                    4
                                                                             3
                               3
                                                                   2.5
                  Decreasing
                                      2                   2
                                                                    Increasing
                                                  1.5
                    System Strength       1   1
                                                        System Loading
                                        THD (Voltage) Psn 2




                  3

                2.5
Magnitude (%)




                  2

                1.5

                  1

                0.5

                  0
                  4
                                                                                   3
                             3
                                                                         2.5
                Decreasing
                                    2                           2
                                                                          Increasing
                                                       1.5
                  System Strength         1   1
                                                              System Loading
Other Studies
               5. Other studies

Study 1: D.J. Pileggi, T.J. Gentile, A.E. Emanual,… et al, “The
  Effect of Modern Compact Fluorescent Lights On Voltage
  Distortion”, IEEE Trans. Of Power Delivery, Vol. 8, No. 4, Oct.
  1993, pp 2038-1042
Study 2: F.V. Topalis, “Efficiency Of Energy Saving Lamps And
  Harmonic Distortion In Distribution Systems”, IEEE Trans. of
  Power Delivery, Vol. 8, No. 4, Oct. 1993, pp 2038-1042
Study 3: T.-M. Zhou, X.-Y. Zhu, Y.-L. He, W. Cheng and J.
  Schlejen, “Preliminary Investigation to the Effect of Harmonic
  Distortion by CFL on Quality of Electric Power Systems”,
  (Published?)
Study 4: N. Gothelf, Power Quality Effects of CFLs– A Field
  Study, RIGHT LIGHT 4, 1997 VOLUME 2, pp. 77-81
                   Study 1


“Electronically ballasted fluorescent lights with highly
  distorted current may jeopardize the reliability of the
  distribution system and the “quality” of the electric
  power delivered.”




D.J. Pileggi, T.J. Gentile, A.E. Emanual,… et al, “The
  Effect of Modern Compact Fluorescent Lights On
  Voltage Distortion”, IEEE Trans. Of Power Delivery,
  Vol. 8, No. 4, Oct. 1993, pp 2038-1042
                  Study 2


“These conclusions permit the formulation of the opinion
  that the extensive future use of the energy efficient
  lamps must be associated with simple and low cost
  filtering and power factor correction techniques”


F.V. Topalis, “Efficiency Of Energy Saving Lamps And
  Harmonic Distortion In Distribution Systems”, IEEE
  Trans. of Power Delivery, Vol. 8, No. 4, Oct. 1993, pp
  2038-1042
                   Study 3


T.-M. Zhou, X.-Y. Zhu, Y.-L. He, W. Cheng and J.
  Schlejen, “Preliminary Investigation to the Effect of
  Harmonic Distortion by CFL on Quality of Electric
  Power Systems”
Four Cases:
  Single Lamp
  Home
  Lab retrofit
  Field Experiment
                 Study 3


“Our experiments show that for CFL THD according to
  the new IEC 1000 proposal, in extremely high home
  applications (5 CFLs per home), the contribution to
  the V-THD is negligible, compared to TV and much
  less than computer.”
Home Experiment

      THDI
        PC 120% (NZ 66.6%)
        CFL 101-103% (NZ 120%)
?
        TV 90% (NZ 120%)




?
Lab. Retrofit Test
V-THD variation
   1.5-2%.
   Experiment
repeated 8 times
                      Study 4

The test was divided in two phases:

Phase 1: Measurements in a one-family house. The
         measurements were taken first without CFLs and then
         after installing five CFLs.

Phase 2: Measurements in a residential district. The
         measurements were taken in a residential district
         consisting of 17 houses at existing load and then after
         installing of three and six CFLs respectively in each
         house.
                    Study 4

“The study shows that replacement of incandescent
lamps with CFLs is beneficial both for users and for
utilities. The main advantages of CFLs are:
- reduced energy consumption
- long lifetime
- released capacity of the distribution system

High harmonic distortion is the main reason that utilities
hesitate to advocate increased use of CFLs. They focus
mainly on the high relative current distortion. It is true
that for CFLs, the relative current distortion expressed in
percent of the fundamental may exceed 100%. However,
since fundamental current is very low …, the values of
harmonic currents are very low too.
                  Study 4


“The results indicate, that the harmonic generated by
the CFLs in residential districts have only a minor effect
on power quality of the supply network.”

N. Gothelf, Power Quality Effects of CFLs– A Field
Study, RIGHT LIGHT 4, 1997 VOLUME 2, pp. 77-81
This current
waveform is
significantly better
than most we see in
sold in New Zealand
    Some of the Brands Tested

 Basix               Marexim
 Canopower           Mirabella
 Connection          Nelson Lamps
 Dura Lamp           No Frills
 Eclipse             Osram
 Ecobulb             Panasonic
 Elite               Philips
 Everyhome           Results
 GE                  Signature Range
 Kempthorne          SmartLamp
 LuxTec              Toshiba
                      Wotan
Other Appliances
                         Current drawn by Electronic Equipment
                 1.5
                                                                 PC
                                                                 Scanner
                   1                                             TV
                                                                 VCR
                                                                 DVD
                                                                 Stereo
                 0.5                                             CFL 1
Current (Amps)




                                                                 CFL 2

                   0



                 -0.5



                  -1



                 -1.5
                     0   0.005            0.01           0.015         0.02
                                    Time (seconds)
                                       Current Harmonics from Electronic Equipment
                          100
                                                                                     PC
                           90                                                        Scanner
                                                                                     TV
                           80                                                        VCR
                                                                                     DVD
Current (% Fundamental)




                           70                                                        Stereo
                                                                                     CFL 1
                           60                                                        CFL 2

                           50

                           40

                           30

                           20

                           10

                            0
                             0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132
                                                      Harmonic Order
                        Current drawn by Household Appliances
                 15
                                               Microwave Oven
                                               Washing Machine Pumping
                 10                            Washing Machine3



                  5
Current (Amps)




                  0



                  -5



                 -10



                 -15
                    0   0.005            0.01          0.015         0.02
                                   Time (seconds)
                               Washing Machine
                 8

                         Standard washing
                 6
                               1.9 Amps THDI = 132%
                 4
                         Spinning and Pumping
                 2             7.9 Amps THDI = 34%
Current (Amps)




                 0


                 -2


                 -4


                 -6


                 -8
                   0   0.005         0.01        0.015   0.02
                               Time (seconds)
             Appliances Tested

 TV                       Microwave ovens
 VCR                      Mills
 DVD                      Halogen lights
 Stereo                   Fluorescent Lamps
 Clock/radio              Fridge/freezers
 Home entertainment       Freezers
  systems                  Washing machines
 PCs                      Dryers
 Monitors                 Plug packs
 Printers
 Scanners
Heat-pump tests 2008
            6. Conclusions


 The wide-spread use of CFLs can be expected to
  reduce power quality.
 The weaker networks exhibit less correlation in the
  harmonic current injection than stronger networks.
 Resonances between CFL and ac network
  magnifies some frequency components (even for a
  relatively strong ac network)
        Acknowledgements


 Tas Scott & Stephen Hirsch, Orion N.Z. Ltd
 Vinod Kumar, Whisper Tech Limited
 Joseph Lawrence, EPE Centre Manager
 Lance Frater
 Ken Smart
 Geoff Neville, Enermet N.Z. Ltd.
The End




Any Questions?
              Valley Fill Circuit (Cct. 2)


AC Input   RFI Filter




                                              DC
                                             Output
            Improved Valley Fill Circuit



                                                          Improves current waveform near
                                                          cross-over point

AC Input




                                                                             DC




                                                                                       RL
                                                                            Output




                                                                         Remove charging current
           Remove charging current spike at the voltage
                                                                         spike at the voltage peak.
                                      cross-over point.
       Active Power-Factor Control


AC Input




                                         DC
                        Power-Factor
                                        Output
                        Control Drive

								
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