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					            History of Early Hungarian Kingdom
                                Magyars
1000
Stephen I. (Saint Stephen) is crowned king, and during his reign
Christianity is adopted and the structure of the Hungarian state is set up.
1541
Buda is seized by the Turks. The country is divided into three parts, the
largest part is held by the Turks while Northern and Western Hungary
recognises the Habsburgs as ruler and Transylvania becomes an
independent principality pursuant to the Speyer treaty of 1570.
1683-1699
The Turks are expelled from Hungary with the help of the Habsburg
emperor.

    Characteristics of Hapsburg rule: constitutional independence;
           Catholicism; allegiance to Hapsburg monarchs
Hapsburgs
  1718
                   Hungarian History
1848-49
War of independence against the Hapsburgs. After initial
victories, the rebellion is defeated. Hapsburgs revoke
constitutional independence of Hungarian state.
1867
Hapsburgs reinstate Hungarian state. Franz-Joseph
crowned king of Austro-Hungarian Empire.
1867-1918
Austro-Hungarian Empire devolves home rule to Hungary.
                        Czech History
Middle Ages
Early tribal societies in Moravia and Bohemia. Despite invasions
by Magyars and Germanic peoples, Bohemian Kingdom formed.
1300s
Hussite movement presaged the Reformation by challenging the
Catholic Church and King Wenceslas.
1500s-1800s
Hapsburg rule is tumultuous, featuring constant battles with the
Bohemian nobility, mostly over religious issues and the degree to
which the Hapsburg monarchs would accept reformed and
protestant churches. None of the Bohemian rebellions against
the Hapsburgs was ultimately successful.
Europe
1900
                 Hungarian History

1914
Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo leads
Austro-Hungarian monarch to declare war on Serbia. WWI,
and defeat of the empire, follows.
1918-21
Hungary loses territory, and monarchy falls apart.
Parliamentary system arises in its place.
1930s
Hungary gravitates toward Fascist Germany. In 1938,
international legal decisions return parts of historical
Hungary to Hungarian territory.
                      Czech History
1867-1918
Under Franz Josef, the Czechs participate in the Austrian
half of the geographically bifurcated Austro-Hungarian
political system.
1918-1938
Economic growth and flourshing culture during the First
Czech (Czechoslovak) Republic.
1938-45
German occupation.
                         Hungarian History
1930s
Hungary gravitates toward Fascist Germany. In 1938, international
legal decisions return parts of historical Hungary to Hungarian territory.
1941
Hungary enters WWII on the side of the Axis Powers, having earlier
declared war on the Soviet Union.
1944
When Hungary tries to withdraw from the war, occupying German army
deposes Hungary’s prime minister and replaces him with a puppet PM.
Opposition government in exile declares war on Germany. Shortly
thereafter, the Soviet army arrives in Hungary, driving Germans out.
                              Czech History
1945-48
2d Czechoslovak Republic.
1948
Violent coup by Czech communists brings nation into Warsaw Pact.
1960s
Drift of Czech communist party away from Stalinism and toward greater
freedom, culminating in the Prague Spring of 1968, and the Soviet invasion
crushing the movement. Alexander Dubcek, a leader of the movement, goes
into exile. Link: http://library.thinkquest.org/C001155/index1.htm
1968-1980s
Reestablishment of Stalinist rule, called the “normalization.”

1980s
Resurgence of dissent, called “the velvet revolution,” culminates in the
peaceful overthrow of the communists and election of Vaclav Havel as
president, and Alexander Dubcek speaker of the parliament.
                           Czech History
1993-2003
Czech Republic and Slovakia split in the “velvet divorce.” Havel elected
president. Succession of center-left and center-right governments.
1999
Czech Republic joins NATO.
2004
EU membership
Famous Czechs

King Wenceslas IV.           Antonin Dvorak
Jan Hus                      Franz Kafka
Thomas Garrique Masaryk      Ivan Lendl
Sigmund Freud                Martina Navratilova
Bedrich Smetana              Madeleine Allbright
                             Milos Forman
                       Hungarian History
1945-49
Parliamentary democratic republic restored. Communists elected in
allegedly fraudulent election of 1947. By 1949, Hungary adopts new
communist constitution aligning itself with the Soviet Union.
1953
Imre Nagy becomes Prime Minister, but is eventually expelled from the
party in 1955 for “errors” against Communist Party doctrine.
                       Hungarian History
1953
Imre Nagy becomes Prime Minister, but is eventually expelled from the
party in 1955 for “errors” against Communist Party doctrine.
1956
Nagy’s attempt to lead Hungarian secession from the Warsaw Pact
triggers Hungarian uprising. Nagy and other leaders are executed.
1968
Hungarian troops participate in the suppression of the “Prague spring.”
1987-89
Democratic opposition groups form, and are tolerated by the
government. Government experiments with limited market economy.
Opposition and government negotiate a peaceful transition to multiparty
democracy.
1990
Soviet troops depart. First multiparty elections to parliament held.
                         Hungarian History

1990
Soviet troops depart. First multiparty elections to parliament held.
Early 1990s
Center-right and center-left (including ex-communists) parties form.
1997
Hungary joins NATO.
2003
Hungarians approve decision to join EU in referendum.
2004
EU membership

18 Nobel Prize Winners
Transitions 1989-present
  • How did managers make decisions in
    planned economies? What were the
    incentives they faced?
  • How did those incentives (and the
    decision rules they encouraged) change
    after 1989?
  • How did/will entry into the EU change the
    environment of business in central
    Europe?

				
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posted:9/13/2012
language:English
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