Bridge to the 20th Century

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Bridge to the 20th Century Powered By Docstoc
					 Bridge to the   20 th

 Century


Industry, Immigration, and
  Reform- Immigrants and
             Urbanization
The New Immigrants
Push vs. Pull Factors
Push
 War, famine, religious
  persecution, political
  persecution, and poverty

Pull
 Economic    opportunity,
  religious freedom
Where the immigrants
were coming from?
Europe
     1870-1920
        20 million immigrants arrived

         from Europe
 Pre 1890

   Most immigrants came from
    western and northern Europe
Where the immigrants
were coming from?
Europe
 Post 1890
  Increasing numbers
   came from southern
   and eastern Europe
Why were these
groups immigrating?
Religiouspersecution
 Jews in Russia

Rising population
    1800-1900 European population doubled, leading to
     scarce farmland

Political           Freedom
Chinese
Chinese
 Originally  pulled in by the
  Gold Rush and later
  helped in railroad
  construction
 Congress limited their
  immigration numbers via
  legislation in 1882
Japanese
Japanese
 Many   were recruited to
  work in Hawaiian
  agriculture
 When the US acquired
  Hawaii immigration
  increased due to high
  wages.
West Indies and Mexico
West  Indies
 Left homelands because
  of scarce jobs
Mexico
 Came for job opportunity
  and to escape political
  upheaval.
Life in a new land
A Difficult Journey
 Most traveled by
  steamship in the below
  decks in conditions of
  squalor
Points of Entry
   Ellis Island
     Immigrant processing point in New York.
     Had to pass a physical or they were sent
       home.
          Tuberculosis and other contagious
           diseases were cause for return home.
     Then had to pass a government inspector
          Had to pass a test in their native language,
           show they could work, and have $25
               16 million passed through from 1892-1943
                   At one point they would process 11,000 people a

                    day
Points of Entry
Angel   Island
 Immigration processing
  center on the west coast
 Handled primarily Asian
  traffic
 Harsher than Ellis Island
  with poorer facilities
Results of Culture
Shock
     Many immigrants experienced issues with being in
      a new culture and land
          To combat this they formed ethnic communities within the
           US.
          Here they tried to keep old world values and traditions
           while trying to assimilate
     Set up social welfare programs in their
      communities
          Many felt like hyphenated Americans because of attitude
           of native born Americans
          IE: Italian-American, Polish-American, etc.
Immigration Restrictions
     The Melting Pot
          The idea favored by native born Americans that
           immigrants were to come together and abandon their
           native language and culture and become Americanized.
          Southern and Eastern European immigrants were
           unwilling to do this and this causes resentment among the
           native born.
Rise of Nativism
        As immigration increased resistance to the wrong type of
         immigrant grew.
            Right immigrant= British, German, or Scandinavian

             and Protestant
                 There was a strong belief that Anglo-Saxons

                  were a superior ethnic group
            Wrong Immigrant= Asian, Eastern or Southern

             European and Roman Catholic or Jewish.
        Discrimination occurred in education and business.
        Activist groups formed to fight the rising tide of wrong
         immigration.
            Congress passed a literacy test bill backed by these

             groups that was vetoed.
Anti-Asian Sentiment
        Culturally and appearance wise the Chinese were very
         different
        Many on the West Coast feared the Chinese would take
         their jobs because they accepted lower wages.
        Depression of 1873
            Led to riots that ended in violence.

        Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
            Law banning almost all Chinese immigration that

              stayed on the books until 1943
        Gentleman’s Agreement of 1907
            In San Francisco Asian students were segregated

              from schools
            Led to Anti-American riots in China, Japan, and

              Korea
            To settle matter Teddy Roosevelt traded the end of

              the segregation for Japan limiting immigration
The Problems of
 Urbanization
Urbanization
What is it?
 Rapid growth of cities
Immigrants Settle in the
Cities
Why?
 Cities were the cheapest
  place to live
 Had jobs for unskilled
  laborers in factories
 Had social network of other
  immigrants
Immigrants Settle in the
Cities
      Where?
         Often clustered in ethnic groups in the city to

          ease transition.
      Americanization Movement
         Organized effort to teach immigrants English

          and US History and Government.
            They needed this to become citizens.

         Also taught social skills and etiquette to help

          assimilation into American culture.
Migration to the City
Technological   advances made
 farming more efficient and less
 labor intensive.
African-Americans were hit
 hard and some 200,000 move
 to the north and west, but find
 similar attitudes towards race.
Urban Problems
Housing
      Different types emerged
          Row Houses

               Single family homes that shared a side wall

                with their neighbors
          Tenements

               Were 5-6 story tall apartment buildings built

                to deal with poor housing conditions
                   Many immigrants would pack 3-4

                     families into a space designed for one
                     family.
               Tenements required an airshaft and

                windows.
               Immigrants would dump trash in the airshaft

                and then nail windows shut to keep stench
                out.
                   This trash would attract rats and vermin.
Transportation
      Mass Transit
         Electric subways and rail cars begin to appear.

         Linked city center’s to the outskirts of town.

         Allowed for commuting to work.
Water
      Water was unsafe and unsanitary
      Spread diseases like typhoid fever and cholera
      Large cities began building public water systems, but
       it was slow going.
 Sanitation
Horse   manure gathered in
 the streets
Many dumped their trash
 into alleys and streets.
Sewer systems helped, but
 were just starting to evolve.
Fire
      Lack of accessible water made fighting fires hard.
      Closely packed wooden buildings gave plenty of fuel to a
       fire.
      This was countered with professional fire departments,
       buildings constructed of brick and concrete, and
       technology advances in fighting fires.
Crime
      Rampant with pick pockets and con men singling out
       immigrants.
      Gangs flourished
Reformers Mobilize
Who were the
Reformers?
Mostlyeducated white
middle-class men and
women
Social Gospel
Movement
What  was it?
 Movement to aid the poor
  based on the idea that
  Christians have a
  responsibility to improve
  working conditions and
  eliminate poverty.
Social Gospel
Movement
What   it did?
 Encouraged the
  establishment of
  churches and aid
  programs within the
  cities themselves.
The All Peoples' Mission 1892
Settlement House
Movement
What   was it?
 A movement towards
  building community
  centers that provided
  assistance to residents
  of slum neighborhoods.
Settlement House
Movement
Who  ran them?
 Primarily Middle-class
  College educated women
  who provided educational,
  cultural, and social
  services.
What does this all
mean?
The movements
established the need for
social responsibility
toward the urban poor
and the problems faced
in urbanization.
The Emergence of the
  Political Machine
The Political Machine
What   is it?
 An organized group that
  controls the activities of a
  political party in a city and
  exchange services for
  political or financial
  support.
The Political Machine
How  were they set up?
 Like a pyramid.

What did they do?
 Politicians traded jobs and
  contracts for the votes that
  the wards could promise.
The Political Machine
What   did the City Boss do?
 They controlled thousands of
  city jobs (police, fire, etc.)
 Controlled business licenses
  and inspections
 Provided government support
  for new businesses.
The Political Machine
What   role did immigrants
play?
They were intensely loyal
 due to the aid the machine
 provided.
  Helped find jobs and
   places to live.
The Political Machine
  Helped them become
   naturalized
  In exchange for

   services they gave the
   machine their votes.
Municipal Graft and
Scandal
Election  Fraud
 Machines would often
  pad the eligible voter list
  with phony names and
  stuff the ballot box to
  ensure victory.
Municipal Graft and
Scandal
         Election Fraud and Graft
         

            Election Fraud

                 Machines would often pad the eligible voter list with phony

                  names and stuff the ballot box to ensure victory.
            Graft

                 Kickbacks

                     Machines would have their candidate approve a

                       padded service bill and then collect the difference
                       between actual cost and billed cost for themselves.
                 Bribes

                     Were bribed to allow illegal activities to go on in certain

                       areas of town
                          Gambling, prostitution

 Were bribed by local business to provide plum contracts and licenses
Municipal Graft and
Scandal
      An Example
         Boss Tweed

             Head of Tammany Hall NYC powerful Democratic

              Political Machine
             Between 1869 and 1871 he and his follower

              pocketed up to $200 million in kickbacks and
              payoffs
             NYC city hall cost taxpayers $11 million; in

              actuality it cost $3 million with Tweed and co.
              getting about $8 million.
Politics in the Gilded
          Age

    Reforms-Civil
   Service Replaces
      Patronage
The Problem
 Patronage (Spoils
  System)
  The practice of giving
   government jobs to
   those who had helped
   a candidate get
   elected to office.
The   Result

        Unqualified people were given
         jobs
        Some used new position for

         personal gain
            Took bribes to give jobs.
         The Solution
   The Merit System
       In this system civil service jobs would be given based

        on qualifications, not on political views or who their
        supporters are.
           Civil Service

                The nonmilitary jobs in government
Presidents and Reform
Hayes
      His appointees to office fired those who were being paid
       to do no work
      Investigated and fired officials in the corrupt customs
       houses
          Workers there spent most of their time working for the

           Republican Party
Presidents and Reform
Garfield         and Arthur
       James Garfield (Reformer of the Spoils System) was
        elected President by a split Republican party with Chester
        Arthur as VP
           Arthur had been fired for corruption in the custom

            houses by Garfield
       An anti-reformer assassinates Garfield, making Arthur
        President.
Presidents and Reform
      Pendleton Act- 1883
         Arthur urges legislation making a civil service

          commission that appoints jobs based on merit-the
          civil service test.
      Results of the Pendleton Act
         Qualified people began filling government jobs

         Ties between politicians and big business grew

          stronger
             This was the politicians new source of campaign

               money.
Efforts to Regulate Tariffs
        President Cleveland
            Sought to lower tariffs but was blocked by

             Congress and his opponents.
                Any dropping of the tariff he was able to do

                 was reversed by those who followed.

				
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