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Bridge to the 20 th Century Industry, Immigration, and Reform- Immigrants and Urbanization The New Immigrants Push vs. Pull Factors Push War, famine, religious persecution, political persecution, and poverty Pull Economic opportunity, religious freedom Where the immigrants were coming from? Europe 1870-1920 20 million immigrants arrived from Europe Pre 1890 Most immigrants came from western and northern Europe Where the immigrants were coming from? Europe Post 1890 Increasing numbers came from southern and eastern Europe Why were these groups immigrating? Religiouspersecution Jews in Russia Rising population 1800-1900 European population doubled, leading to scarce farmland Political Freedom Chinese Chinese Originally pulled in by the Gold Rush and later helped in railroad construction Congress limited their immigration numbers via legislation in 1882 Japanese Japanese Many were recruited to work in Hawaiian agriculture When the US acquired Hawaii immigration increased due to high wages. West Indies and Mexico West Indies Left homelands because of scarce jobs Mexico Came for job opportunity and to escape political upheaval. Life in a new land A Difficult Journey Most traveled by steamship in the below decks in conditions of squalor Points of Entry Ellis Island Immigrant processing point in New York. Had to pass a physical or they were sent home. Tuberculosis and other contagious diseases were cause for return home. Then had to pass a government inspector Had to pass a test in their native language, show they could work, and have $25 16 million passed through from 1892-1943 At one point they would process 11,000 people a day Points of Entry Angel Island Immigration processing center on the west coast Handled primarily Asian traffic Harsher than Ellis Island with poorer facilities Results of Culture Shock Many immigrants experienced issues with being in a new culture and land To combat this they formed ethnic communities within the US. Here they tried to keep old world values and traditions while trying to assimilate Set up social welfare programs in their communities Many felt like hyphenated Americans because of attitude of native born Americans IE: Italian-American, Polish-American, etc. Immigration Restrictions The Melting Pot The idea favored by native born Americans that immigrants were to come together and abandon their native language and culture and become Americanized. Southern and Eastern European immigrants were unwilling to do this and this causes resentment among the native born. Rise of Nativism As immigration increased resistance to the wrong type of immigrant grew. Right immigrant= British, German, or Scandinavian and Protestant There was a strong belief that Anglo-Saxons were a superior ethnic group Wrong Immigrant= Asian, Eastern or Southern European and Roman Catholic or Jewish. Discrimination occurred in education and business. Activist groups formed to fight the rising tide of wrong immigration. Congress passed a literacy test bill backed by these groups that was vetoed. Anti-Asian Sentiment Culturally and appearance wise the Chinese were very different Many on the West Coast feared the Chinese would take their jobs because they accepted lower wages. Depression of 1873 Led to riots that ended in violence. Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 Law banning almost all Chinese immigration that stayed on the books until 1943 Gentleman’s Agreement of 1907 In San Francisco Asian students were segregated from schools Led to Anti-American riots in China, Japan, and Korea To settle matter Teddy Roosevelt traded the end of the segregation for Japan limiting immigration The Problems of Urbanization Urbanization What is it? Rapid growth of cities Immigrants Settle in the Cities Why? Cities were the cheapest place to live Had jobs for unskilled laborers in factories Had social network of other immigrants Immigrants Settle in the Cities Where? Often clustered in ethnic groups in the city to ease transition. Americanization Movement Organized effort to teach immigrants English and US History and Government. They needed this to become citizens. Also taught social skills and etiquette to help assimilation into American culture. Migration to the City Technological advances made farming more efficient and less labor intensive. African-Americans were hit hard and some 200,000 move to the north and west, but find similar attitudes towards race. Urban Problems Housing Different types emerged Row Houses Single family homes that shared a side wall with their neighbors Tenements Were 5-6 story tall apartment buildings built to deal with poor housing conditions Many immigrants would pack 3-4 families into a space designed for one family. Tenements required an airshaft and windows. Immigrants would dump trash in the airshaft and then nail windows shut to keep stench out. This trash would attract rats and vermin. Transportation Mass Transit Electric subways and rail cars begin to appear. Linked city center’s to the outskirts of town. Allowed for commuting to work. Water Water was unsafe and unsanitary Spread diseases like typhoid fever and cholera Large cities began building public water systems, but it was slow going. Sanitation Horse manure gathered in the streets Many dumped their trash into alleys and streets. Sewer systems helped, but were just starting to evolve. Fire Lack of accessible water made fighting fires hard. Closely packed wooden buildings gave plenty of fuel to a fire. This was countered with professional fire departments, buildings constructed of brick and concrete, and technology advances in fighting fires. Crime Rampant with pick pockets and con men singling out immigrants. Gangs flourished Reformers Mobilize Who were the Reformers? Mostlyeducated white middle-class men and women Social Gospel Movement What was it? Movement to aid the poor based on the idea that Christians have a responsibility to improve working conditions and eliminate poverty. Social Gospel Movement What it did? Encouraged the establishment of churches and aid programs within the cities themselves. The All Peoples' Mission 1892 Settlement House Movement What was it? A movement towards building community centers that provided assistance to residents of slum neighborhoods. Settlement House Movement Who ran them? Primarily Middle-class College educated women who provided educational, cultural, and social services. What does this all mean? The movements established the need for social responsibility toward the urban poor and the problems faced in urbanization. The Emergence of the Political Machine The Political Machine What is it? An organized group that controls the activities of a political party in a city and exchange services for political or financial support. The Political Machine How were they set up? Like a pyramid. What did they do? Politicians traded jobs and contracts for the votes that the wards could promise. The Political Machine What did the City Boss do? They controlled thousands of city jobs (police, fire, etc.) Controlled business licenses and inspections Provided government support for new businesses. The Political Machine What role did immigrants play? They were intensely loyal due to the aid the machine provided. Helped find jobs and places to live. The Political Machine Helped them become naturalized In exchange for services they gave the machine their votes. Municipal Graft and Scandal Election Fraud Machines would often pad the eligible voter list with phony names and stuff the ballot box to ensure victory. Municipal Graft and Scandal Election Fraud and Graft Election Fraud Machines would often pad the eligible voter list with phony names and stuff the ballot box to ensure victory. Graft Kickbacks Machines would have their candidate approve a padded service bill and then collect the difference between actual cost and billed cost for themselves. Bribes Were bribed to allow illegal activities to go on in certain areas of town Gambling, prostitution Were bribed by local business to provide plum contracts and licenses Municipal Graft and Scandal An Example Boss Tweed Head of Tammany Hall NYC powerful Democratic Political Machine Between 1869 and 1871 he and his follower pocketed up to $200 million in kickbacks and payoffs NYC city hall cost taxpayers $11 million; in actuality it cost $3 million with Tweed and co. getting about $8 million. Politics in the Gilded Age Reforms-Civil Service Replaces Patronage The Problem Patronage (Spoils System) The practice of giving government jobs to those who had helped a candidate get elected to office. The Result Unqualified people were given jobs Some used new position for personal gain Took bribes to give jobs. The Solution The Merit System In this system civil service jobs would be given based on qualifications, not on political views or who their supporters are. Civil Service The nonmilitary jobs in government Presidents and Reform Hayes His appointees to office fired those who were being paid to do no work Investigated and fired officials in the corrupt customs houses Workers there spent most of their time working for the Republican Party Presidents and Reform Garfield and Arthur James Garfield (Reformer of the Spoils System) was elected President by a split Republican party with Chester Arthur as VP Arthur had been fired for corruption in the custom houses by Garfield An anti-reformer assassinates Garfield, making Arthur President. Presidents and Reform Pendleton Act- 1883 Arthur urges legislation making a civil service commission that appoints jobs based on merit-the civil service test. Results of the Pendleton Act Qualified people began filling government jobs Ties between politicians and big business grew stronger This was the politicians new source of campaign money. Efforts to Regulate Tariffs President Cleveland Sought to lower tariffs but was blocked by Congress and his opponents. Any dropping of the tariff he was able to do was reversed by those who followed.
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