Infancy & Childhood
Nature vs. Nurture
• Heredity: characteristics obtained directly from
• Environment: a person’s surroundings, which
influence their characteristics and development
• Nature/ Nurture Controversy: contrasting views
of how we gain certain characteristics
Infant Sucking Patterns
• Infants given earphones
• Specially designed nipples registered to
• If sucked in a certain pattern, got to hear
own mother’s voice, otherwise, another
• The infants varied their sucking in order to
hear their own mother’s voice
• These infants were less than 72 hrs. old!
• The basic unit of heredity.
• They contain directions for many
characteristics: eye color, body type,
Chromosomes & Zygote
• Structures containing genes
• All human cells have 46 except the
reproductive cells which have 23
• When the female egg with 23
chromosomes and male sperm with 23
chromosomes unite in conception, the
fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) has the 46
necessary for proper development
Nurture must work with Nature
• One may inherit the potential to be a great
swimmer, but only with environmental
training will he or she actually perfect this
• Monozygotic twins: developed from one egg, identical
• Dizygotic twins: developed from different eggs and
different sperm– no more similar than other siblings
• Experiments: Monozygotic twins meet for
first time in late 40’s. One raised as a
German Nazi, the other as a Jew in the
Caribbean. Have same mustache,
glasses, like same foods, read magazines
back to front, store rubber bands on wrists,
like to scare people with loud sneeze, etc.
How important is Genetics?
• Most researchers believe that
approximately 50% of our personality traits
and intelligence are a result of genetic
• Development within a species is orderly
• Development takes longer in species that
ultimately have a more complex maturity.
• Humans have the longest developmental
process of all creatures because they
reach a higher level of intelligence and
• Maturation: the automatic, orderly,
sequential process of physical and mental
development (how long each takes will
differ between individuals but happen in
the same sequence)
• Example: Walking will occur regardless of
teaching or environment
The Myth of Educational Toys
• Maturation occurs based on the
development and growth of nerve cells
• Stimulation is necessary to proceed at
your own internal pace, but without it your
development may slow.
• However, you cannot
speed it up.
Growth cycles are orderly patterns of
There are different aspects of human
At age 8; brain is about 90% developed,
body about 45%, and reproductive system
• A specific period of development that is
the only time when a particular skill can
begin to develop or an association occur.
• Examples: smiling occurs in the first 2
months and learning a foreign language by
• A biological process in which the young of
certain species follow and become
attached to their mothers. It occurs during
a critical period.
• Ducks and other species accept a mother
at a specific time in development. If no
“real” mother, they will accept alternatives,
as long as they move.
• Piaget– Sequence of Cognitive
• Erikson– Sequence of Emotional
• Kohlberg– Sequence of Moral
Sensorimotor (0-2) Preoperational (2-7)
Concrete Operations (7-11) Formal Operations (11+)
• Birth: Raw Sensation--Lights, Sounds,
• 3 Months: Movement and Reaching
• 5-8 Months: No object permanence yet
• 9-12 Months: Object permanence
appears, and separation anxiety
• 2 years: Move from world of sensation and
movement to world of thought
• 2 years: Object Permanence well
established, no reversibility or
conservation skills, cannot view world from
• 3-7 years: Growing awareness of
reversibility and conservation
Concrete Operations (7-11)
• 7 years: reversibility well established
• 8 years: Some conservation skills well
• 9-11 years: Able to view world more and
more from another’s point of view
Formal Operations (11+)
• 11+ years: Growing ability to think
abstractly and symbolically
Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1) Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-18)
Autonomy vs. Shame (1-3) Intimacy vs. Isolation (19-40)
Initiative vs. Guilt (4-6) Generativity vs. Stagnation (41-69)
Industry vs. Inferiority (7-11) Integrity vs. Despair (70+)
Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1)
Mama? Anyone? Hello!?! Uh-oh!
Autonomy vs. Shame (1-3)
I think I can… I can do it!!! Uh-oh!!!
Initiative vs. Guilt (4-6)
Industry vs. Inferiority (7-11)
Oh boy, a test Huh? This is too hard I’m outta here!!
Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-18)
• Who do your parents want you to be?
• Who do your friends want you to be?
• Who does you boy/ girlfriend want you to be?
• Who do your coaches, teachers, mentors want
you to be?
• Who do your teammates want you to be?
• Who does your brother/ sister/ aunt/ uncle/
grandparents want you to be?
• Can you please them? Do you want to?
Who do YOU want to be?
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Integrity vs. Despair
(end of life cycle)
• Preconventional Level (0-6)
• Conventional Level (7-11)
• Postconventional (11+)
You mimic what you have been taught is right.
Conventional Level (7-11)
“If I cheat, no one gets hurt and I get an A.”
“If I cheat, I may get caught and get in trouble.”
Postconventional Level (11+)
• Do you help 1 rich man
or 10 poor?
• When you were little,
likely answer was 1 rich man
because he would give you a reward.