Dr Kenneth Odero Presentation

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Dr Kenneth Odero Presentation Powered By Docstoc
					  Nutrient removal and
  waste water re-use
       Dr. Kenneth Odero
           Executive director
      CLIMATE EXCELLENCE AFRICA

Effluents and Waste Water Management
              Conference
   22nd November 2011, Nairobi Kenya
 Waste water treatment in Kenya
 WHO principles on water re-use
 Opportunities for waste water re-use in Kenya
 Agriculture
 Bioenergy
 Case study; Kisumu Waste water treatment plant.
  Key considerations
 Moving forward
 Q&A

                                             2
 Kenya is a water-scarce country with Nairobi receiving less
  than 100 l/capita/day. Potable water for irrigation and
  industrial use is generally unavailable, and this calls for
  alternative water sources and water re-use.
 Population growth has increased both the demand for fresh
  water and the amount of waste water discharged.
 The production of wastewater has also increased as an
  outcome of continued urbanization.

 Wastewater reuse needs to be better incorporated into the
          overall management of water resources.


                                                        3
 Kenya’s foul water consists of both domestic (H/H)grey
  water and surface run off.
 Treatment is done in two phases: Physical and
  Biological treatment. Very minimal or no chemical
  treatments is done.
 Treated water is discharged into the nearest water
  body and slurry is disposed in land fills.
 The quality of charged treated water over the years has
  been compromised by the dumping of overloaded
  industrial and domestic effluent into the sewer system


                                                      4
Seek to control health hazards associated with the
 use of wastewater, excreta and grey water in
 agriculture and aquaculture.
These are excreta-related pathogens, vector-borne
 diseases and chemicals that affect human
 health.
 Recommend that health protection measures
 should target large population
 groups and in local settings, they may be
 particularly focused on specific vulnerable
 groups.

                                              5
Fully treated waste water has high potential for
 agricultural application owing to:
    High nutrient levels
    Fresh water scarcity
Proper waste water treatment removes harmful
 nutrients that have residual effect on crops and
 human health
More use of wastewater, excreta and greywater will
 occur in urban and periurban agriculture, because
   this is where the wastewater is generated and
    available and where the demand for food is
    highest. (United Nations Population Division,
                        2002).
                                                6
 Through recovering energy by the biological
  degradation of organic matter in sewage sludge, a
  corresponding amount of primary energy can be
  substituted.
 In the process, the organic matter of sewage is
  decreased by about 55-60% and the quantity of dry
  matter for disposal is reduced by about 40 %.
 Example: The sewer treatment plants (Dandora and
  Ruai) in Nairobi with a combined average daily
  treatment capacity of about 110,000m3 can produce
  approximately 23,200 Kg L.P Gas can be produced per
  day. This is enough energy to power 20,000 fridges
  and gas cookers continuously for 3 hours every day.
                                                7
 CXL Proposes feasibility study to assess the
  potential for large scale biogas production in
  Kisumu using wastewater and water hyacinth

Project Objectives
 To produce methane gas via anaerobic digestion of
    primarily waste water (large scale)
 To create an end use of water hyacinth through biogas
    production
 To upgrade the WWTP in order to reduce nutrients and
    chemical in outlet
 To assess the potential for improvement of the existing
    waste water treatment technology in Kenya
                                                       8
   to reduce nutrients and chemical in outlet
 Kisat and Nyalenda stabilization ponds -
  owned by Lake Victoria South Water Services
  Board (LVSWSB) and operated by the Kisumu
  Water and Sanitation Company (KIWASCO)
 Biological and mechanical treatments are
  applied
 Breakages in the treatment cycle in Kisat
  - not fully efficient
 Partially treated wastewater is released to
  the Lake Victoria
 Farmers use dried waste water sludge as
  farm fertilizer



                                  Photography: Sofi Karlsson-Lund, Climate XL Africa
 Waste water can generate a minimum of:
  - 450 m3/day of biogas
  - 750 kW / day
  - ca 2244 carbon credits / year

 The organic loading in waste water makes biogas
  production and electrification cost efficient
 Current water hyacinth coverage in Winam Gulf can
  produce  1 552 million kW per year
 Anaerobic digestion decreases nutrient content in outflow
  and creates a treated and safe fertilizer
                                                     10
Technical capacity to implement biogas generating
 technology
Technological capacity to invest in water hyacinth
 harvesting and transportation equipment
Community’s socio cultural orientation to adopt
 the use of methane generated from municipal
 waste in addition to use of slurry fertilizer
Economic considerations of costs vs benefits.
Institutional structures and capacity to implement,
 facilitate and sustain operations.

                                              11
For effective policy formulation and investment in
 safe and effective water re-use structures,
 consideration should be made on:
    Environmental considerations
   Least environmentally harmful
    Socio cultural considerations
   People driven, acceptable and available to the populous
    Economic and financial concerns
   Provide high returns for investments
    Institutional capacity potential
   Have the support of key institutions




                                                      12
                 Discussion

Q&A on Nutrient removal and water re-use
Any other Q&A




                              Thank you!

				
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