40 acres and a mule

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					40 acres and a mule
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   For the film production company, see 40 Acres & A Mule Filmworks.
40 acres and a mule refers to the short-lived policy, during the last
stages of the American Civil War during 1865, of providing arable land
to black former slaves who had become free as a result of the
advance of the Union armies into the territory previously controlled by
the Confederacy, particularly after Major General William Tecumseh
Sherman's "March to the Sea." General Sherman's Special Field
Orders, No. 15, [1] issued on January 16, 1865, provided for the land,
while some of its beneficiaries also received mules from the Army, for
use in plowing.[2]
The Special Field Orders issued by Sherman were never intended to
represent an official policy of the United States government with                15th Amendment, or the Darkey's millenium - 40 acres of
regards to all former slaves and were issued "throughout the                       land and a mule, from Robert N. Dennis collection of
                                                                                                   stereoscopic views.
campaign to assure the harmony of action in the area of
operations."[3] Sherman's orders specifically allocated "the islands
from Charleston, south, the abandoned rice fields along the rivers for thirty miles back from the sea, and the country
bordering the St. Johns River, Florida." Brigadier General Rufus Saxton, an abolitionist from Massachusetts, was appointed
by Sherman to oversee the settling of the freed slaves. [4] By June 1865, about 10,000[citation needed] freed slaves were
settled on 400,000 acres (160,000 ha) in Georgia and South Carolina.
After the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, his successor, Andrew Johnson, revoked Sherman's Orders and
returned the land to its previous white owners. Because of this, the phrase "40 acres and a mule" has come to represent the
failure of Reconstruction policies in restoring to African Americans the fruits of their labor. [5]

See also
   Three acres and a cow, a land reform slogan in Britain.

   1. ^ Order by the Commander of the Military Division of the Mississippi
   2. ^ "Reconstruction ... Forty Acres and a Mule" at American Experience website
   3. ^ "Harmony of Action" – Sherman as an army group commander
   4. ^ Buescher, John. "Forty Acres and a Mule ." Teachinghistory.org . Accessed 13 July 2011.
   5. ^ Alexander, Danielle (2004). "Forty Acres and a Mule: The Ruined Hope of Reconstruction"       . Humanities (Washington, D.C.:
      National Endowment for the Humanities) 25 (1 Jan./Feb.). Retrieved 2011-08-19.

External links
   Bills and Resolutions, Senate, 39th Congress, 1st Session Bill 60         , Library of Congress.
   Significant Dates on Black Land Loss       – from Federation of Southern Cooperatives Land Assistance Fund

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