TTF7 Annex2 by bjdpkx

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									   EPERC TTF7 Kick-Off                  ANNEX II-Participants presentations




       Minutes of the Kick-off meeting of the EPERC TTF 7
                       “Hydrogen Damage”
         IAM / JRC, Petten, The Netherlands, 26/27th October 2000




                         ANNEX II

        Summaries of contributions
         from the Kick-off meeting
                participants




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1. P. Anderssen – Det Norske Veritas (DNV) – Sweden
   Formerly related to SAQ Kontroll, plant inspection and monitoring is now one of
   the activities at DNV. This relates with in-field activity in chemical and
   petrochemical plants, as well as to lifetime prediction and damage assessment
   and prediction e.g. via Finite Elements modelling.

2. G. Baylac – Technical Advisor EPERC – France
   Mr. Baylac is a reputed consultant in the field of Pressure Equipment, and the
   Technical Advisor of the EPERC organisation. He is a non-voting member of the
   EPERC Steering Committee, and National Representative of EPERC for France.
   At technical level, he participates in the activities of all TTF’s

3. A. Belghazi, J-L. Crolet - Total Fina Elf - France
   As an end-user, Total Fina Elf is concerned with many aspects related to plants
   design and safe-and-efficient operation. Mechanisms of Stress Corrosion Cracking
   (SCC), hydrogenation and degassing of materials, low-temperature corrosion,
   wet H2S, cooling of heavy wall reactors are among these aspects. More details are
   given in ANNEX I, part 4.

4. T. Böllinghaus - BAM – Germany
   BAM is the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, located
   in Berlin (D). Dr. Böllinghaus is the Head of Division V (Safety in joining
   technologies). As matter of interest of BAM in TTF7 activities he proposes the
   following issues: standardisation of measurements; hydrogen removal via heat
   treatment, implementation of databases on hydrogen diffusion and ingress in
   materials; implementation of databases on hydrogen-induced degradation of
   materials; revisiting knowledge on hydrogen cracking mechanisms; modelling of
   hydrogen diffusion and hydrogen-induced cracking; revisiting of test procedures.

5. A.M. Brass – CNRS – Univ. Paris Sud – France.
   As a result of intensive scientific work in the field, Mme. Brass and co-workers
   have published many papers on hydrogen-related damage mechanisms and
   processes at low temperature. The Institute has a number of facilities, which allows
   combining studies on the effects of hydrogen in materials with mechanical testing,
   plus adequate instrumentation for characterisation (SEM, TEM, XPS, SIMS,
   measurements of hydrogen content). Mme Brass’ group is carrying out research on
   hydrogen permeation, diffusion and transport, hydrogen trapping,
   microstructural characterisation of hydrogen-induced phase transformations and
   damage.

6. C. Christensen – FORCE Institute – Denmark
   The past and present hydrogen-related activities of the FORCE Institute extend to
   qualification and quantification of the effects of hydrogen in carbon and low-alloy
   steels, strength classification vs. hydrogen-related cracking, case studies of
   hydrogen damage in industrial components. The hydrogen uptake and corrosion



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  rate in carbonic acid solutions and investigations on stainless steels for use as
  cladding materials could be regarded as issues of interest for TTF7, in addition to
  many of the subjects quoted previously by T. Böllinghaus (4) in his talk. The
  FORCE Institute co-operates with Bodycote (14) and TWI (25) in a three way
  initiative on Stress Oriented Hydrogen Induced Cracking (SOHIC)

7. A. De Bruyne - Hydro Agri Sluiskil - The Netherlands
   Hydro Agri Sluiskil is an end-user active in the field of ammonia production and
   derivates (HNO3, etc.), with a production of 700 tons/day in three large plants. The
   company has a very strong interest in a correct definition of inspection intervals,
   as well as in the development of the best methods for damage monitoring, in-
   service inspection and possibly detailed knowledge on damage mechanisms.

8. M. De Waele – Research Centre of the Belgian Welding Institute - Belgium
   The Research Centre of the Belgian Welding Institute is a non-profit organisation,
   member of the IIW and EWF. It is active in the field of failure analysis, carries out
   education and training in the field, disseminates information, provides consultancy,
   supports standards & quality assurance. Interests in TTF7 could be related to
   failure analysis and microstructural characterisation.

9. F. Dean – Ion Science Ltd. – United Kingdom
    Ion Science Ltd. has recently carried out extensive research, and developed
    technology for measurements of hydrogen flux emanating from steel surfaces.
    Ion Science Ltd. is very interested in carrying out initiatives to implement these
    techniques and explore their possible exploitation for monitoring applications.
    More details are given in ANNEX I, part 4.

10. D. Delafosse – Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint Etienne – France
    D. Delafosse carries out research activity in the group of Prof. T. Magnin at
    ENSM-SE. The research activity focuses on SCC and hydrogen damage of
    engineering systems in general, including numerical modelling. Facilities include
    systems for the study of combined effects of hydrogen damage and stress /fatigue.
    Some examples of systems under study are pipelines corrosion in ground water,
    Al-Zn-Mg alloys in seawater, high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels, Ni-base
    alloys. Recent developments regard a new test procedure relevant to SCC and
    tension and fatigue tests of notched tensile specimens, crack monitoring,
    control of local plastic strain rate. The development of methods for materials
    selection for corrosion-critical application would be also a subject of interest for
    the Institute.

11. W. Dietzel – GKSS Forschungszentrum – Germany
    GKSS activities of relevant interest to TTF7 relate with Materials Mechanics,
    Physical Metallurgy and Materials Technology in general. Titanium- and
    Magnesium- base alloys are among the subjects of study. Concerns in the
    hydrogen field relate primarily to hydrogen embrittlement (HE), fracture analysis



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   and model calculations on the effect of hydrogen content and plastic deformation
   on the diffusion coefficient, test techniques as well as the use of synchrotron
   radiation for the characterisation of hydrogen effects. Together with G.
   Gabetta (15) and H. Nykyforchyn (23), W. Dietzel is a member of ISIS TC 10,
   which deals with environmental assisted cracking and SCC

12. G. Dobmann – Fraunhofer IZFP – Germany
    Based on the physical principles of Non Destructive Testing (NDT), IZFP
    (Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing) in SaarBrücken (D) develop
    techniques and equipment for the characterisation of materials, for the
    inspection and testing of finished products, and provide complete solutions for
    monitoring of manufacturing processes and plant production. IZFP interest in
    TTF7 is consequently addressed to inspection and monitoring of hydrogen
    damage. More details are given in ANNEX I, part 3.

13. K.L. Feiste – University of Hannover – Germany
    The Centre of NDT (IW-ZfP, former IKHP) inside the Institute of Material
    Science at the University of Hannover is specialised in non destructive defect
    detection and material characterization using advanced electromagnetic and
    magneto inductive test methods. Experience is established with respect to testing
    of ferromagnetic materials and thick walled, austenitic steel, industrial
    components. The interest of IW-ZfP for participation in TTF7 relies on the
    evaluation of non-destructive methods for inspection of hydrogen damaged
    components based on the aforementioned techniques. Fundamental investigations
    on the interpretation or measuring effects due to defects, residual stress, plastic
    deformation or material structure caused by hydrogen and/or pressure and/or
    temperature have to be carried out. The necessity for network activities is based on
    the problem of missing calibrations for electromagnetic and magneto inductive
    testing techniques.

14. C. Fowler – Bodycote Material Testing & Corrosion Centre – United Kingdom
    The Bodycote Corrosion Centre specialises in Sour Service, Electrochemical and
    other forms of testing under hydrogen conditions. Of particular interest for
    TTF7 is Sour Service Cracking. C. Fowler is currently co-chairman of the
    committee that looks after NACE TM0284, and also co-chairman of the EFC 17
    Task Group (CRA's for Sour Service). Bodycote are currently launching a Joint
    Industry project on Stress-Oriented Hydrogen Induced Cracking (SOHIC) This is
    being launched as a three way initiative with TWI (25) and FORCE Institute (6),
    with the purpose to demonstrate an accurate test method which can be undertaken
    within an acceptable time and then to explore the materials and welding factors
    which control occurrence of SOHIC. More details are given in ANNEX I, part 4.

15. Giovanna Gabetta - ENI Tecnologie - Italy
    ENI Tecnologie is part of the ENI group. ENI Tecnologie is the ENI Corporate
    Technology Company and carries out scientific and technological research in



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   support of ENI's business, concentrating its skills on the exploitation of
   hydrocarbons and the definition of innovative and environmentally friendly
   technologies. Together with W. Dietzel (11) and H. Nykyforchyn (23), Mrs.
   Gabetta is a member of ISIS TC 10, which deals with environmental assisted
   cracking and SCC. Although ENI Tecnologie is generally attracted by the EPERC
   initiatives, a focus interest will have to be defined, which does not necessarily
   imply that TTF7 will be then selected as an area for the involvement of ENI
   Tecnologie in EPERC.

16. Andrew Gingell - USINOR Industeel - France
    USINOR is one of the major producers in the world of steel products in general
    and heavy plates in particular. Most of these latter are used for big pressure
    vessels such as those used in petrochemical refineries. Mr. Bocquet (excused)
    recently acted as co-ordinator in the PREDICH Project (BE 1835) which was
    aimed at prediction of pressure vessel integrity in creep hydrogen service. Other
    Partners of PREDICH present at this meeting were Dillinger Hütte (22), TUDelft
    (29), TNO (33) and JRC/IAM. USINOR is mostly interested in problems of
    concern of heavy wall reactors, and to the application of new materials to their
    construction, such as vanadium-modified steel grades. More details are given in
    ANNEX I, part 3.

17. F. Gutierrez-Solana - University of Cantabria - Spain
    F. Gutierrez-Solana is Professor at the Deparment of Materials Science, University
    of Cantabria, with experience in the field of mechanical properties of materials,
    cracking and failures. The interest of his group in TTF7 focuses on the
    mechanical and microstructural behaviour of materials in combination with
    corrosion and hydrogen-induced damage. Issues of concern are for instance SCC
    and Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC). Interest lies in the application of
    fracture mechanics in studies on hydrogen cracking, or in Fracture Assessment
    Diagrams (FAD). In general, Prof. Solana envisages co-operative work in the field
    of hydrogen-materials interaction.

18. H. Hanninen - Helsinki University of Technology
    H. Hanninen leads a Research Group at the Department of Mechanical
    Engineering of Helsinki University of Technology in Finland. In the course of
    more than 20 years of activity in the field of hydrogen and hydrogen damage, his
    research has covered many issues. In view of TTF7 activities, he presented the
    valuable potential of internal friction (IF) method for obtaining data for hydrogen
    behaviour in a number of different kinds of FCC and BCC alloys. Prof. Hanninen
    also indicated as an interest subject of study the so-called Hydrogen enhanced
    localised plasticity (HELP), which is a mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement
    (HE) of metals and alloys which has not been explored in detail so far. As a result
    of HELP mechanism enhanced creep rate would be expected in high fugacity
    hydrogen conditions, which can be verified by creep tests in high pressure
    hydrogen. More details are given in ANNEX I, part 4.



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19. G. Knauf – Mannesmann ForschugInstitüt (MFI) – Germany
    Dr. Knauf is head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Component
    testing at the Research Centre of Mannesmann at Duisburg in Germany. He is
    also Chairman of the European Pipeline Research Group (EPRG), in which Mr.
    M. Pontremoli (27) chairs the Corrosion Committee (See Annex II, part 3). MFI is
    active in the fields of Materials Engineering, Automation and Testing
    Technologies and Metallurgy. With respect to TTF7, MFI is interested in
    problems related to hydrogen cracking and hydrogen-induced degradation in gas
    pipelines, as well as to pressure vessels for hydrogen transport, which enlarges
    their area of interest also to the activities of TTF6 (Tanks for Alternative Fuels).

20. R. Koers – Shell Global Solutions – The Netherlands
    Shell Global solutions is part of the Shell Group, and it is a service provider for
    the whole world. 1300 people work either for the upstream and the downstream
    sectors. The company has therefore quite an experience in the field of Materials
    and Inspection Engineering, and in all kind of Fitness-for-Service-type
    investigations. As far as hydrogen damage is concerned, the main interests of
    Shell Global Solutions relate with HE, HIC, SOHIC, hydrogen-assisted crack
    growth in shut down of reactors, hydrogen attack (HA) and improvement of the
    existing codes for materials prescription, i.e. the Nelson Curves. Dr. Koers
    believes that it would be extremely important for TTF7 to relate as much as
    possible research and application, focusing for instance on new materials,
    assessment of safety of existing equipment, life extension, clear definition of the
    relation between small scale tests and full scale application, test procedures,
    materials and test qualification.

21. P. Langenberger - Ingenieurbüro für Werkstofftechnik – Germany
    The activities of IWT include R&D in the fields of Structural Integrity of
    Components and Fracture and Damage Mechanisms in general. Dr. Langenberger
    is Co-ordinator of the project ECOPRESS (Economical and safe design of
    pressure vessels applying new modern steels - GRD1-1999-10640) under the
    umbrella of EPERC TTF2. This project, which focuses on High Strength Steels,
    excludes indeed the environmental aspects. These, and hydrogen in particular in
    the frame of TTF7 should be taken into account in limit state design, or in
    fracture mechanics toughness master curves and correlation. The mutual
    influence of factors such as chemical composition, purity degree, strain rate
    sensitivity and hydrogen damage susceptibility should be more clearly assessed.

22. G. Luxemburger - A. Thieme – Dilliger Hütte – Germany
    Together with USINOR (16), TUDelft (29), TNO(33), JRC/IAM and others,
    Dillinger Hütte was a partner in the PREDICH Project as a steelmaker, producing
    heavy plates for pressure vessel applications. Dr. Luxemburger is also a
    member of EPERC TTF2 (High Strength Steels). The interests of Dillinger Hütte
    in TTF7 relate to new materials for pressure vessels applications and in general to




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   all subjects of concern for heavy wall reactors (hydrogen attack, shutdown,
   etc…).
   Dr. Thieme presented some details on the products and production systems at
   Dillinger Hütte. The development of new testing procedures regarding hydrogen
   damage susceptibility would be another interest of the company.

23. Hryhory Nykyforchyn – Karpenko Physico-Mechanical Institute.
    Prof. Nykyforchyn, invited as an expert from a non-EU country, is the Head of the
    Department of Corrosion-Hydrogen Degradation and Materials Protection at the
    Karpenko Physico-Mechanical Institute, Lviv, Ukraine. He is also the Chairman of
    the ISIS TC 10, which deals with environmental assisted cracking and SCC, and
    in which also W. Dietzel (11) and G. Gabetta (15) participate. Activities in the
    field of hydrogen damage at Karpenko Institute include almost all experimental
    and theoretical topics, such as for instance tensile testing, study of material
    durability under sustained load, high- and low-cycle fatigue, evaluation of crack
    growth resistance under ramp and cyclic loading, thermocycling of steels
    (including clad metals) in hydrogen atmosphere, analytical estimation of the
    internal hydrogen pressure in microcavities in steel; methodology for computation
    of Nelson curves; analytical and numerical modelling of disbonding at the
    boundary of stainless steel overlay due to thermocycles. As a of a New
    Independent State, Karpenko Institute would be greatly interested in participating
    in projects to be carried in the frame of TTF7, previous approval of the EPERC
    SC. The creation of European standards on hydrogen damage could be one of
    these tasks. More details are given in ANNEX I, part 4.

24. S. Olsson – Scanraff Refinery Sweden/Petrochemical Ten-Group – Sweden
    The most critical problem in refineries is a correct prediction of the remaining
    operational lifetime. It is difficult to predict the evolution of small cracks when
    these are detected, which makes in turn difficult to estimate the proper time scale
    for monitoring or replacement. Owing to the growing requirement for the
    production of cleaner gas, H2S and water are expected to bring additional
    problems during the operation of refinery plants. The EU refinery industry is in
    strong need of R&D support on the issue of damage monitoring and lifetime
    prediction.

25. R. Pargeter – The Welding Institute (TWI) - United Kingdom.
    The Welding Institute (TWI) has a long tradition and a large number of facilities
    in the field of hydrogen damage. TWI participates together with FORCE Institute
    (6) and Bodycote (14), to a three-way project on SOHIC, recently launched. Dr.
    Pargeter is a member of a number of discussion forums on the issue of
    environmental degradation of materials, e.g. in the frame of the European
    Federation of Corrosion. In the TTF7 context, he outlines the necessity of more
    standardisation in the field, starting with a coherent terminology. On the technical
    side, the detrimental effect of hydrogen on weldments and welding processes and




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   claddings might represent a valuable issue for dedicated investigation. More
   details are given in ANNEX I, part 4.

26. R. Petterson – Swedish Institute for Materials Research
    Mrs. Petterson presented her apologies for her inability to attend the 1st day of the
    meeting. She joined it the day after. Details on the activity of SIMS can be found
    in the ANNEX I, part 4.

27. M. Pontremoli – Centro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM) - Italy
    CSM is located in Rome, Italy. The Centre carries out research on materials, in co-
    operation with many other national and European companies and organisations.
    CSM is represented in EPERC TTF5 (Service Integrity and Life Extension). Dott-
    Ing. Pontremoli chairs the Corrosion Committee of the European Pipeline
    Research Group (EPRG), whose general Chairman is Dr. G. Knauf (19).
    Therefore, the interests of CSM relevantly to TTF7 are mostly related to hydrogen
    damage in gas pipelines. Dott.-ing Pontremoli envisages that TTF7 becomes a
    discussion forum for technology creators and users. More details are given in
    ANNEX I, part 3.

28. K. Prüβner – University of Siegen – Germany
    The Institut für Werkstofftechnik of the University of Siegen, Germany, carries
    out materials research in a number of fields, including titanium alloys. These are
    attractive materials, e.g. for aerospace or medical applications, but thy are
    susceptibile to HE. Projects are carried out dealing with the kinetics and
    thermodynamics of hydrogen uptake from the gas phase and diffusion of
    hydrogen in -Ti model alloys and with the effect of hydrogen (2 to 8 at.-%) on
    the mechanical properties of commercial  -Ti alloys. These have demonstrated
    that hydrogen can influence the mechanical properties so that it is also possible
    to use hydrogen as a temporary alloying element to modify the alloy
    microstructure and tailor desirable mechanical properties. More details are given
    in ANNEX I, part 4.

29. S. Schlögl – University of Delft – The Netherlands
    The Koiters Institute of the Technical University of Delft has a long tradition in
    the field of Micromechanics of Materials. The Research Group of Prof. E. Van
    Giessen, which Dr. Schlögl belongs to, recently participated to the PREDICH
    Project together with USINOR (16), JRC/IAM, Dillinger Hütte (22), TNO (33)
    and other partners. Dr. Schlögl has developed a quite sophisticated theoretical
    model for lifetime prediction under combined creep and HA conditions, which
    are to be encountered in heavy-wall reactors. She has published a number of
    papers, and she is currently improving her work in order to make her models more
    and more realistic and reliable. The interest of TUDelft in TTF7 relies in
    exchanging data and knowledge and/or in participating in project, which allow the
    validation and fine-tuning of the aforementioned models.




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30. Bob Smith – Eutech – United Kingdom
    Eutech's activity consists in improving asset productivity, monitor asset health
    and ensure regulatory compliance. Dedicated functional teams are assigned to
    each of the industry sectors. They have industry expertise, practical experience and
    knowledge of the current drivers and issues. Eutech offers specific services
    tailored to clients in these sectors including project validation, business case
    assessment, process qualification/validation, manufacturing improvement, asset
    management, front-end process support, full solution implementation. With
    respect to TTF7, the interests of Eutech are related to ammonia production and
    refinery industry, with a special eye on the improvement of materials resistance
    and performances.

31. V.L. Tsanzalou – Mirtec S.A.
    MIRTEC S.A. (Metallurgical Industrial Research and Technological Development
    Centre) has the objective of apply and exploit the results of scientific research and
    technology, through technological services, in the areas of Metallurgy, Metal
    working, Welding, Composite material and Heat treatment. Based in Volos,
    MIRTEC S.A. has developed an intense activity in applied industrial programs, in
    the areas of technology transfer, reverse engineering of imported metallic parts,
    studies aiming at improving production development or solving of specific
    problems of the Greek industry, quality testing of metallic parts, inspection and
    certification of installations, laboratory testing, training of industry personnel
    on subjects such as quality testing techniques, welding technology, metallography
    etc. Finally, MIRTEC SA is the authorised Centre for pressure vessels testing in
    Greece. Mrs. Tsanzalou is a member of the Steering Committee of EPERC, and
    National Representative of EPERC for Greece. The interests of MIRTEC in TTF7
    relate in principle to all types of industrial hydrogen-induced degradation, and
    to the constitution of databases on the subject.

32. A. Turnbull – National Physical Laboratory – United Kingdom
    Dr. Turnbull has a vast theoretical as well as experimental experience in the field
    of hydrogen damage and hydrogen effects in materials. He has recently published a
    critical evaluation of testing and modelling for prediction of HE. Exposure time,
    temperature excursions, and mechanical test method are shown to be factors which
    affect the reliable experimental determination of threshold stress/stress intensity
    factor for cracking and crack growth rates. Excursions from high to low temperature
    can be important in service and have been shown to be of significance in laboratory
    testing. As a conclusion of his study, he found that guidelines for HE testing are
    needed to complement existing test standards. Dr. Turnbull regards as primary
    needs in the field of hydrogen-materials interactions the following issues: the
    preparation of guidelines for determining susceptibility to HE and hydrogen
    damage in general; the construction of a coherent database on HE and damage data;
    the development of predictive modelling for HE.




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33. H. Van Wortel - TNO Metals Research Institute– The Netherlands.
    The TNO Metals Research Institute has a broad experience in materials behaviour
    and production technology. The activities are focused on products, components,
    installation parts and civil constructions. The capabilities comprise design with
    advanced materials for power generation and petrochemical industries, selection
    and optimisation of manufacturing techniques e.g. welding, methods for failure
    analyses and fracture mechanics evaluations, assessment of residual life,
    reliability and safety. Facilities are present for mechanical testing, joining
    techniques (welding, cladding, brazing), laser treatments, surface technologies,
    microscopy and microanalyses, full-size component testing. TNO recently
    participated to the PREDICH Project together with USINOR (16), JRC/IAM,
    Dillinger Hütte (22), TUDelft (29) and other partners. Dr. Van Wortel, who is also
    a member of EPERC TTF2 and TTF5, indicated as possible interests for TNO in
    TTF7 the validation of models for lifetime prediction, shutdown in heavy wall
    reactors. He welcomed the launch of TTF7 as a contribution towards the
    establishment of a stable R&D Network or Council devoted to the needs of
    Petrochemical Industry.

34. J-B. Vogt – University of Lille – France
    Prof. Vogt presented his apologies for his inability to attend. He forwarded some
    notes to Prof, Hanninen, who kindly handed them to P. Castello (JRC/IAM) for
    presentation.
    Prof. J-B. Vogt carries out his activity at the Laboratory of physical Metallurgy
    and Materials Engineering, directed by Prof. J. Foct. The main facilities of the
    laboratory include low cycle fatigue machines, a slow strain rate machine,
    SEM/EDX/ESBD/TEM/ XRD, Mössbauer spectrometer, Mechanical alloying
    facility. Strong collaboration is undertaken with industries. Three main research
    lines can be identified, namely mastership of microstructure, mechanical
    properties and environmental effects, calculations, simulation, modelling at
    different scales. The main topics are high nitrogen steels (austenitic and duplex
    stainless), galvanising, environmentally-assisted fracture (fatigue at high
    temperature, liquid metal embrittlement in 9Cr1Mo steels, HE in 19Cr19Mn
    steels and Zr alloys, irradiation embrittlement of steels).

35. F. Vos – AIB-Vinçotte International – Belgium
    AIB is the Belgian association competent for quality matters and for inspection.
    It contributes to the development and maintaining of the quality standards in the
    Country, and participates to the IQNet, the International Network for Quality
    System Assessment and Certification. Mr. Vos insisted in particular on the high
    value of inspection and monitoring in plants which can be concerned with
    hydrogen problems. Information may be collected from existing plants in order to
    provide a base for predictive modelling and risk-based inspection.




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36. S. Winnik – Exxon Mobil Chemical – United Kingdom.
    Mr. Winnik is involved either in upstream and downstream activities at Exxon
    Mobil. The company handles hydrogen in a variety of forms, from applications at
    cryogenic to very high temperatures. In all applications, problems can affect either
    weldments or components of all kinds. Because this can not be tolerated, a risk-
    based approach is now used in all the activities. However, this does not
    completely solve the problem of existing plants and structures, the safety of which
    has to be assessed in order to avoid, if possible, unnecessary expenditures due to
    excessive precautions in replacement or decommissioning. For these reasons, Mr.
    Winnik believes that R&D work in TTF7 should be address to a better
    understanding of failure mechanisms and to the improvement of inspection
    techniques.




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