Arctic Strategies & Policies by hcj


									Strategies in the Arctic: Ilmplications for
               Small States

              Dr. Lassi Heininen
            University of Lapland, Finland
             Northern Research Forum

        Intensive Summer Course 2011
        University of Iceland, Reykjavik
       The early-21st century Arctic
Main themes / trends of the post-Cold War circumpolar
   geopolitics and IR:
1) Increasing circumpolar coop by indigenous peoples’
   organizations and sub-national governments
2) Region-building with unified states as major actors
3) New kind of relationship between the circumpolar
   North and the outside world

                  (Arctic Human Development Report, 2004)
 Special features of Northern security
• Technology models of geopolitics
• Nuclear safety
• Interrelations between the environment and
  security / the military
• Relations between Indigenous peoples and
  security / the military
• Climate change and other environ problems
• (Global) Energy security
               Nuclear safety
• Radioactivity as a local and regional pollutant,
  and an example of environmental ‘awakening’
• Risk and threat – military and civilian
• Became a special issue for and in international
  Arctic cooperation between Arctic states
• Caused a change in problem definition on
  security discourse and premise in the Arctic
• But how real was / is the change?
Behind: First significant geopolitical change
• The ultimate aim of state politics: to decrease military tension
  and increase political stability
• From state hegemony and power politics into sophisticated
  policy, esp. cooperation on environ protection
• The used means: trans-boundary cooperation and region-
• .. and new ‘soft’ institutions - e.g. Arctic Council
• As a result: decreased military and political tension, and
  increased stability and peace
               From confrontation to cooperation

• A success story – ‘Mission accomplished!’
 Behind: New concepts of security
• The very meaning of security was extended (in
  discourses) beyond traditional concerns with
  ‘military’ threats and national security to
  focus on environmental and human problems
• Different discourses and concepts of security
  with different premises and paradigms
• Due to e.g. long-range air and water pollution,
  nuclear safety and climate change
The early-21st century Arctic continues..
• A peaceful region with high stability based on a wide
  intergovernmental and regional cooperation
• No conflicts, but disputes on maritime borders and
  asymmetric environmental conflicts
• Major challenges e.g. climate change and long-range
  air and water pollution, and globalization
• Legally and politically divided by national borders
  and internal waters (of the Arctic states)
• Major military structures (nuclear weapon systems)
  and capability for national defence are still there
• Importance of national interests
                   The Arctic States
• The role and position of the Arctic states was changed due to
  the first geopolitical change – the A8+ was defined
• The five littoral states with their ministerial ad hoc meetings –
  the A5 was defined (and the Arctic redefined?)
• The states emphasize the importance of the AC but have their
  own interests, agendas, priorities and policies
• They have recently also accepted their arctic/northern
• A state still the most important actor in the Arctic, but ..
• .. there are new actors (with their interests) and challenges as
  well as threats
  --- The post-Cold War period is over!?
Arctic states: summary of the priorities
  - Sovereignty and national defence: Five littoral states
  - Comprehensive security: Finland, Iceland and Sweden
  - Economic development: All the strategies
  - Regional development and infra: Most of the strategies
  - Transportation: Finland, Iceland, Russia and USA
     -- Aviation: Iceland and Russia
  - Environment: Most of the strategies
  - Governance: All the strategies
     -- Safety/Rescue: Finland, Iceland, Norway and Russia
  – Peoples/Indigenous peoples: Most of the strategies
  – Science/Scientific coop: Most of the strategies
  Arctic states: main priorities / objectives

      Sove/    Econ/     Trans Envir Gov               Peo/      Scien
Can x          x+x             x     x                           x
DK/Gr x        x+x                   x                 x
Fin    /x      x+x       x     x     x                     /x    x
Ice    /x      x         x     x     x+x               x         x
Nor x          x+x             x     x+x                /x       x
Rus   x        x+x       x           x+x                /x       x
Swe            x               x     x                 x/x
USA x          x         x     x     x                           x

      (Heininen, Arctic Strategies & Policies: Inventory & Comparative Study, 2011)
     International Cooperation
- UNs: Canada, Den&Green, Finland, Sweden, USA
- UNCLOS: Canada, Den&Green, Finland, Swe, USA, EU
- IMO: Canada, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, EU
- AC: All the strategies
- EU: Den&Green, Finland, Iceland, Russia, Sweden
- EU’s ND: Den&Green, Fin, Ice, Nor, Swe, EU
- Nordic: Den&Green, Fin, Ice, Nor, Swe
- BEAC: Fin, Ice, Nor, Rus, Swe, EU
Self-identification and (re)definition as an Arctic /
        Northern country / nation / power
  – Canada: “the global leader in Arctic science; “The North is
    central to the Canadian national identity”
  – Den&Green: the Kingdom as a “major player in the Arctic”
  – Finland: as an “Arctic country is a natural actor in the
    Arctic region”
  – Iceland: “the only country located entirely within the
    Arctic region”
  – Norway: “the High North is gradually becoming more
    synonymous with the Arctic”…“really a Norwegian
  – Russia: to “maintain the role of a leading Arctic power”
  – Sweden: “there are many connections to tie Sweden to
    the Arctic”
  – USA: an “Arctic nation”
• Strategy for the Arctic Region, adopted by the Finnish
  Cabinet Committee on European Union of the Gvt.
  (June 2010)

• The main substantial sectors of the Strategy:
   – The environment (‘fragile Arctic nature’)
   – Economic activity and know-how
   – Transport and infrastructure
   – Indigenous peoples
              Interesting findings
• Comprehensive and wide (global) perspective
• Emphasizes the Arctic as a stable and peaceful area
• Recognizes the special features and risks of the fragile arctic
  ecosystem; supports research as a basis for decision-making
• Highest priorities of the Strategy appear to be economic
  interests (esp. marine traffic and infrastructure)
• --- Is there a contradiction?
• Supports indigenous participation in international cooperation
  (no ratification of ILO 169 Convention)
• Emphasizes the importance of the multilateral northern
  cooperation, and supports the AC as the main forum..
• .. and the role (and importance) of the EU in the Arctic region
• ‘Iceland in the High North’ published by the Icelandic
  MFA (September 2009)
• ‘Parliamentary Resolution on Iceland’s Arctic Policy’
  with twelve principles (March 2011)
• The six highlights of the Report are:
   – International cooperation
   – Security through international cooperation
   – Resource development and environ protection
   – Transportation
   – People and cultures
   – Inter coop on research and monitoring
               Interesting findings
• No emphasis on sovereignty, but rather on international,
  multilateral and regional cooperation
• Security and (maritime) safety through international and
  scientific cooperation
• Emphasis on the importance of resource development, incl.
  renewable energy and fishing industry; less emphasis on
  environmental protection
• Visions and strong expectations of global trans-arctic shipping
  routes, and aviation – a potential trans-shipment hub
• Emphasis on inter coop on research and higher education
• Iceland located “entirely within the Arctic region” – a
  response to the ad hoc meetings of five littoral states
• A Strategy for policy in the Arctic region (Sveriges
  strategi för den arktiska regionen), adopted by the
  Swedish Government in May 2011

• The three areas, which are defined as the priorities:
  - climate and the environment
  - economic development
  - the human dimension
            Interesting findings
• Adopted and launched at the same day, when
  Sweden started its chairmanship of the AC
• Much the same priorities (lack of time or ?)
• Among the three priorities economic development,
  much oil and gas, is the most rich and
  multifunctional, even some sort of top, priority of
  the Strategy
• The Strategy also clearly states that multilateral
  cooperation in, and dealing with, the Arctic is the
  main priority for Sweden
New threats, challenges or change(s)?
Behind: another significant change, or
          potential threat
• A significant multifunctional - environmental,
  geoeconomic and geopolitical - change has occurred
  at the early-21st
• E.g. growing global interest toward the region and its
  rich natural resources
• E.g. a manifold growth in the geo-strategic
  importance of the region
• Among indicators of the change climate change,
  energy security, sovereignty (Ilulissat meeting),
 Reflection/response to the change(s)
• Canada: yes
• Denmark&Greenland: yes, and no (self-governing)
• Finland: yes
• Iceland: yes
• Norway: not really (Russia)
• Russia: no (pragmatic means for domestic politics)
• Sweden: yes
• USA: yes
-- Global perspective incl: Den&Green and Finland
     Indicators of the recent change
• Climate change and its (physical) impacts
• Utilization of natural resources (e.g. shelf of the AO)
• Energy security, and options of that
• Transportation (e.g. global sea and air routes)
• Globalization and flows of globalization
• Growing global interest toward the region by powers
  from outside the region
• Growing interest of, and activity by, the Arctic states
  to (re)define their national interests, and…
• … (re)emphasize state sovereignty
         Globalization in the Arctic
• Globalization bringing problems to the North!?
• Negative: impacts of climate change, privatization,
  modernity (‘Cola-Colanization’), new isms,
  weakening of nation-states’ ability to protect its
  northern communities (sovereignty) from new threat
• Positive: decolonization and growth of regional
  autonomy, recognition of indigenous peoples’ rights,
  emphasis on the rule of law and multilateral environ
  initiatives, new ICT, ‘diversity’ as a global value
                  (Globalization and the Circumpolar North, 2010)
        Global problems in the Arctic
- Global relations are nothing new - e.g. fur trade, whaling,
  sealing, and colonialism, exploration, (pre)industrialization
- Global security problems – e.g. militarization and nuclear
  weapon system
- Global environ problems: long-range air and water pollution,
  esp. nuclear safety, and environmental ’awakening’
- Also growing consciousness of own identity, world-wide
  approach by indigenous peoples, democratization, self-
  government and regionalization

                      (Globalization and the Circumpolar North, 2010)
                  Climate change
• Climate change as a global environmental problem (with its
  physical impacts and the associated ‘uncertainty’)
• Thus, it has a relevant security dimension – either a danger,
  risk or uncertain thing, threat or challenge
• Climate change has already caused a change in Northern
  geopolitics and problem definition on security discourse(s),
  and has potential to cause that on security premise(s)
• What about security paradigm, or, is climate change a new
  discipline for ‘disciplining’?
• To remind that ‘nuclear safety’ already caused a change in
  security discourse(s) and premise(s) at the late of 1990s!

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