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									                                         S&T GLOSSARY

Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken
on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge
of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new
applications.

The term R&D covers three activities: basic research, applied research and experimental
development.

      Basic research is experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire
      new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts,
      without any particular application or use in view.

      Applied research is also original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new
      knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or
      objective.

      Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge
      gained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed at producing
      new materials, products or devices; installing new processes, systems and
      services; or improving substantially those already produced or installed. R&D
      covers both formal R&D in R&D units and informal or occasional R&D in other units.
Source: OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental
Development, page 30.

Business enterprise sector includes:

            All firms, organizations and institutions whose primary activity is the market
             production of goods or services (other than higher education) for sale to the
             general public at an economically significant price.

            The private non-profit institutions mainly serving them.
Source: OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental
Development, page 54.

Government sector is composed of:

            All departments, offices and other bodies which furnish, but normally do not
             sell to the community, those common services, other than higher education,
             which cannot otherwise be conveniently and economically provided, as well
             as those that administer the state and the economic and social policy of the
             community. Public enterprises are included in the business enterprise sector.

            The non-profit institutions (NPIs) controlled and mainly financed by
             government but not administered by the higher education sector.
Source: OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental
Development, page 62.
Higher education sector is composed of:

            All universities, colleges of technology and other institutions of post-
             secondary education, whatever their source of finance or legal status.

            It also includes all research institutes, experimental stations and clinics
             operating under the direct control of or administered by or associated with
             higher education institutions.
Source: OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental
Development, page 68.

Private non-profit sector includes:

            Non-market, private non-profit institutions serving households (i.e. the
             general public).

            Private individuals or households.
Source: OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental
Development, page 64.

Abroad refers to:

            All institutions and individuals located outside the political borders of a
             country; except vehicles, ships, aircraft and space satellites operated by
             domestic entities and testing grounds acquired by such entities.

            All international organizations (except business enterprises), including
             facilities and operations within a country’s borders.
Source: OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental
Development, page 72.

Total R&D personnel includes all persons employed directly on R&D, as well as those
providing direct services such as R&D managers, administrators and clerical staff.
Persons providing an indirect service, such as canteen and security staff, should be
excluded.

R&D personnel may be classified by occupation or level of formal qualification. The
approach by occupation is preferable for international comparison of the number of
personnel employed in R&D.
Source: OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental
Development, pages 92-93.

Researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge,
products, processes, methods and systems, as well as in the management of these
projects.
Source: OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental
Development, page 93.




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Technicians and equivalent staff are persons whose main tasks require technical
knowledge and experience in one or more fields of engineering, physical and life
sciences, or social sciences and humanities. They participate in R&D by performing
scientific and technical tasks involving the application of concepts and operational
methods, normally under the supervision of researchers. Equivalent staff perform the
corresponding R&D tasks under the supervision of researchers in social sciences and
humanities.
Source: OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental
Development, page 94.

Other supporting staff includes skilled and unskilled craftsmen, secretarial and clerical
staff participating in R&D projects or directly associated with such projects.
Source: OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental
Development, page 94.

Headcount (HC) data are data on the total number of persons who are mainly or
partially employed in R&D. This includes staff employed both full-time and part-time.
Headcount data reflect the total number of persons employed in R&D, independently
from their dedication. These data allow links to be made with other data series, such as
education and employment data, or the results of population censuses. They are also
the basis for calculating indicators analysing the characteristics of the R&D workforce
with respect to age, gender or national origin.
Source: UIS (2008), Instruction Manual for completing the questionnaire on statistics of Science and Technology (S&T),
pages 9-10.

Full-time equivalence (FTE) data are a measure of the actual volume of human
resources devoted to R&D and are especially useful for international comparisons. One
full-time equivalent may be thought of as one person-year. Thus, a person who normally
spends 30% of time on R&D and the rest on other activities (such as teaching, university
administration and student counselling) should be considered as 0.3 FTE. Similarly, if a
full-time R&D worker is employed at an R&D unit for only six months, this results in an
FTE of 0.5.
Source: OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental
Development, page 99.

Fields of Science and Technology are used to classify R&D according to the Revised
Fields of Science and Technology Classification. The fields included are:
    1. Natural sciences
    2. Engineering and technology
    3. Medical and health sciences
    4. Agricultural sciences
    5. Social sciences
    6. Humanities
Source: OECD (2007), Revised Field of Science and Technology (FoS) Classification in the Frascati Manual.




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Intramural R&D expenditure is all expenditure for R&D performed within a statistical
unit or sector of the economy during a specific period, whatever the source of funds.
Source: OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental
Development, page 108.

Current costs are composed of labour costs and other current costs. Labour costs of
R&D personnel consist of annual wages, salaries and all associated costs or fringe
benefits. Other current costs comprise non-capital purchases of materials, supplies and
equipment to support R&D.
Source: OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental
Development, page 108.

Capital expenditure is the annual gross expenditure on fixed assets used in R&D
programmes of statistical units. They should be reported in full for the period when they
took place and should not be registered as an element of depreciation.
Source: OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental
Development, page 111.

Extramural R&D expenditure is the sums a unit, organization or sector reports having
paid or committed themselves to pay to another unit, organization or sector for the
performance of R&D during a specific period. This includes acquisition of R&D
performed by other units and grants given to others for performing R&D.
Source: OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental
Development, page 118.

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) is total domestic intramural expenditure
on R&D during a given period.
Source: OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental
Development, page 121.

GERD in local currency is total domestic intramural expenditure on R&D performed
during a given period and reported in current national currency (i.e. expenditure at
current prices in national currency).
Source: Adapted from OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and
Experimental Development, page 121 and UIS (2008), Instruction Manual for completing the questionnaire on statistics of
Science and Technology (S&T), page 16.

GERD in Purchasing Power Parities (PPPs) is total domestic intramural expenditure
on R&D during a given period, converted in U.S. dollars with a rate of currency that
eliminates the differences in price levels among countries. When expenditure on GNP is
converted into a common currency by means of the PPP, it is expressed at the same set
of international prices so that comparisons across countries reflect only differences in
the volume of purchased goods and services. In other words, a given sum of money,
when converted into U.S. dollars at the PPP rate (PPP$), will buy the same basket of
goods and services in all countries.
Source: Adapted from the OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and
Experimental Development, page 121 and UIS (online), Glossary on Education.




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GERD as a percentage of GDP is total domestic intramural expenditure on R&D during
a given period as a percentage of the GDP (i.e. the sum of gross value added by all
resident producers in the economy, including distributive trades and transport, plus any
product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products).
Source: Adapted from OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and
Experimental Development, page 121 and UIS (2009), Global Education Digest 2009.

GERD per capita is total domestic intramural expenditure on R&D during a given period
per inhabitant (using mid-year population as reference).
Source: Adapted from OECD (2002), the Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and
Experimental Development, page 121.

GERD by sector of performance (%) is total domestic intramural expenditure on R&D
during a given period by institutions corresponding to each sector (business enterprise,
government, higher education and private non-profit organizations), independent of the
source of funds and expressed in percentage.
Source: Adapted from OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and
Experimental Development, page 121 and UIS (2008), Instruction Manual for completing the questionnaire on statistics of
Science and Technology (S&T), page 17.

GERD by source of funds (%) is total domestic intramural expenditure on R&D during
a given period, financed by different sectors of the economy (business enterprise,
government, higher education, private non-profit organizations) or from abroad and
expressed in percentage.
Source: Adapted from OECD (2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and
Experimental Development, page 121 and UIS (2008), Instruction Manual for completing the questionnaire on statistics of
Science and Technology (S&T), page 17.




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