Assessment by Z244OE



• Process of gathering information for the
  purpose of making a decision
  Special Education Assessment

• systematic process of gathering
  educationally relevant information to make
  legal and instructional decisions about the
  provision of special services.
• Ongoing process
• Systematic
• Focuses on collection of educationally
  relevant information
•     Strengths and weaknesses
• Purposeful…decisions to make
• Assessment confused with testing (only one
  part of assessment) and diagnosis
  (establishes cause)

• Controversy in educational assessment
  – Nature of intelligence
  – Use of the medical model with students with
  – Permanent verses learn to overcome
• 1950’s growth in identifying students with
• growth in assessment procedures
• invalid, unreliable, and untrained examiners
• discriminatory
• 1975 PL94-142 positive influence on the
  content and procedures using in the
  assessment of SWD
           1997 PL 105-17

• Due Process procedures
• Team assessment and IEP development
• Tied to federal funding
• Placed emphasis on assessment of student’s
  involvement in general classroom and
• State and district assessments

• Culturally and linguistically diverse
• Overrepresentation
• Inclusive educational settings… to
  assess students in multiple environments
• Educations held accountable
• Curriculum based assessments procedures
  and techniques to evaluate student growth
  in relation to the current classroom
• (curriculum based measurements portfolio
  assessment )
        Standards movement

• Major move in US towards outcome based
• Used as basis for judging student
  performance, deciding school and teacher
  functioning appropriately
• Forcing fundamental changes in teaching
  methods and structure of schools
• Important to make sure students with
  disabilities are not excluded while at the
  same time providing appropriate test
  accommodations and modifications to
  guarantee valid and reliable evaluation.
   Special Education Summary
• Page 8

•   Identification
•   Determination of eligibility
•   Program planning
•   Monitoring of student progress,
•   Program evaluation
         Kinds of Strategies

• Informal
• Formal
            Formal strategies

• Structured assessment procedures with specific
  guidelines for administration, scoring, and
  interpretation of results
• Standardized test (norm-referenced tests which
  compare the performance of one individual to that of a
  normative group.)
• Group or individual administration
• Most academic subjects
• Intellectual performance
• Directions very explicit
• Often require training
• Quantitative scores (standard scores or
  percentile ranks)
• Eligibility for special education
• ID strengths and weaknesses
• Group
• Achievement and aptitude
• Group or individual
• Skills measured separately to measure
  specific performance (e.g. decoding)
• Subtest to give very specific information
  (e.g. reasoning and memory)
           Informal Strategies

• Used in educational assessments to determine
  current levels of performance
• Document student progress
• Direct changes in the instructional program
• Less structured
• Often designed by teacher rather than commercial
• Purpose gathers information directly related to
• Subjectivity and interpretation can be problematic
• Expressed in instructional terms
• Vary in how directly they measure student
  performance and instructional conditions
• 1.) Observation most direct information
  assessment technique
• 2.) Curriculum-based assessments typically
  designed by teachers to gather information about
  the student progress in the classroom curriculum
• (task analysis, work sample analysis)
• Criterion referenced test purpose is to compare
  students performance to a specific level of mastery
  or achievement. (e.g.
• Norm-referenced measures compare a
  student’s performance to that of other

• Criterion referenced measures compare a
  student’s performance to instructional goals.
• 3.) Techniques using informants
  –   Checklists
  –   Rating scales
  –   Questionnaires
  –   Interviews
• 4.) Combination approaches
  – Portfolio collection of samples to document
    change in performance over time
             Team approach
• Evaluation of eligibility of students for
  special education and related services
• Formulation of IEP
• Evaluation and modification of IEP
• Periodic review of the need for special
  education and related services
        Possible Team Members
•   General education teachers
•   Special education teachers
•   School administrators
•   Parents and students
•   School support personnel
•   Medical personnel
•   Social workers and counselors
•   Transition specialists (page 17) 14/16
•   Motor skills specialists
•   other personnel
 Purpose of the Team Approach

• assemble all the information necessary for
  educational decisions making through
  members combined skills
• more objective than individual
• keep as small as possible
   Assessment Question Model
Page 20

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