Factors that contributed for success of women with disabilities to higher education
Faculty of Education,
University of Jyvaskyla
The lives of women with disabilities in Tanzania are marked by poverty and
struggle. Girls/ women with disabilities have not had equal access to education
compared to boys/males, especially at higher education, providing education to
women with disabilities would increase their competence, confidence and self-
esteem for sustainable development. This study investigated factors that contributed
for success of women with disabilities to higher education. Individual interviews
were used to correct data from 22 disabled women at the University of Dar eS
Salaam. Results showed that self– determination and ambition, family, peers,
organization, teachers and institutions support are the key factors contributed
women with disabilities to succeed. Recommendation women with disabilities can
make successful accomplishments if given support
Key words: Women, disability, success, higher education
The lives of women with disabilities in Tanzania are marked by poverty and struggle.
Traditionally, they are viewed as helpless in terms of competence, productivity and
dependence. These women hence live isolated life facing poverty challenges like low
income, limited facilities and they hardly manage to meet their daily needs. Factors such
as gender, ethnicity, rural residence and low socio-economic status contribute to the
marginalization, discrimination and exclusion in different supports in family, society and
schools. Also health problems, poor social provisions and disrespects within their
communities destroy their sense of belonging and humanity (Possi,1998) These situations
make women with disabilities strive in harder conditions than any other group of people
because they become disadvantaged in the labour market, education, personal
development and cannot effectively contribute to the development of the country. The
educational status of people with disabilities in Tanzania is very low, most of them
having only primary education. The Ministry of Education and Vocational training
emphasizes inclusive education in primary and secondary education. This neglects
secondary level education and higher learning institutions. Students with disabilities have
limited opportunity to education due to problems pertaining policy, administration and
Girls/ women with disabilities have not had equal access to education compared to
males/boys in all levels of education in particular higher education. Although there is
1948 United Nation Declaration of Human Rights which stipulated that “…..higher
education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit”. Moreover the (2006)
United Nation Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities shown that people
with disabilities need “the full development of human potential in reference to education”
(article 24.p6).Moreover, in Tanzania there are different national policies and
programmes formulated to widen up participation of women in education including
women with disabilities in all levels of education. Despite the existence of the national
policies and plans on the access of education to all people including people with
disabilities, studies show that, the implementation of the policies concentrate much in
primary and secondary level of education. Furthermore, the implementation focused on
women in general and overlooked the accessibility of education to women with
disabilities. Nevertheless, the policies failed to take into account of inequalities in access
to higher education which in turn caused under- representation of women with disabilities
in higher education.
Though there is a policy provision of Education For All; the environment of the disabled
is not conducive in terms of accessibility, structures, professional teaching curriculum,
negative attitudes of community, parents, teachers, fellow pupils and inadequate
resources allocated to them (Possi 2008, Tungaraza 2010, Mboya,2005 Mkanura, 2005 &
Krohn-Nydal, 2008,). Macha, (2002) on her study on gender, disability and education in
Tanzania revealed that women with disability experience different challenges on entrance
and gaining education. These include societal, fiscal, educational, opinion and material
difficulties. Also Macha recommended that all people who work with provision of
education to women who are visually impaired should transform aptitude as well as
education to be seen as human right rather than issue of assistance. Possi (2008) shown
that there was great number of men than women with disabilities in Tanzania. She
continues that, this situation caused may be by prejudice in determining the occurrence of
disabilities. Furthermore, Possi shown that, girls/ women with disabilities are not fairly
access education like boys, the major cause were negative feeling among people with
disability, lack of role models and instructional resources and poor infrastructure.
Furthermore, women with disabilities is a large and varied group, whose learning
requirements have left unseen by individuals dedicated to either sex justice or disability
fairness. Rousso (2003) showed that women/ girls are more vulnerable to exclusion from
education and work compared to men. Furthermore, Macha (2002a) has shown that most
impaired women were left at home without enrolling them to school and cultural factors
caused women to lag behind in the education system. Women with various forms of
disability are not fully integrated in communities. In terms of enrolment rates of women
with disabilities in all levels decreasing as you go further in the education levels.
Despite women with disabilities were small in number at higher education level, they
need further attention. It is very interesting to examine the factors leading few women
with disabilities to success because there are different factors contributed women with
disabilities to succeed to joining higher education. For example (Kelly 2002 and
Weir,2001) discussed the life experience of physically disabled women in higher
education and realized that women have used different supports and highly appreciated
the support received from informal sources such as family and friends than other sources
like agencies or companies which provide services.
Also disabled women experience barriers in secondary education including attitudinal,
architectural and flexibility in accessing particular programmes. Kelly showed that
“education provided an opportunity to become familiar with global issues” (p.94). Hall,
(2002) show that, women with disabilities succeed because of strong goal asserted and
dilemma solving plan in education life long journey. Many studies realized that self
efficancy and self- determination skills are the important knowledge for students with
disability to success. Study done by Stodden et al (2002) and Heiman (2006) reported
that self-advocacy/ self determination skills help the ability to understand, free of
expression for making informed decisions for the academic success. Moreover, Dec et al
(9991) revealed that self determination is the key factors for educational success because
it cultivates intrinsic motivation to learning process. It also promotes sprit of valuing and
internalizing education as well as creating confidence in their own capacities and
attributes which enhance personal development and change. According to Izzo and Lamb
(2002) and Simon, (2001) discussed that lack of chance to practice self determination
skills in high school cause unprepared in conciliation and requesting at the postsecondary.
Lizzo and lamb suggested the integration of self- determination into high school
curriculum for encouraging great participation for students with disabilities in the
personal education plan as well as developing programmes that teach self determination
and self efficacy skill.
Marshall, et al (1999) and Heima (2006) observed that self awareness (understanding and
knowledge), determination, proactivity, emotional strength, ambition setting and societal
support, intelligence and accomplishment are the key sources for people with disabilities
to succeed academically. It also discussed factors like poor socioeconomic status,
stressors, inadequate employment status, poor living arrangement and educational
achievements caused students with disabilities in particular women not access education.
According to Stodden, et al (2001) stipulated that social support, achievement (attempt,
control, aptitude and aspiration) campus climate (interaction with other students and
faculty). Psychological wellbeing was the key factors influence students with disabilities
to the academic success. Nelson et all ( 1993) shown the factors that helped women to
succeed, first, psychological beliefs include discipline and effort, acceptance of the
disability, individual ambition, self-confidence; prior knowledge and experience as well
as ability. Second, the sociological factors which include family support, interaction with
other students, teachers and faculty as well as university support services. Thomas (2000)
stated that academic adjustment includes classroom environment and testing or
examination modifications are important issues for students with disabilities to succeed.
Extra time on examination, provision important resources which create access to
information like provision of sign language, readers and accommodation is important too.
Stodden and Canway,(2003) reported that availability of funds, changing policies in
department, clarity of the goals asserted and rehabilitation counselors helped students
with disabilities to success to join higher education.
Although many studies have examined the problem of women with disabilities in
education and other social services, there is in adequate studies in higher education.
There is also limited research done in the combined areas of gender, education and
disability. Thus, knowledge about the socio-cultural and individual support which helped
women with disabilities to succeed to higher education is largely limited to the society.
Few studies focused on women who are most vulnerable to education. Therefore, this
study is expected to provide in-depth information about the social and economic factors
that contributed to women with disabilities to join and pursue higher education. These
findings is important because may increase knowledge about life experience of women
with disability in relation to success. This may contribute in policy reforming and
increase knowledge among educational stakeholders
The purpose of the study
The purpose of the study was to investigate the factor that contributes for women
with disabilities to succeed to higher education.
The key questions answered by this study were: What are key factors contributed
women with disabilities to succeed joining and pursuing higher education.
This study was carried out at the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania main
campus. University of Dar es salaam was established in 1964 soon after independence in
1961. This University was selected because it was the first university to enroll students
with disabilities in Tanzania by 1978/79. The university started to enroll two men with
visual impairments in 1978/79 due to the situation of having one special school for men
with disabilities in Tanzania and still enrolling them.
The researcher managed to interview twenty two (22) women with disabilities
who are pursuing Bachelor and Masters Degrees at the University of Dar es Salaam. Out
of twenty two, (22) four (4) were studying Masters Degree and nineteen (19) were
pursuing Bachelor degree. Their age ranged between 22-36, types of disability were:
visually impaired (VI) Albino, hearing impairments (HI) and physically impaired (PI).
They were studying different courses including Education, Science, Economics, finance
and Fine Arts. Information about marital status was four (4) women with disabilities got
married and eighteen (18) not yet married. Their names and conduct were obtained from
the special need Unit. The respondents were purposively selected through the Special
Education Unit because they can provide in-depth information about their educational life
experience in relation to their disability. Although the interviewed twenty two
respondents, in this paper the results of four respondents were presented and discussed.
This is due to time constraints on data analysis.
Three methods were used to collect the information during this study to women
with disabilities. These were semi- structured interviews, observation and documentary
review. Face to face interviews were used so as to get insights about the factors helped
them to succeed. The information about the enrollments, resources and different statistics
obtained from University of Dar es Salaam Special Need Unit. The researcher also used
time to observe and assess the classrooms, university environment, dormitories, laundry,
toilets, library, and university resource centre so as to get an overview about existing
infrastructures services and general environment. Interview helped to
The issue of voluntary participation and time they can terminate the contract and
the confidentiality of the information were stipulated clearly. All participants were signed
the agreement form and the objective of the study explained in detail.
In this study thematic analysis in psychology were used to analysis the data as
described byBriefly, the researcher familiarize with the data, generated the initial code,
the themes were formulated, reviewed, defined and named. Finally, the report was
produced. The thematic analysis method was helpful in identifying, analyzing and
reporting a pattern or a theme within the data .Also; it allows to carefully summarizing
the key futures of a large body of data. (Silverman, 2005)
Findings and Discussion
The findings from this study are categorized into two themes: (1) key factors helped
women with disabilities to succeed include self- determination, ambition, family , peers,
institutional, organizational, teachers and individual support.
The researcher discussed with participants the factors that helped them to succeed to
higher education. Their responses are presented as follows;
Self- Determination and ambition,
All participants have shown the importance of self determination and ambition to
their success. Self determination helped them to great understanding the role of education
for their life. Also helped them to believe that education is liberation and will enable
them to fight for their rights without fear. All self determination and ambition are within
their heart and creates high mind of realization and knowing the importance of
education. It strengthens the spirit of not giving up even if the life situation is worse and
create and motivated to struggle for success. Ambition and self determination helped to
strive in harder and challengeable situation because by that time the environment was so
difficulty and easy to give up. Self determinant and ambition helped to see this difficult
situation and challenge as the bridge for sending to the second or next party of success”.
However, this difficulties and challengeable environment leads to most women with
disabilities to drop out from school or give up and remain at home without education.
Ambition motivated the Jealousy of education and seeking knowledge which helped to
struggle so as to meet the asserted goal. One participant used her experience to explain
how she succeeded to higher education by saying:
I had ambition of reaching higher education, unfortunately I failed form six and I decided
to pursue Diploma in fisheries as bridge which helped me to join higher education. It
means that self determination and ambitions act as pushing factors for finding different
alternatives so as to reach the goals of participants.
Therefore self determination and ambition helped women with disabilities to
know the social cultural meaning of education to their life and motivated them to struggle
using different way of finding education so as to success.
The study revealed that family supports including educational background of the
family, love and care, encouragement and financial support from the family facilitated
participant to progress to higher education. Two participants stated that educational
back ground of the family motivated them to study hard and to succeed. Family members
motivated and encouraged them to pursue higher education so as to be like them. For
example one participant elaborated that
my mother has Bachelor Degree in economics, all uncles’ I was lived with they have
Masters Degrees, my sisters and brothers too. I realized that I suppose to study hard in
order to be like them because always their happy and able to help me. I really need to
have higher education so as to help other and to become independent
Participants had shown the importance of financial support and the
encouragement from the parent in relation to their success. One participant failed form
four final examinations because of disability, institutional environment, inadequate
resources and lack of specialist. Her mother encouraged her to do second seating
examinations, her mother agreed to pay all expenses for the second seating school until I
reach higher education. Her mother explains that she is doing so due to the society belief
and cultural with regard to women with disabilities in relation to education. Her mother
stated that being a woman and with disability is double discrimination no one on this
community could value you without education. The financial support from the parents
enabled to seat for second seating examinations and finally she managed to get good
credit and selected to join higher education.
However, the study observed an exceptional case with regard to family support.
One participant reported that her further moved away when he heard that her wife
delivered daughter with disability, the father came back with hard situation when this
daughter expecting to join higher education. Despite the irresponsibility shown by parent,
the participant had a plan to take care her father after completion of her study and getting
employment. The participant has this to say
I lost my father since I was born, I met when I was 24years old planning to join university
education, soon I met with my father I realized that he was indeed in need, I suppose to
take care my father, really my father needs to be cared like children. It is difficulty also
even to communicate with him because even if I buy a phone for him, he will exchange
with local brew, mmm! Other issue is difficult to explain.
Also all participants shown appreciation in relation to care and love they got from their
parents, family, community at all. Love and care give them happiness and freedom to
express their needs without fear which resulted to perform well in schools. All
participants shown that parents given them first priority to everything in particular the
expenses to school. Also they involve them in family decision making, sometimes parents
ask them to decide in instead of other siblings. Participants revealed the value of love,
care and encouragement word they got from their parents like work hard; no one can
marry you without Degree, giving them the impact of getting pregnancy in school,
orienting them the domestic work for their survival, sending them to school every
morning and taking them back, buying expensive equipments for them to study
comfortably. For those who studied in boarding the parents visited them two times.
Discussing with teachers their development and the important things they need.
Participant shown that this situation created sense of acceptance and given them the
morale to fight with education so as to meet the goal they have asserted. No one stated to
experience discrimination and marginalization in family level, all there so happy with
support from the parents or guardians.
All participants admitted the support from the peers who contributed to their
success. The peers supported women with disabilities in different ways, the study
observed the various kind of support from peers. The participants with visually
impairments explained peers as their eye, without peers nothing can go on because they
assist them on searching materials to the library and internet, taking notes in classroom,
reading when there was writing in type writer, guiding them to classroom. Peers also
encouraged them to participate in group discussion so as to get the diverse knowledge.
Peers escorting them to the market, cafeteria and cities if they need to buy things away
from the school compass.
Participant with hearing impairments used peers to listen in classroom instead of
them. Also regret the important of peer support because they help them to take the lecture
notes from the lecture, in discussion speaking through turning to them so as to learn
through lip reading. The situation to participant is worse because they don’t have any
equipment and sign language to help them. Furthermore, the participants recommended
that not all peers they are able to help. Also they said a man peers there supportive
compared to women’s peers in all levels of education they studied.
As observed in this study, women with disabilities understood the importance of
networking and being active in the group discussion because participants strengthened
the importance of contributing in discussion, one participant used the slogan by saying
“Don’t depend someone to chew on behalf in order for you to swallow, struggle to chew
so as to swallow together”. it means that you should show your ability and competence
you have, If you keep quite the group will feel your burden to them and they become less
motivated to continue making discussion with you, but if you contribute you show your
potential and identity which the group can value you and they can build the heart of
The participants stated that making friendship is important for academic
progression, and recommended that not every time disabled women need assistance even
their fellows sometimes need too. She explained her experience in secondary school that
one day there was no power and the next day they are suppose to do the test, the peers
followed her in dormitory and taken to classroom and they asked her to read the notes
and the questions using Braille notes and the peers listen and discuss the questions. The
participant makes jokes with peers that today is your day of being visually impaired, let
me read for you. She suppose to use microphone because it was almost the whole class
with 86 students, finally they managed to do the test the next day because of Braille notes.
This means that not always women with disabilities need assistance; sometimes they
assist people to succeed
The study participants recommended that due to her contribution, identity and
relationship helped her to became famous and the group to change the attitude of seeing
women with disabilities was unable people but if you remain silence no one can know
your identify and the potentials you have. Additional, women with disabilities emphasis
that women should show their experience and skills in group discussion because of the
shortages of resources and equipments which lead them to study comfortably and to
strengthen the relationship with peers and to develop the spirit of tolerance in relation to
educational environments if they need to became free from social and cultural barriers as
women with disabilities.
All they have strongly appreciated the supports from the teachers in relation to
their success. Teachers supported them through guidance and counseling, provision of
handout, enlarging the print when printing examinations for low vision, also using their
own time to provide extra classes. In classroom, sometimes teachers helped them to set
the tape recorder and speaking louder, slowly and straight eye conduct to help them. The
study observed that the teachers who studied special education have more supportive and
collaborative compared to teacher who were not attended in terms of creativity and
innovativeness in teaching in general. Furthermore, difference in terms of finding
teaching and learning materials, care and encouragement if they need assistance. These
teachers who were not professionally in special need education they don’t show any
interest to women with disability, when they go to their office they say their using their
disability to find assistance, sometimes they stop them to get in because it is not
consultation hour. Therefore teachers support is crucial for women with disabilities to
succeed without teachers support women with disabilities will drop out or fail to manage
the academic environment.
Two participants (50%) shown the effort done by specialists in secondary school,
and in to their success. Participants stated that this specialist all the time followed the
administration to make sure that we get the equipments and resources for theirs study.
Specialists use their time to educate the administration the importance of the participants
to have equipments and resources like Braille machine, type writer, and Braille papers,
louder speaker and other resources for them to perform well. To create individual
motivation, the specialist grouped us together so as to encourage them and emphasizing
that even if the resources are scarce, they were suppose to make sure they get notes from
friends, they listen carefully in classroom, they participate in group discussion, teachers
in classroom to make sure every women with disabilities to have peers support, giving
them free chance and opportunity to ask anything they don’t understand. Also the
specialists admitted that although the participant there were paying the same school fees
with peers but the requirements for them was higher and expensive which most of the
time caused difficult in planning and budgeting. Also the specialist encouraged them to
strive in harder situation and the effective use of the scarce resources available and
finding different alternatives to make sure they get all academic needs through teachers,
peers, parents and departments. The participants shown that they pleased the way the
specialist cooperated with them, explaining how hard to fight their materials to the
government and the strategies they given them in relation to their study. This cooperation
and encouragement helped them to know the situation and helped them to work hard.
Also participants challenged the situation of other specialists to have abusive language
when they fight their lights for education and remaining silent without providing
feedback to them. One participant shown that in our school we have specialist but I didn’t
see the contribution to my study because every time when I went to ask something, they
give me the contradictory answers, if I need clarification they say your aggressive and
they remain silent, then I move out. The participant shown that the situation was not good
but she used peers support and teachers to make sure that she succeed
Also the participants reported the contribution done by school administration. The
participants revealed that the administration grouped them the together for guidance and
counseling also explaining that the situation of getting teaching and learning materials
and equipments is difficulty no way out, so they emphasis them to struggle even if the
environment is hard and the little they get they were suppose to share effectively.
Participant explained that this situation pleased them and motivated and encouraged to
work hard because of how much the administration valued them and also they openly
have shown that no way they can help them because the school had no money and the
government does not responding in time. One participant stated that, when she was form
three her father died, she decided to go to the administration to express how hard to meet
her school expenses and she reported that the administration since that day they became
closer to her, encouraging and struggling to find her support so as for her to continue
learning and the form three and four the school fees was contributed by the
administration. Sometimes they’re not demanding school contribution because they know
her situation. This implies that administration support and cooperation in school are
important for women with disabilities to succeed. Also the administrator’s contribution
helped the participant to work hard and to move for next step. The participant regrets that
without the contribution from the administrators she will end form two. Also expressing
the home situation to administrators was important because they will know how to help
the participants rather than staying with feelings.
The study realized the important of financial support provided by different
stakeholders at primary and secondary levels for participants to succeed. Participants
used support from the religious groups including Lutheran, Roman Catholic Church, also
from District Educational office; and all have got the loan for 100% from Higher
Education Loan Board so as to pursue their Bachelor Degree. These organizations
supported them school fees, transport, living. The provision of this assistance based on
kind of criteria include disadvantaged group, poor family economic background (poverty),
orphans, disability and minority. Also the study realized that it was not easy to get the
assistance because of bureaucracy, corruption, abusive language and cultural beliefs. One
participant revealed about the support got from religious from primary school to form six
because her father runs away when she has born with disability, he felt ashamed to the
society and family. The participant shown that her mother was died before she started
primary school, she was taken care by neighbor family and this neighbor went to the
church to ask assistance for her and the church need letter from village council with
stamp and the death certificate of her mother, which is difficult to get in rural areas, later
they accepted the letter from village council.
Participant stipulated that it is true that the church was supporting them but
sometimes the participant didn’t manage to get the money to buy basic needs and to pay
school fees. The participant recommended that although the church provides money but
there are other people who benefit or take a guarantee to hide the money and use for their
benefit because the experience from one participant shown that even if getting support
from the church but still the life was so stressed and depressed. Another participant
explained about how was hard to get the district education office support and the
challenges faced them during the application or finding the support. The participant
stated that her mother taken her to the district education office, almost 10 km from home,
when they reached no one was able to give them chairs or to help them almost five hours
waiting the DEO to come. when the DEO came he asked how he can help us, my mother
explained, the DEO looked over me and replied that if I can help women in particular
with disabilities, what we can benefit from you, where you can work, go back home if
you can get the opportunity to be married get married, education is not for you blind is
for non disabled people. Her mother started to cry and decided to go to district
coordinator who managed to get fund from orphan’s project to facilitate my secondary
education. Participants stipulated that even if they got assistance from different areas but
there were challenges like money does not come to the write time which cause them to
delay to go back to school, sometimes they got school fees only and other time they
remained at school during holidays without going back home because the money was
ended and does not fulfill their basic needs.
The study realized that there other participants taken care with neighbors or
guardians when their parents died, moved away or divorced. The participant witnessed
the challenges about the individual or guardians support in relation of giving up in a way
before the participant finished the school. The participant recommended that, neighbors
or guardians who decided to taking care the women with disability they suppose to make
sure they help them until they finish the education, they don’t give up in away because
they got frustration and they can make wrong decision. Also the situations will cause
them to drop out from school or engage in bad behavior like prostitution, or beggars on a
street or get early pregnancies and HIV. For example one women with disability
stipulated that when her parents died, one neighbor taken her, the neighbor helped the
participant until she did the form six examinations, soon before result he thrown away
from home by saying you’re no longer need our support, go wherever you go to start your
independent life. When the time came for application to university she had no money to
buy form and all application procedure, going here and here to find help and finally she
managed to submit the application.
The study revealed the importance of self- determination and ambition as key
sources for women with disabilities to succeed or progress. Self determination and
ambition increased the morale of striving in educational difficulties and challengeable
situation which was not normal to other women especially women with disabilities who
failed to have the clear and stated determination and ambition as well as higher
understanding about education. Educational challenges have higher impact to
educational drop out from school or to give up among women with disabilities and
remain at home without education.
Also stipulated that failure or drop out of women with disabilities is caused by
different factors such as disability, institutional environments, resources, lack of support
from teachers, parents and peers. For example disability situation caused women with
disabilities to attend clinics two times per week; this resulted to always missing two days
class every week. Disability cause women with disability to became late in classroom
because of shifting from one class to another. This daily movement leads to women with
disabilities to remain home/ dormitories during preparation hours due to tiredness.
Inadequate resources, lack of specialist and equipment, inadequate teaching and
learning materials have great influence to high dropout rate and failure among women
with disabilities in all levels of education in Tanzania.
Parent commitments and tolerance of women with disability contributed women
with disabilities to meet the goal. The possible way to help them is to encourage to seat
for second seating examination and parent commitment to pay the expenses. Therefore
parents if they decided to send to school the women with disabilities when they fail or
drop out in any reasons encourage them to continue or asking assistance in different areas
because being women and with disabilities is a double discrimination in everywhere, but
education to them provide their identity, potentiality and contribution which is easier to
struggle for their rights, and their voice to be easily heard either by government or
Family support and family background mentioned by the participants to have
great role to the participants to succeed to join higher education. Also, found that there is
the big gap from women with disability who came from educated and non educated
family. Women with disability who came from educated family have experienced fewer
challenges compared to others. Also they managed to get their own equipments rather
than depending from the institutional. They studied in private schools which are better
than public schools in terms of in teaching and learning materials, teachers support are
high and availability of equipments. Additionally, women are happy and comfortable
with care, love, encouragement they got from the family, participation in family matters
discussion and involvement in decision making from the family. Moreover, their future
plain is to connect to next degree either PhD or Masters Degree while participant from
non educated family, they think to work either three or two years so as to get salary for
supporting them when they continue with studies. Most of them lived with grandparents
or guardian while their parents alive or the parents divorced soon after birth and they
experienced all kinds of hard life. Therefore, it is difficult for them to continue with
studies because the previous schools supported by either organizational or institutional
Further, the study realized that establishing good relationship with peers is the
best way to succeed in education, because peers have many materials searched in library,
internet, and classroom and group discussion. Making struggle to construct good relation
with peers helped women with disability to be shown everything peers have studied in
internet, books and other group discussion notes.
Moreover the study realized that for the women with disabilities to construct the
identity and respecting during group discussion they are suppose to contribute by
answering the question raised in discussion rather than remaining silent. By answering
the questions helped to indicate that they know something, also the peers realized their
potentials and ability they have which promoted the heart of helping them.
Therefore, women with disabilities if they get support they can succeed to higher
education. Self- determination, peers, teachers, institution, organizations and family
support helped women with disabilities to succeed. All this support work simultaneously
from one another and missing one support is easy to influence the next. Further research
concentrates on the teaching and learning in classroom at higher education, employment
situation after they finish the bachelor degree.
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