factors that contributed for success of women with disabilities to higher education 11 5 2011 final

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					Factors that contributed for success of women with disabilities to higher education

                                  Magreth Matonya,
                                 Faculty of Education,
                                University of Jyvaskyla



Abstract


The lives of women with disabilities in Tanzania are marked by poverty and
struggle. Girls/ women with disabilities have not had equal access to education
compared to boys/males, especially at higher education, providing education to
women with disabilities would increase their competence, confidence and self-
esteem for sustainable development. This study investigated factors that contributed
for success of women with disabilities to higher education. Individual interviews
were used to correct data from 22 disabled women at the University of Dar eS
Salaam. Results showed that self– determination and ambition, family, peers,
organization, teachers and institutions support are the key factors contributed
women with disabilities to succeed. Recommendation women with disabilities can
make successful accomplishments if given support


Key words: Women, disability, success, higher education


                                      Introduction

The lives of women with disabilities in Tanzania are marked by poverty and struggle.

Traditionally, they are viewed as helpless in terms of competence, productivity and

dependence. These women hence live isolated life facing poverty challenges like low

income, limited facilities and they hardly manage to meet their daily needs. Factors such

as gender, ethnicity, rural residence and low socio-economic status contribute to the

marginalization, discrimination and exclusion in different supports in family, society and

schools. Also health problems, poor social provisions and disrespects within their

communities destroy their sense of belonging and humanity (Possi,1998) These situations

make women with disabilities strive in harder conditions than any other group of people

                                            1
because they become disadvantaged in the labour market, education, personal

development and cannot effectively contribute to the development of the country. The

educational status of people with disabilities in Tanzania is very low, most of them

having only primary education. The Ministry of Education and Vocational training

emphasizes inclusive education in primary and secondary education. This neglects

secondary level education and higher learning institutions. Students with disabilities have

limited opportunity to education due to problems pertaining policy, administration and

implementation aspects.




Girls/ women with disabilities have not had equal access to education compared to

males/boys in all levels of education in particular higher education. Although there is

1948 United Nation Declaration of Human Rights which stipulated that “…..higher

education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit”. Moreover the (2006)

United Nation Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities shown that people

with disabilities need “the full development of human potential in reference to education”

(article 24.p6).Moreover, in Tanzania there are different national policies and

programmes formulated to widen up participation of women in education including

women with disabilities in all levels of education. Despite the existence of the national

policies and plans on the access of education to all people including people with

disabilities, studies show that, the implementation of the policies concentrate much in

primary and secondary level of education. Furthermore, the implementation focused on

women in general and overlooked the accessibility of education to women with

disabilities. Nevertheless, the policies failed to take into account of inequalities in access


                                              2
to higher education which in turn caused under- representation of women with disabilities

in higher education.




Though there is a policy provision of Education For All; the environment of the disabled

is not conducive in terms of accessibility, structures, professional teaching curriculum,

negative attitudes of community, parents, teachers, fellow pupils and inadequate

resources allocated to them (Possi 2008, Tungaraza 2010, Mboya,2005 Mkanura, 2005 &

Krohn-Nydal, 2008,). Macha, (2002) on her study on gender, disability and education in

Tanzania revealed that women with disability experience different challenges on entrance

and gaining education. These include societal, fiscal, educational, opinion and material

difficulties. Also Macha recommended that all people who work with provision of

education to women who are visually impaired should transform aptitude as well as

education to be seen as human right rather than issue of assistance. Possi (2008) shown

that there was great number of men than women with disabilities in Tanzania. She

continues that, this situation caused may be by prejudice in determining the occurrence of

disabilities. Furthermore, Possi shown that, girls/ women with disabilities are not fairly

access education like boys, the major cause were negative feeling among people with

disability, lack of role models and instructional resources and poor infrastructure.




Furthermore, women with disabilities is a large and varied group, whose learning

requirements have left unseen by individuals dedicated to either sex justice or disability

fairness. Rousso (2003) showed that women/ girls are more vulnerable to exclusion from



                                             3
education and work compared to men. Furthermore, Macha (2002a) has shown that most

impaired women were left at home without enrolling them to school and cultural factors

caused women to lag behind in the education system. Women with various forms of

disability are not fully integrated in communities. In terms of enrolment rates of women

with disabilities in all levels decreasing as you go further in the education levels.




Despite women with disabilities were small in number at higher education level, they

need further attention. It is very interesting to examine the factors leading few women

with disabilities to success because there are different factors contributed women with

disabilities to succeed to joining higher education. For example (Kelly 2002 and

Weir,2001) discussed the life experience of physically disabled women in higher

education and realized that women have used different supports and highly appreciated

the support received from informal sources such as family and friends than other sources

like agencies or companies which provide services.




Also disabled women experience barriers in secondary education including attitudinal,

architectural and flexibility in accessing particular programmes. Kelly showed that

“education provided an opportunity to become familiar with global issues” (p.94). Hall,

(2002) show that, women with disabilities succeed because of strong goal asserted and

dilemma solving plan in education life long journey. Many studies realized that self

efficancy and self- determination skills are the important knowledge for students with

disability to success. Study done by Stodden et al (2002) and Heiman (2006) reported



                                              4
that self-advocacy/ self determination skills help the ability to understand, free of

expression for making informed decisions for the academic success. Moreover, Dec et al

(9991) revealed that self determination is the key factors for educational success because

it cultivates intrinsic motivation to learning process. It also promotes sprit of valuing and

internalizing education as well as creating confidence in their own capacities and

attributes which enhance personal development and change. According to Izzo and Lamb

(2002) and Simon, (2001) discussed that lack of chance to practice self determination

skills in high school cause unprepared in conciliation and requesting at the postsecondary.

Lizzo and lamb suggested the integration of self- determination into high school

curriculum for encouraging great participation for students with disabilities in the

personal education plan as well as developing programmes that teach self determination

and self efficacy skill.




Marshall, et al (1999) and Heima (2006) observed that self awareness (understanding and

knowledge), determination, proactivity, emotional strength, ambition setting and societal

support, intelligence and accomplishment are the key sources for people with disabilities

to succeed academically. It also discussed factors like poor socioeconomic status,

stressors, inadequate employment status, poor living arrangement and educational

achievements caused students with disabilities in particular women not access education.

According to Stodden, et al (2001) stipulated that social support, achievement (attempt,

control, aptitude and aspiration) campus climate (interaction with other students and

faculty). Psychological wellbeing was the key factors influence students with disabilities

to the academic success. Nelson et all ( 1993) shown the factors that helped women to


                                             5
succeed, first, psychological beliefs include discipline and effort, acceptance of the

disability, individual ambition, self-confidence; prior knowledge and experience as well

as ability. Second, the sociological factors which include family support, interaction with

other students, teachers and faculty as well as university support services. Thomas (2000)

stated that academic adjustment includes classroom environment and testing or

examination modifications are important issues for students with disabilities to succeed.

Extra time on examination, provision important resources which create access to

information like provision of sign language, readers and accommodation is important too.

Stodden and Canway,(2003) reported that availability of funds, changing policies in

department, clarity of the goals asserted and rehabilitation counselors helped students

with disabilities to success to join higher education.




Although many studies have examined the problem of women with disabilities in

education and other social services, there is in adequate studies in higher education.

There is also limited research done in the combined areas of gender, education and

disability. Thus, knowledge about the socio-cultural and individual support which helped

women with disabilities to succeed to higher education is largely limited to the society.

Few studies focused on women who are most vulnerable to education. Therefore, this

study is expected to provide in-depth information about the social and economic factors

that contributed to women with disabilities to join and pursue higher education. These

findings is important because may increase knowledge about life experience of women

with disability in relation to success. This may contribute in policy reforming and

increase knowledge among educational stakeholders


                                              6
The purpose of the study




       The purpose of the study was to investigate the factor that contributes for women

with disabilities to succeed to higher education.




                                    Research questions




       The key questions answered by this study were: What are key factors contributed

women with disabilities to succeed joining and pursuing higher education.




                                  Research methodology




                                        Study area




       This study was carried out at the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania main

campus. University of Dar es salaam was established in 1964 soon after independence in

1961. This University was selected because it was the first university to enroll students

with disabilities in Tanzania by 1978/79. The university started to enroll two men with

visual impairments in 1978/79 due to the situation of having one special school for men

with disabilities in Tanzania and still enrolling them.


                                              7
                                       Participants

       The researcher managed to interview twenty two (22) women with disabilities

who are pursuing Bachelor and Masters Degrees at the University of Dar es Salaam. Out

of twenty two, (22) four (4) were studying Masters Degree and nineteen (19) were

pursuing Bachelor degree. Their age ranged between 22-36, types of disability were:

visually impaired (VI) Albino, hearing impairments (HI) and physically impaired (PI).

They were studying different courses including Education, Science, Economics, finance

and Fine Arts. Information about marital status was four (4) women with disabilities got

married and eighteen (18) not yet married. Their names and conduct were obtained from

the special need Unit. The respondents were purposively selected through the Special

Education Unit because they can provide in-depth information about their educational life

experience in relation to their disability. Although the interviewed twenty two

respondents, in this paper the results of four respondents were presented and discussed.

This is due to time constraints on data analysis.

                                      Data collection

       Three methods were used to collect the information during this study to women

with disabilities. These were semi- structured interviews, observation and documentary

review. Face to face interviews were used so as to get insights about the factors helped

them to succeed. The information about the enrollments, resources and different statistics

obtained from University of Dar es Salaam Special Need Unit. The researcher also used

time to observe and assess the classrooms, university environment, dormitories, laundry,

toilets, library, and university resource centre so as to get an overview about existing

infrastructures services and general environment. Interview helped to



                                              8
                                  Ethical consideration

       The issue of voluntary participation and time they can terminate the contract and

the confidentiality of the information were stipulated clearly. All participants were signed

the agreement form and the objective of the study explained in detail.

                                       Data analysis



       In this study thematic analysis in psychology were used to analysis the data as

described byBriefly, the researcher familiarize with the data, generated the initial code,

the themes were formulated, reviewed, defined and named. Finally, the report was

produced. The thematic analysis method was helpful in identifying, analyzing and

reporting a pattern or a theme within the data .Also; it allows to carefully summarizing

the key futures of a large body of data. (Silverman, 2005)



                                 Findings and Discussion

The findings from this study are categorized into two themes: (1) key factors helped

women with disabilities to succeed include self- determination, ambition, family , peers,

institutional, organizational, teachers and individual support.

The researcher discussed with participants the factors that helped them to succeed to

higher education. Their responses are presented as follows;

                           Self- Determination and ambition,

       All participants have shown the importance of self determination and ambition to

their success. Self determination helped them to great understanding the role of education

for their life. Also helped them to believe that education is liberation and will enable



                                              9
them to fight for their rights without fear. All self determination and ambition are within

their    heart and creates high mind of realization and knowing the importance of

education. It strengthens the spirit of not giving up even if the life situation is worse and

create and motivated to struggle for success. Ambition and self determination helped to

strive in harder and challengeable situation because by that time the environment was so

difficulty and easy to give up. Self determinant and ambition helped to see this difficult

situation and challenge as the bridge for sending to the second or next party of success”.

However, this difficulties and challengeable environment leads to most women with

disabilities to drop out from school or give up and remain at home without education.

Ambition motivated the Jealousy of education and seeking knowledge which helped to

struggle so as to meet the asserted goal. One participant used her experience to explain

how she succeeded to higher education by saying:

I had ambition of reaching higher education, unfortunately I failed form six and I decided

to pursue Diploma in fisheries as bridge which helped me to join higher education. It

means that self determination and ambitions act as pushing factors for finding different

alternatives so as to reach the goals of participants.

        Therefore self determination and ambition helped women with disabilities to

know the social cultural meaning of education to their life and motivated them to struggle

using different way of finding education so as to success.




                                      Family support



                                             10
        The study revealed that family supports including educational background of the
family, love and care, encouragement and financial support from the family facilitated
participant to progress to higher education. Two participants stated that    educational
back ground of the family motivated them to study hard and to succeed. Family members
motivated and encouraged them to pursue higher education so as to be like them. For
example one participant elaborated that
my mother has Bachelor Degree in economics, all uncles’ I was lived with they have
Masters Degrees, my sisters and brothers too. I realized that I suppose to study hard in
order to be like them because always their happy and able to help me. I really need to
have higher education so as to help other and to become independent

       Participants had shown the importance of financial support and the

encouragement from the parent in relation to their success. One participant failed form

four final examinations because of disability, institutional environment, inadequate

resources and lack of specialist. Her mother encouraged her to do second seating

examinations, her mother agreed to pay all expenses for the second seating school until I

reach higher education. Her mother explains that she is doing so due to the society belief

and cultural with regard to women with disabilities in relation to education. Her mother

stated that being a woman and with disability is double discrimination no one on this

community could value you without education. The financial support from the parents

enabled to seat for second seating examinations and finally she managed to get good

credit and selected to join higher education.



       However, the study observed an exceptional case with regard to family support.

One participant reported that her further moved away when he heard that her wife

delivered daughter with disability, the father came back with hard situation when this

daughter expecting to join higher education. Despite the irresponsibility shown by parent,

the participant had a plan to take care her father after completion of her study and getting


                                                11
employment. The participant has this to say

I lost my father since I was born, I met when I was 24years old planning to join university
education, soon I met with my father I realized that he was indeed in need, I suppose to
take care my father, really my father needs to be cared like children. It is difficulty also
even to communicate with him because even if I buy a phone for him, he will exchange
with local brew, mmm! Other issue is difficult to explain.

Also all participants shown appreciation in relation to care and love they got from their

parents, family, community at all. Love and care give them happiness and freedom to

express their needs without fear which resulted to perform well in schools. All

participants shown that parents   given them first priority to everything in particular the

expenses to school. Also they involve them in family decision making, sometimes parents

ask them to decide in instead of other siblings. Participants revealed the value of love,

care and encouragement word they got from their parents like work hard; no one can

marry you without Degree, giving them the impact of getting pregnancy in school,

orienting them the domestic work for their survival, sending them to school every

morning and taking them back, buying expensive equipments for them to study

comfortably. For those who studied in boarding the parents visited them two times.

Discussing with teachers their development and the important things they need.

Participant shown that this situation created sense of acceptance and given them the

morale to fight with education so as to meet the goal they have asserted. No one stated to

experience discrimination and marginalization in family level, all there so happy with

support from the parents or guardians.




                                              12
                                      Peer support

       All participants admitted the support from the peers who contributed to their

success. The peers supported women with disabilities in different ways, the study

observed the various kind of support from peers. The participants with visually

impairments explained peers as their eye, without peers nothing can go on because they

assist them on searching materials to the library and internet, taking notes in classroom,

reading when there was writing in type writer, guiding them to classroom. Peers also

encouraged them to participate in group discussion so as to get the diverse knowledge.

Peers escorting them to the market, cafeteria and cities if they need to buy things away

from the school compass.

       Participant with hearing impairments used peers to listen in classroom instead of

them. Also regret the important of peer support because they help them to take the lecture

notes from the lecture, in discussion speaking through turning to them so as to learn

through lip reading. The situation to participant is worse because   they don’t have any

equipment and sign language to help them. Furthermore, the participants recommended

that not all peers they are able to help. Also they said a man peers there supportive

compared to women’s peers in all levels of education they studied.



       As observed in this study, women with disabilities understood the importance of

networking and being active in the group discussion because participants strengthened

the importance of contributing in discussion, one participant used the slogan by saying

“Don’t depend someone to chew on behalf in order for you to swallow, struggle to chew

so as to swallow together”. it means that you should show your ability and competence



                                           13
you have, If you keep quite the group will feel your burden to them and they become less

motivated to continue making discussion with you, but if you contribute you show your

potential and identity which the group can value you and they can build the heart of

helping.



       The participants stated that making friendship is important for academic

progression, and recommended that not every time disabled women need assistance even

their fellows sometimes need too. She explained her experience in secondary school that

one day there was no power and the next day they are suppose to do the test, the peers

followed her in dormitory and taken to classroom and they asked her to read the notes

and the questions using Braille notes and the peers listen and discuss the questions. The

participant makes jokes with peers that today is your day of being visually impaired, let

me read for you. She suppose to use microphone because it was almost the whole class

with 86 students, finally they managed to do the test the next day because of Braille notes.

This means that not always women with disabilities need assistance; sometimes they

assist people to succeed



       The study participants recommended that due to her contribution, identity and

relationship helped her to became famous and the group to change the attitude of seeing

women with disabilities was unable people but if you remain silence no one can know

your identify and the potentials you have. Additional, women with disabilities emphasis

that women should show their experience and skills in group discussion because of the

shortages of resources and equipments which lead them to study comfortably and to



                                            14
strengthen the relationship with peers and to develop the spirit of tolerance in relation to

educational environments if they need to became free from social and cultural barriers as

women with disabilities.



                                    Teachers support



       All they have strongly appreciated the supports from the teachers in relation to

their success. Teachers supported them through guidance and counseling, provision of

handout, enlarging the print when printing examinations for low vision, also using their

own time to provide extra classes. In classroom, sometimes teachers helped them to set

the tape recorder and speaking louder, slowly and straight eye conduct to help them. The

study observed that the teachers who studied special education have more supportive and

collaborative compared to teacher who were not attended in terms of creativity and

innovativeness in teaching in general. Furthermore, difference in terms of finding

teaching and learning materials, care and encouragement if they need assistance. These

teachers who were not professionally in special need education they don’t show any

interest to women with disability, when they go to their office they say their using their

disability to find assistance, sometimes they stop them to get in because it is not

consultation hour. Therefore teachers support is crucial for women with disabilities to

succeed without teachers support women with disabilities will drop out or fail to manage

the academic environment.



                                  Institutional support



                                            15
Specialist support

       Two participants (50%) shown the effort done by specialists in secondary school,

and in to their success. Participants stated that this specialist all the time followed the

administration to make sure that we get the equipments and resources for theirs study.

Specialists use their time to educate the administration the importance of the participants

to have equipments and resources like Braille machine, type writer, and Braille papers,

louder speaker and other resources for them to perform well. To create individual

motivation, the specialist grouped us together so as to encourage them and emphasizing

that even if the resources are scarce, they were suppose to make sure they get notes from

friends, they listen carefully in classroom, they participate in group discussion, teachers

in classroom to make sure every women with disabilities to have peers support, giving

them free chance and opportunity to ask anything they don’t understand. Also the

specialists admitted that although the participant there were paying the same school fees

with peers but the requirements for them was higher and expensive which most of the

time caused difficult in planning and budgeting. Also the specialist encouraged them to

strive in harder situation and the effective use of the scarce resources available and

finding different alternatives to make sure they get all academic needs through teachers,

peers, parents and departments. The participants shown that they pleased the way the

specialist cooperated with them, explaining how hard to fight their materials to the

government and the strategies they given them in relation to their study. This cooperation

and encouragement helped them to know the situation and helped them to work hard.

Also participants challenged the situation of other specialists to have abusive language



                                            16
when they fight their lights for education and remaining silent without providing

feedback to them. One participant shown that in our school we have specialist but I didn’t

see the contribution to my study because every time when I went to ask something, they

give me the contradictory answers, if I need clarification they say your aggressive and

they remain silent, then I move out. The participant shown that the situation was not good

but she used peers support and teachers to make sure that she succeed



Administration support

       Also the participants reported the contribution done by school administration. The

participants revealed that the administration grouped them the together for guidance and

counseling also explaining that the situation of getting teaching and learning materials

and equipments is difficulty no way out, so they emphasis them to struggle even if the

environment is hard and the little they get they were suppose to share effectively.

Participant explained that this situation pleased them and motivated and encouraged to

work hard because of how much the administration valued them and also they openly

have shown that no way they can help them because the school had no money and the

government does not responding in time. One participant stated that, when she was form

three her father died, she decided to go to the administration to express how hard to meet

her school expenses and she reported that the administration since that day they became

closer to her, encouraging and struggling to find her support so as for her to continue

learning and the form three and four the school fees was contributed by the

administration. Sometimes they’re not demanding school contribution because they know

her situation. This implies that administration support and cooperation in school are



                                           17
important for women with disabilities to succeed. Also the administrator’s contribution

helped the participant to work hard and to move for next step. The participant regrets that

without the contribution from the administrators she will end form two. Also expressing

the home situation to administrators was important because they will know how to help

the participants rather than staying with feelings.



Organizational support,

       The study realized the important of financial support provided by different

stakeholders at primary and secondary levels for participants to succeed. Participants

used support from the religious groups including Lutheran, Roman Catholic Church, also

from District Educational office; and all have got the loan for 100% from Higher

Education Loan Board so as to pursue their Bachelor Degree. These organizations

supported them school fees, transport, living. The provision of this assistance based on

kind of criteria include disadvantaged group, poor family economic background (poverty),

orphans, disability and minority. Also the study realized that it was not easy to get the

assistance because of bureaucracy, corruption, abusive language and cultural beliefs. One

participant revealed about the support got from religious from primary school to form six

because her father runs away when she has born with disability, he felt ashamed to the

society and family. The participant shown that her mother was died before she started

primary school, she was taken care by neighbor family and this neighbor went to the

church to ask assistance for her and the church need letter from village council with

stamp and the death certificate of her mother, which is difficult to get in rural areas, later

they accepted the letter from village council.



                                             18
       Participant stipulated that it is true that the church was supporting them but

sometimes the participant didn’t manage to get the money to buy basic needs and to pay

school fees. The participant recommended that although the church provides money but

there are other people who benefit or take a guarantee to hide the money and use for their

benefit because the experience from one participant shown that even if getting support

from the church but still the life was so stressed and depressed. Another participant

explained about how was hard to get the district education office support and the

challenges faced them during the application or finding the support. The participant

stated that her mother taken her to the district education office, almost 10 km from home,

when they reached no one was able to give them chairs or to help them almost five hours

waiting the DEO to come. when the DEO came he asked how he can help us, my mother

explained, the DEO looked over me and replied that if I can help women in particular

with disabilities, what we can benefit from you, where you can work, go back home if

you can get the opportunity to be married get married, education is not for you blind is

for non disabled people. Her mother started to cry and decided to go to district

coordinator who managed to get fund from orphan’s project to facilitate my secondary

education. Participants stipulated that even if they got assistance from different areas but

there were challenges like money does not come to the write time which cause them to

delay to go back to school, sometimes they got school fees only and other time they

remained at school during holidays without going back home because the money was

ended and does not fulfill their basic needs.




                                                19
                                      Individual support

       The study realized that there other participants taken care with neighbors or

guardians when their parents died, moved away or divorced. The participant witnessed

the challenges about the individual or guardians support in relation of giving up in a way

before the participant finished the school. The participant recommended that, neighbors

or guardians who decided to taking care the women with disability they suppose to make

sure they help them until they finish the education, they don’t give up in away because

they got frustration and they can make wrong decision. Also the situations will cause

them to drop out from school or engage in bad behavior like prostitution, or beggars on a

street or get early pregnancies and HIV. For example one women with disability

stipulated that when her parents died, one neighbor taken her, the neighbor helped the

participant until she did the form six examinations, soon before result he thrown away

from home by saying you’re no longer need our support, go wherever you go to start your

independent life. When the time came for application to university she had no money to

buy form and all application procedure, going here and here to find help and finally she

managed to submit the application.

                                       Discussion

       The study revealed the importance of self- determination and ambition as key

sources for women with disabilities to succeed or progress. Self determination and

ambition increased the morale of striving in educational difficulties and challengeable

situation which was not normal to other women especially women with disabilities who

failed to have the clear and stated determination and ambition as well as higher

understanding about education.       Educational challenges have higher impact to



                                           20
educational drop out from school or to give up among women with disabilities and

remain at home without education.

        Also stipulated that failure or drop out of women with disabilities is caused by

different factors such as disability, institutional environments, resources, lack of support

from teachers, parents and peers. For example disability situation caused women with

disabilities to attend clinics two times per week; this resulted to always missing two days

class every week. Disability cause women with disability to became late in classroom

because of shifting from one class to another. This daily movement leads to women with

disabilities to remain home/ dormitories during preparation hours due to tiredness.

        Inadequate resources, lack of specialist and equipment, inadequate teaching and

learning materials have great influence to high dropout rate and failure among women

with disabilities in all levels of education in Tanzania.

        Parent commitments and tolerance of women with disability contributed women

with disabilities to meet the goal. The possible way to help them is to encourage to seat

for second seating examination and parent commitment to pay the expenses. Therefore

parents if they decided to send to school the women with disabilities when they fail or

drop out in any reasons encourage them to continue or asking assistance in different areas

because being women and with disabilities is a double discrimination in everywhere, but

education to them provide their identity, potentiality and contribution which is easier to

struggle for their rights, and their voice to be easily heard either by government or

different institutions.

        Family support and family background mentioned by the participants to have

great role to the participants to succeed to join higher education. Also, found that there is



                                              21
the big gap from women with disability who came from educated and non educated

family. Women with disability who came from educated family have experienced fewer

challenges compared to others. Also they managed to get their own equipments rather

than depending from the institutional. They studied in private schools which are better

than public schools in terms of in teaching and learning materials, teachers support are

high and availability of equipments. Additionally, women are happy and comfortable

with care, love, encouragement they got from the family, participation in family matters

discussion and involvement in decision making from the family. Moreover, their future

plain is to connect to next degree either PhD or Masters Degree while participant from

non educated family, they think to work either three or two years so as to get salary for

supporting them when they continue with studies. Most of them lived with grandparents

or guardian while their parents alive or the parents divorced soon after birth and they

experienced all kinds of hard life. Therefore, it is difficult for them to continue with

studies because the previous schools supported by either organizational or institutional

support.



       Further, the study realized that establishing good relationship with peers is the

best way to succeed in education, because peers have many materials searched in library,

internet, and classroom and group discussion. Making struggle to construct good relation

with peers helped women with disability to be shown everything peers have studied in

internet, books and other group discussion notes.

       Moreover the study realized that for the women with disabilities to construct the

identity and respecting during    group discussion they are suppose to contribute by



                                            22
answering the question raised in discussion rather than remaining silent. By answering

the questions helped to indicate that they know something, also the peers realized their

potentials and ability they have which promoted the heart of helping them.

Therefore, women with disabilities if they get support they can succeed to higher

education. Self- determination, peers, teachers, institution, organizations and family

support helped women with disabilities to succeed. All this support work simultaneously

from one another and missing one support is easy to influence the next. Further research

concentrates on the teaching and learning in classroom at higher education, employment

situation after they finish the bachelor degree.




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