The American Civil War: Its Causes, Battles, and Reconstruction

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					The American Civil War:
 Its Causes, Battles, and
      Reconstruction
          GPS SS8H6

The student will analyze the
 impact of the Civil War and
 Reconstruction on Georgia.
What do you know about the Civil
             War?

  Why was it fought? (causes?)

How did it impact our history, and
how does it still impact us today?
   The war was fought between the Northern and
    Southern States (who succeeded from the union).

    It lasted from 1861 to 1865.

    3 million Americans fought in the war (21. million on
    Union side and 900,000 for the Confederacy)

    220,000 African-American served on both sides.

    Over 600,000 Americans lost their lives during the
    war.

   The first “Modern War” (trench warfare, total war,
    etc.)
          Consequences of the War
The United States has remained one nation for now over
  230 years.
The 13th Amendment in 1865 abolished slavery.
The United States government grew in size and became
  stronger over the states.
Industries of the North expanded and businessmen
  became wealthier.
The West rapidly was settled and tamed. (railroads,
  Indian Wars, etc.)
Southerners wanted either to create a New South or
  wanted to go back to the “old days.”
Although slavery was abolished, blacks did not have full
  freedoms (purpose of Civil Rights Movement).
   Part One: The Causes of the
              War
GPS SS8H6 We will explain the importance of key
 issues that led to the Civil War; including
 slavery, states’ rights, nullification, the Missouri
 Compromise, Compromise of 1850 and the
 Georgia Platform, Kansas-Nebraska Act, the
 Dred Scott Case. The election of 1860, the
 debate over secession in Georgia, and the role of
 Alexander Stephens.
       Causes were differences over:


   Slavery
   States Rights and Government’s Role
   Western expansion
   Taxes and Tariffs
   Economies
   Social Order and Populations
   Agrarian vs. Urban Lifestyles
                Cause #1
           Slavery in the South
● In 1790, only 1,000 bales of cotton produced in
   Georgia—but grew to 700,000 bales of cotton
   in 1860.
  (just under 4 million throughout the South)
● In 1790, there were only 30,000 slaves in
   Georgia. Due to the cotton gin and demand for
   more slave labor, slavery grew to 460,000
   slaves by 1860.
 (4 million total in South)
●Before Civil War, half of Georgia’s wealth ($400
   million) was in slavery.
 Cotton Production and Slave Population, 1790-1860

4,000,000
3,500,000
3,000,000
2,500,000
2,000,000                                 Slaves
1,500,000                                 Bales of Cotton

1,000,000
 500,000
       0
            1790   1820   1840   1860
Slavery and King Cotton in Georgia




         streaming.discoveryeducation.com
            Daily Life for Slaves
   Housing (p. 228)
   Clothing (p. 228-29)
   Food (p. 229)
   Various Jobs (p. 229)
   Work demands (p. 229-30)
   Family Life (p. 230)
   Religion (p.231)
   Slave Codes (p. 233)
The Underground Railroad Rap
Underground Railroad in Georgia




         streaming.discoveryeducation.com
     Timeline on Abolitionists and
        Underground Railroad
1793 Cotton Gin patented by Eli Whitney
1831 William Lloyd Garrison begins The
 Liberator
1836 House of Reps passes “gag rule”
1837 American Anti-Slavery Society formed
1837 Elijah Lovejoy attacked and killed
1847 Frederick Douglas begins The North Star
1849 Harriet Tubman escaped and helps
  runaway slaves
              Timeline (cont.)
1850 Fugitive Slave Act (stricter laws against
  runaway slaves)
1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s
  Cabin
1857 Dred Scott Decision by Supreme Court
1859 John Brown’s rebellion
1861 Civil War begins
1863 Emancipation Proclamation
1865 13th Amendment abolishes slavery in the
  United States
            State your opinion!!
    Imagine you are an abolitionist (antislavery activist)
     before the Civil War. Write a letter to the editor of
     your local newspaper or to a friend and/or family
     member arguing against slavery. (One page long)

    Try incorporating these three points in your letter.
a.   Slavery is immoral and contradicts the religious
     principles of our nation.
b.   Slavery goes against the democratic ideals of liberty
     and equality.
c.   Slavery will be the cause for our nation dividing
     between the North and South.
"We will not resort to violence.
 We will not degrade ourselves with
 hatred.
 Love will not be returned with hate."
   Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
     Cause #2 States’ Rights and Tariffs
*Tariffs helped Northern industries, yet
  did little to help the South (they
  preferred foreign goods, cheaper)
*1832 South Carolina refused to follow the
  new higher tariffs (“Nullify”) and
  threatened to even succeed from Union.
*President Andrew Jackson calls their bluff
  and threatens to use the army.
*South Carolina backed down and became
  resentful
       Cause #3 Agrarian vs. Industry

   North economy based on manufacturing
    industry and urbanization, while the
    South based on farming and rural.
   In 1850, over 600 mills in North but only
    166 in South
   Only 10% of nation’s goods
    manufactured in South
      Cause #4 Western Expansion
   South believed that more slaves in west, will lead to
    more slave states; more slave states, then more
    Southern power in Congress; maintain power will
    protect slavery!!
   Most Northerners wanted slavery to NOT expanded to
    anymore states or territories (also concern for
    Southerners thirst for more land—Mexico, Cuba, etc.).
    Most believed that slave labor in new territories or
    states will not be good for industry.
              Wanted “free soil” or “free labor”
A. Missouri Compromise (1820)

				
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posted:9/13/2012
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