The American Civil War:
Its Causes, Battles, and
The student will analyze the
impact of the Civil War and
Reconstruction on Georgia.
What do you know about the Civil
Why was it fought? (causes?)
How did it impact our history, and
how does it still impact us today?
The war was fought between the Northern and
Southern States (who succeeded from the union).
It lasted from 1861 to 1865.
3 million Americans fought in the war (21. million on
Union side and 900,000 for the Confederacy)
220,000 African-American served on both sides.
Over 600,000 Americans lost their lives during the
The first “Modern War” (trench warfare, total war,
Consequences of the War
The United States has remained one nation for now over
The 13th Amendment in 1865 abolished slavery.
The United States government grew in size and became
stronger over the states.
Industries of the North expanded and businessmen
The West rapidly was settled and tamed. (railroads,
Indian Wars, etc.)
Southerners wanted either to create a New South or
wanted to go back to the “old days.”
Although slavery was abolished, blacks did not have full
freedoms (purpose of Civil Rights Movement).
Part One: The Causes of the
GPS SS8H6 We will explain the importance of key
issues that led to the Civil War; including
slavery, states’ rights, nullification, the Missouri
Compromise, Compromise of 1850 and the
Georgia Platform, Kansas-Nebraska Act, the
Dred Scott Case. The election of 1860, the
debate over secession in Georgia, and the role of
Causes were differences over:
States Rights and Government’s Role
Taxes and Tariffs
Social Order and Populations
Agrarian vs. Urban Lifestyles
Slavery in the South
● In 1790, only 1,000 bales of cotton produced in
Georgia—but grew to 700,000 bales of cotton
(just under 4 million throughout the South)
● In 1790, there were only 30,000 slaves in
Georgia. Due to the cotton gin and demand for
more slave labor, slavery grew to 460,000
slaves by 1860.
(4 million total in South)
●Before Civil War, half of Georgia’s wealth ($400
million) was in slavery.
Cotton Production and Slave Population, 1790-1860
1,500,000 Bales of Cotton
1790 1820 1840 1860
Slavery and King Cotton in Georgia
Daily Life for Slaves
Housing (p. 228)
Clothing (p. 228-29)
Food (p. 229)
Various Jobs (p. 229)
Work demands (p. 229-30)
Family Life (p. 230)
Slave Codes (p. 233)
The Underground Railroad Rap
Underground Railroad in Georgia
Timeline on Abolitionists and
1793 Cotton Gin patented by Eli Whitney
1831 William Lloyd Garrison begins The
1836 House of Reps passes “gag rule”
1837 American Anti-Slavery Society formed
1837 Elijah Lovejoy attacked and killed
1847 Frederick Douglas begins The North Star
1849 Harriet Tubman escaped and helps
1850 Fugitive Slave Act (stricter laws against
1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s
1857 Dred Scott Decision by Supreme Court
1859 John Brown’s rebellion
1861 Civil War begins
1863 Emancipation Proclamation
1865 13th Amendment abolishes slavery in the
State your opinion!!
Imagine you are an abolitionist (antislavery activist)
before the Civil War. Write a letter to the editor of
your local newspaper or to a friend and/or family
member arguing against slavery. (One page long)
Try incorporating these three points in your letter.
a. Slavery is immoral and contradicts the religious
principles of our nation.
b. Slavery goes against the democratic ideals of liberty
c. Slavery will be the cause for our nation dividing
between the North and South.
"We will not resort to violence.
We will not degrade ourselves with
Love will not be returned with hate."
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Cause #2 States’ Rights and Tariffs
*Tariffs helped Northern industries, yet
did little to help the South (they
preferred foreign goods, cheaper)
*1832 South Carolina refused to follow the
new higher tariffs (“Nullify”) and
threatened to even succeed from Union.
*President Andrew Jackson calls their bluff
and threatens to use the army.
*South Carolina backed down and became
Cause #3 Agrarian vs. Industry
North economy based on manufacturing
industry and urbanization, while the
South based on farming and rural.
In 1850, over 600 mills in North but only
166 in South
Only 10% of nation’s goods
manufactured in South
Cause #4 Western Expansion
South believed that more slaves in west, will lead to
more slave states; more slave states, then more
Southern power in Congress; maintain power will
Most Northerners wanted slavery to NOT expanded to
anymore states or territories (also concern for
Southerners thirst for more land—Mexico, Cuba, etc.).
Most believed that slave labor in new territories or
states will not be good for industry.
Wanted “free soil” or “free labor”
A. Missouri Compromise (1820)